Ciencia y enfermería
versión On-line ISSN 0717-9553
SEPULVEDA R, Catalina; RIVAS, Edith; BUSTOS M, Luis y ILLESCA P, Mónica. SOCIO- FAMILY PROFILE IN INSTITUTIONALIZED OLDER ADULTS TEMUCO, PADRE LAS CASAS AND NUEVA IMPERIAL. Cienc. enferm. [online]. 2010, vol.16, n.3, pp. 49-61. ISSN 0717-9553. doi: 10.4067/S0717-95532010000300007.
The aging process produces important lifestyle changes in the population with a significant impact on the volume and distribution of the social burden of disease. The United Nations (UNO) suggests that it is a sequential, cumulative and irreversible phenomenon beginning at age 60 where the human being experiences physical, emotional and social changes which progressively damage the body until it is incapable of dealing with environmental circumstances and conditions. Objective: To learn about the socio-family profiles of institutionalized older adults in Temuco, Padre Las Casas, and New Imperial during the year 2009. Specific objectives: To identify individual characteristics - family, social status, social relationships, satisfaction with life, general health status, negative memories, level of family and social dependency, institutional attention and type of relationship with the consumption of alcoholic beverages in institutions in the towns of Temuco, Padre Las Casas and New Imperial. Methodology: A cross-sectional correlation study was carried out with a sample of 80 institutionalized older adults. Data collection was carried out with the Quality of Life Questionnaire validated for older adults, as elaborated by Inga and Vara and adapted to the study objectives. Descriptive analyses were carried out (with frequency distribution, means, averages, standard deviation, as well as inferential statistics (with Pearson’s chi-squared Test). Results: The average age was 78.1 years old, 15.0% were Mapuche, 55.0% were male, 11.2% were unable to read or write, 32.5% were single. 18.7% received no pension; 40.5% had no contact with their children and were abused having been hit or pushed (15.1% more than ten times). 52.5% never engaged in physical activity or played or worked with friends (gardening, errands, strolls, games of chance, etc.). In relationship to life satisfaction (18.7% thought almost daily about being dissatisfed with their current life), 70% had a disease which had been diagnosed by a physician, and 10.0% thought almost daily about bitter offenses received years earlier. The Socio-Family Dependence variables showed that 18.7% rarely or never bathed or completed self-care hygiene needs alone, 59.4% received no health care services by the institution, 73.4% did not develop recreational activities, and 12.55% did not like the food service of the institution. Conclusions: The study showed a significant relationship between negative memories and the consumption of alcoholic beverages. p: 0.009 together with a situation of isolation and personal loneliness. On the other hand, the study made it clear that the care deficits delivered by the institutions are challenges for nursing who are expected and privileged to participate in the political decision-making for the care for the population described.
Palabras clave : Institutionalized elderly; life satisfaction; quality of life; social support.