versão ISSN 0717-7356
NUNEZ, Lautaro e SANTORO, Calogero M. THE ARCHAIC-FORMATIVE TRANSITION IN THE CIRCUMPUNA AND WESTERN VALLEYS REGIONS IN THE SOUTH CENTRAL ANDES: TOWARD "NEOLITHIC" CHANGES. Chungará (Arica) [online]. 2011, vol.43, n.especial, pp. 487-530. ISSN 0717-7356. doi: 10.4067/S0717-73562011000300010.
This article synthesizes the sociocultural and economy processes of archaic coastal and Andean societies that occupied the circumpuna and the Western Valleys regions, within the South Central Andes. We emphases on the late archaic events, the evidence of inter regional interaction, and the development of high complex responses that would have marked the transition toward formative neolithization. The role of local societies and their different modes of life associated with the early formative changes between 3,500 and 2,400 years BP are revised through the following modes: (a) maritime-desertic Circumpuneño mode spread between Taltal and Loa; (b) hunter-horticulturalist-pastoralist Circumpuneño mode identified between El Loa and Atacama basins; (c) maritime-agro forestry mode located in the inner Western Valleys between El Loa and Camiña rivers (Tarapacá zone); and (d) agro maritime of coastal Western Valleys mode located between the Camarones and Lluta rivers. The Early Formative phases: Tilocalar, Caserones and Azapa are assessed in relation to previous archaic achievements and the decisive interactions with the desert and fertile coast of the north of Chile.
Palavras-chave : Atacama Desert; hunter-gatherers; Archaic; pastoralism; horticulturalists; Early Formative; social interaction.