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versión On-line ISSN 0717-7194
OSSA SANTA CRUZ, Juan Luis. LA CRIOLLIZACIÓN DE UN EJÉRCITO PERIFÉRICO, CHILE, 1768-1810. Historia (Santiago) [online]. 2010, vol.43, n.2, pp.413-448. ISSN 0717-7194. http://dx.doi.org/10.4067/S0717-71942010000200003.
The aim of this article is to analyze some of the most important characteristics of Chile's colonial army at the turn of the eighteenth and nineteenth century. Stressing the repercussions of the so-called 'imperial rivalry' in a peripheral colony like Chile, I conclude that many decisions taken by local governors and military officers were influenced -yet not moulded- by the principal military conflicts of the period between 1780-1800. On the other hand, I emphasize with the unexpected consequences in Chile of the economic crisis in which the Spanish empire became involved in after participating in both American and European wars during the final decades of the eighteen century, among which I highlight the inefficacy of the metropolis to keep sending military and economic help to its most distant colonies. This provoked that the defense of the Chilean colony had passed into the hands of Spanish American-born ("blood creóles") or, at least, into the hands of individuals with a long experience of Spanish America ("life creóles"). The creolization of the Chilean army led to an incipient defensive autonomy, thus enhancing the administrative autonomy achieved by the local colons through the establishments of the Intendancies and commercial institutions like the consulate.
Palabras clave : imperial rivalry; defense; military engineers; donations; creolization; militias.