Revista chilena de obstetricia y ginecología
versión ISSN 0717-7526
ZALDIVAR LELO DE LARREA, Guadalupe et al. Cáncer cérvicouterino y virus del papiloma humano. Rev. chil. obstet. ginecol. [online]. 2012, vol.77, n.4, pp. 315-321. ISSN 0717-7526. doi: 10.4067/S0717-75262012000400014.
Cervical cancer (CC) is the second cause of death for cancer in women worldwide in spite of the implementation of cervix cytology screenings for its prevention. The low sensibility and specificity of the test reduce the potential benefits of these screenings and supports urgent improvements in early detection tests for CC. It is now known that persistent infection with the high-risk human papiloma virus (HR-HPV) is the causal agent of almost all cases of CC. HR-HPV vaccines effective against two (Bivalent: HPV-16 and HPV-18) or four (Tetravalent: HPV-6 HPV-11, HPV-16 and HPV-18) strains that are responsible of the majority of the CC cases have been licensed in several countries. The present study aims to provide a review of the principal characteristics of the HR-HPV virus and of the mechanisms that take to the persistent infection of the cervical cells leading to abnormal proliferation and malignancy. It is necessary that the virus integrates into the genome of the epithelial cell to initiates the expression of the E6 and E7 viral oncoproteins which will lead to the development of the CC.
Palabras clave : Cervical cancer; human papillomavirus; oncoprotein E6; oncoprotein E7; Papanicolaou.