Revista chilena de enfermedades respiratorias
versión On-line ISSN 0717-7348
PEREZ M, Lizbet. Image evaluation of diaphragm in children. Rev. chil. enferm. respir. [online]. 2012, vol.28, n.3, pp.236-248. ISSN 0717-7348. http://dx.doi.org/10.4067/S0717-73482012000300009.
The anatomy, embriology andfunctions of the neonate 's diaphragm, as well as its anatomical and functional oddities were reviewed. And, in a deeper way, imaging studies were also reviewed; these have an important role in functional and anatomic evaluation of the diaphragm, each one with its own advantages and limitations. Chest X-rays allow an anatomic two dimensional evaluation of the diaphragm and constitutes the first approach in the study of diaphragm pathology in children; hence, the normal anatomy and the most common pathological signs are reviewed. Digestive tube studies using contrast media still are the best choice for diagnosis of hiatal hernia and of herniation through the foramen of Morgagni, where the colon is ascended. Ultrasound use is highlighted for the evaluation of diaphragmatic motility, as well as some of its advantages over fluoroscopy, which is and has been the method of choice in the diagnosis of diaphragmatic paralysis in children. Multiplanar images are the most complete method for the anatomic evaluation of the diaphragm, since they show its spatial orientation and allow the detailed evaluation of those pahologies where the anatomy is altered, such as diaphragmatic hernias, trauma and tumors.
Palabras clave : Diaphragm; diaphragmatic motility; diaphragm ultrasound; diaphragmatic paralysis; eventration; diaphragmatic hernia; hiatal hernia.