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Revista chilena de infectología

Print version ISSN 0716-1018

Abstract

ALVAREZ-HERNANDEZ, Diego Abelardo; GARZA-MAYEN, Gilda Sofía  and  VAZQUEZ-LOPEZ, Rosalno. Quinolones: Nowadays perspectives and mechanisms of resistance. Rev. chil. infectol. [online]. 2015, vol.32, n.5, pp.499-504. ISSN 0716-1018.  http://dx.doi.org/10.4067/S0716-10182015000600002.

Quinolones are a family of synthetic broad-spectrum antimicrobial drugs whose target is the synthesis of DNA. They directly inhibit DNA replication by interacting with two enzymes; DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV. They have been widely used for the treatment of several community and hospital acquired infections, in the food processing industry and in the agricultural field, making the increasing incidence of quinolone resistance a frequent problem associated with constant exposition to diverse microorganisms. Resistance may be achieved by three non-exclusive mechanisms; through chromosomic mutations in the Quinolone Resistance-Determining Regions of DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV, by reducing the intracytoplasmic concentrations of quinolones actively or passively and by Plasmid-Mediated Quinolones-Resistance genes, [Qnr determinant genes of resistance to quinolones, variant gene of the aminoglycoside acetyltransferase (AAC(6')-Ib-c)] and encoding genes of efflux pumps (qepA and oqxAB)]. The future of quinolones is uncertain, however, meanwhile they continue to be used in an irrational way, increasing resistance to quinolones should remain as an area of primary priority for research.

Keywords : Quinolones; fluoroquinolones; antimicrobial drug resistance; bacterial infections; DNA gyrase; topoisomerase IV.

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