versión On-line ISSN 0718-1043
COSTA J, Maria Antonietta; ALVES NEVES, Walter y HUBBE, Mark. Influencia de Tiwanaku en la calidad de vida biológica de la población prehistórica de San Pedro de Atacama. Estud. atacam. [online]. 2004, n.27, pp. 103-116. ISSN 0718-1043. http://dx.doi.org/10.4067/S0718-10432004002700005.
We examine four prehistorical moments in San Pedro de Atacama with the purpose of qualifying the impact that Tiwanaku had on the local population. To this end, we carried out osteobiographic studies on 161 individuals from the cemeteries of Solcor-3, Coyo-3 and Quitor-6, which are representative of pre-Tiwanaku (Sequitor and Quitor Phases), Tiwanaku (Coyo Phase; with a rise of altiplano influence), Final Tiwanaku (final Coyo Phase) and post-Tiwanaku (Yaye-Solor Phase). The results for three of the indicators that we used, suggest an improvement in the biological quality of life of the local population, expressed in greater height and sexual dimorphism, the lesser occurrence of caries, occlusal abrasion and loss of teeth during the individual's life, all of this possibly owing to the increase in the consumption of animal protein that took place under Tiwanaku influence. Although, on a first impression, hyperostosis and the systemic hypoplasia of tooth enamel would indicate a negative impact on the population, it is conceivable that the greater incidence of these variables results from an improved diet that made individuals more resistant to attacks by pathogenic agents. The last indicator we used relates to body use, which reveals that, notwithstanding the changes that would have been propitiated by altiplano influence, the local population kept to its traditional daily activities throughout.
Palabras clave : San Pedro de Atacama ; Tiwanaku; Solcor-3 ; Quitor-6 ; Coyo-3 ; osteobiography; height; sexual dimorphism ; dental pathologies ; diet; body use.