International Journal of Morphology
On-line version ISSN 0717-9502
LOPEZ, Bernarda; SCHILLING, Juan and SUAZO GALDAMES, Iván. Evaluation of the Pronasal Point Prediction Methods for Forensic Facial Reconstruction. Int. J. Morphol. [online]. 2010, vol.28, n.4, pp. 1181-1188. ISSN 0717-9502. doi: 10.4067/S0717-95022010000400031.
Facial reconstruction for forensic sculpture is a procedure used in human identification. It consists of placing a mouldable material on the bone, respecting the soft tissue and facial anatomy. One of the main technical difficulties is the reproduction of structures of variable position as the eyes, ears and nose. It has been reported that the nose can be reconstructed reliably if you have pronasal point, that's why we have developed various techniques for the location of this point from the cranial bones. The purpose of this study is to evaluate by mean lateral cephalometric radiography the accuracy of four methods widely used for the location of the pronasal point from skulls. 34 lateral cephalometric radiography with soft-tissue facial profile taken under standardized conditions were used, on which tracings were made in hard and soft profile (control profile). Gerasimov, Krogman, Prokopec & Ubelaker and George methods were evaluated, determining the differences in a coordinate axis (X, Y) with respect to the gold standard (pronasal point given in the soft profile). All methods had low levels of accuracy, underestimating the anterior projection of the nose. According to the averages, the method of Prokopec & Ubelaker was the closest to the gold standard, with averages of 5.6 (SD 3.66) in X and 1.7 (SD 3.3) in Y, and higher levels of accuracy. The other methods tested were less accurate and had a high dispersion. The use of reliables and applicables methods for determining the pronasal point to our population are essential for the proper reconstruction of the nose.
Keywords : Pronasal point; Forensic reconstruction; Human identification.