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Electronic Journal of Biotechnology

versão On-line ISSN 0717-3458

Resumo

DI LORENZO, Piera et al. Uniparental genetic systems: a male and a female perspective in the domestic cattle origin and evolution. Electron. J. Biotechnol. [online]. 2016, vol.19, n.5, pp.69-78. ISSN 0717-3458.  http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejbt.2016.07.001.

Over the last 20 years, the two uniparentally inherited marker systems, namely mitochondrial DNA and Y chromosome have been widely employed to solve questions about origin and prehistorical range expansions, demographic processes, both in humans and domestic animals. The mtDNA and the Y chromosome, with their unique patterns of inheritance, continue to be extremely important source of information. These markers played significant roles in farm animals in the evaluation of the genetic variation within- and among-breed strains and lines and have widely applied in the fields of linkage mapping, paternity tests, prediction of breeding values in genome-assisted selection, analysis of genetic diversity within breeds detection of population admixture, assessment of inbreeding and relationships between breeds, and assignment of individuals to their breed of origin. This approach offers a unique opportunity to save genetic resources and achieving improved productivity. In the past years, significant progress was achieved in reconstructing detailed cattle phylogenies; many studies indicated multiple parental sources and several levels of phylogeographic structuring. More detailed researches are still in progress in order to provide a more comprehensive picture of such extant variability. This paper is focused on reviewing the use of the two uniparental markers as valuable tool for the characterization of cattle genetic diversity. Furthermore, their implications in animal breeding, management and genetic resources conservation are also reported.

Palavras-chave : Animal breeding; Bovine domestication; Cattle genetic diversity; Genetic resources; Genome-assisted selection; Inherited marker systems.

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