versión On-line ISSN 0717-7356
COCILOVO, José Alberto y VARELA, Héctor Hugo. VARIACIÓN MORFOLÓGICA, ESTRUCTURA CANÓNICA Y BIOENSAYO DE PARENTESCO EN POBLACIONES PREHISTÓRICAS DEL NORTE DE CHILE. Chungará (Arica) [online]. 1998, vol.30, n.1, pp. 75-85. ISSN 0717-7356. doi: 10.4067/S0717-73561998000100006.
In the present work we explore the theoretical relationships among morphological variation, the analysis of the canonical structure of a sample and the set of procedures known as bioassay of kinship from a methodological point of view. These relationships are evaluated employing as example the hiochronological series available for the Azapa Valley (northern Chile): Camarones 14 (5470 B.C.), Morro de Arica (3000-4000 B.C.), El Laucho (530 B.C.), Alto Ramirez (496 B.C.) and Playa Miller 4 (1100-1300 A.D.). Ten variables were selected on the basis of their greater discriminant power among phases through the me of a stepwise discriminant analysis. Then chronological distances (in terms of differences between generations) and Mahalanobis' D2 values as indicative of morphometric distances among pair of samples were calculated. The canonical structure was established through a set of statistics linked to the calculation of the discriminants functions. In the last stage an experimental model to infer the genetic structure of the population and to explain the microevolutionary process was applied. The sequence of procedures used constitutes a synthesis of the main steps of the development during the study of a population at regional level. We analyzed the relationships among these steps based on their explanatory power and in relationand to the implicit and explicit main assumptions that accompany them. We discuss the nature of the basic information, the possibilities of the statistical techniques and the consequences derived from the application of empirical models derived from population genetic theory for the estimation of parameters that permit to obtain information on the genetic structure of populations. Finally, we evaluate descriptive and experimental studies, including the so called model-bound methods and model-free methods.
Palabras clave : Anthropology; kinship; microevolution.