Revista chilena de neuro-psiquiatría
On-line version ISSN 0717-9227
ELSO T, María José et al. Neurolisteriosis: Description of seven cases. Rev. chil. neuro-psiquiatr. [online]. 2008, vol.46, n.4, pp. 270-279. ISSN 0717-9227. doi: 10.4067/S0717-92272008000400004.
Listeria Monocytogenes is a gram-positive Bacillus that affects immunocompromised patients, newborn, pregnant women and persons over 65 years. Infection is acquired through contaminated food. The Bacillus has predilection for the central nervous system. Its presents most commonly as an acute meningitis, it also presents as a chronic meningitis, cerebritis, rhomboencephalitis, brain and spinal abscess. Diagnosis for L. monocytogenes is made through positive cultures in blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Magnetic Resonance (MR) also helps to in the diagnosis of neurolisteriosis lesions. We described seven cases with L. Monocytogenes infection during 2007 and 2008, with four cases over the aged of 65 years old. Five presented acute meningitis; two rhomboencephalitis and one patient had meningoencephalitis. Six cases showed inflammatory CSF with pleocytosis with polymorphonuclear prevail and normal glycorrachia. MR showed inflammatory findings in five patients and focal brainstem lesions in two cases, one had acute hydrocephalus due arachnoiditis. Five patients improve clinically and two fatal cases were described. Listeriosis is the third cause of meningitis and should be consider in the differential diagnosis of meningitis with clear fluid, especially with pleocytosis and normal glycorrachia. Other clues of the diagnosis are dizziness with or without nystagmus and brainstem compromise. Arachnoiditis should be avoided with steroidal use. The diagnostic imaging test of choice for brain stem compromise is MR.
Keywords : Listeria monocytogenes; neurolisteriosis; acute meningitis; arachnoiditis,rhomboencephalitis.