Revista chilena de enfermedades respiratorias
versión On-line ISSN 0717-7348
MORENO B., Rodrigo y RIQUELME O., Raúl. ETIOLOGY OF COMMUNITY-ACQUIRED PNEUMONIA IN IMMUNOCOMPETENT ADULTS. Rev. chil. enferm. respir. [online]. 2005, vol.21, n.2, pp. 81-88. ISSN 0717-7348. doi: 10.4067/S0717-73482005000200003.
In an ideal clinical setting, empiric antimicrobial treatment prescribed in adult community acquired pneumonia (CAP) should be based on national etiological surveillance and in vitro susceptibility assays. Available information about etiology in ambulatory patients and intensive care unit (ICU) patients is scarce, compared to information obtained in hospitalized patients. In studies designed to explore the etiology of pneumonia, no microorganism is detected in 40-50% of patients, a fact that represents limited yields in diagnostic methods. In all settings, Streptococcus pneumoniae is the main respiratory pathogen recovered in adults CAP, being responsible of about 16% of cases among ambulatory patients and about 22% of those admitted to hospital and ICU. About one third of cases are caused by a small group of microorganisms: Haemophilus influenzae, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Chlamydia pneumoniae, respiratory viruses, Staphylococcus aureus, gramnegative bacillus, Legionella sp; each one is isolated in less than 10% of cases. In general, microorganism distribution varies scarcely in the following attending settings: ambulatory patients, common wards and ICU. An exception is represented by a higher frequency of gram negative bacillus, S. aureus and Legionella sp in ICU, and of C. pneumoniae in the ambulatory setting. In Chile, CAP etiology in hospitalized adult patients is similar to foreign reports; no systematic information has been collected about the etiology in neither ambulatory patients nor in severe CAP
Palabras clave : pneumonia; etiology; bacteria; viruses; classification.