Magallania (Punta Arenas)
versión ISSN 0718-2244
SKEWES, JUAN C; ALVAREZ, RICARDO y NAVARRO, MAGDALENA. Customary uses, current conflicts and conservation of the coastal areas of insular Chiloé. Magallania [online]. 2012, vol.40, n.1, pp. 109-125. ISSN 0718-2244. doi: 10.4067/S0718-22442012000100006.
Based on historical sources and observation and testimonies of local residents, the traditional pattern of resource use in the coastal area of Chiloé is described. This article analyzes the traditional access to natural resources that contrasts with those arisen from the expansion of the fishing industry. The main features of the traditional pattern - embodied in the material culture - are identified in relation to fishing and seaweed and seafood gathering. The relation between land and ocean, in this pattern, acquires a mirror effect insofar agriculture and fishing activities reflect each other. The traditional pattern assures the integration of ocean and land-based productive activities, while guaranteeing flexibility and access to the coastal resources. Thus bases are laid for a mutual modeling between communities and the landscape and for the deployment of associative practices that allow the integration of the fishing corrals’ owners and those who from the outside contribute to the fishing activity. The image of the fishing corral and the walkway that connects it to the land embodies this pattern. Currently, the traditional patterns are threatened by the industrial expansion associated with the exploitation of coastal resources for the international market. Faced with this situation, it is imperative to stimulate ways of sustainable integration between the actors and their own economic space in a context where, on the contrary, what is stressed is privatization and competiveness. The traditional pattern, based on the mirror relation land-ocean provides organizing principles that guide the territorial management with the inclusion of a variety of actors. The recovery of the organizing principles embodied in traditional practices is suggested as a means both for the conservation of threatened species and for the sustainable use of the environment.
Palabras clave : Chiloé; traditional; resource; coastal areas; fishing; territorial management.