versión On-line ISSN 0717-7356
CASSMAN, Vicki. PREHISTORIC ETHNICITY AND STATUS BASED ON TEXTILE EVIDENCE FROM ARICA, CHILE. Chungará (Arica) [online]. 2000, vol.32, n.2, pp. 253-257. ISSN 0717-7356. http://dx.doi.org/10.4067/S0717-73562000000200016.
Several scholars have hypothesized the existence of chiefdoms and multiethnic stratified social systems in the prehistoric coastal oases of Northern Chile. The present research, using textiles associated with 436 mummies from three sites (AZ-140, AZ-71 and PLM-9) in Arica, Chile, has allowed for a reevaluation of the social organization and the development of a new chronology. Textiles associated with the mummies were analyzed for yarn characteristics, weave, dyes, surface embellishments, form, repair and overall style. Also, a quality score was calculated for each textile. Contrary to expectations, the textiles, especially shirts, indicated the individuals studied were not ethnically diverse, since an assortment of shirt styles was found at all three sites, and many individuals had a variety of these styles. Status was evaluated using textile quality scores and qualities of nontextile grave goods. Status differences were evident but were not extreme, and it is suggested that achieved status existed but not ascribed rank. Finally, based on thirty-two new radiocarbon dates it appears the cultures once known, respectively as Cabuza, Maitas, San Miguel, Loreto Viejo and Regional Development were not successive temporally, but represent overlapping styles of the same group of people living in Arica from AD 900 to 1400
Palabras clave : Bioarchaeology; precolombian textiles; ethnicity.