Revista chilena de infectología
versión ISSN 0716-1018
LASSO B, Martín. Tuberculous meningitis: tips for diagnosis and proposals for treatment. Rev. chil. infectol. [online]. 2011, vol.28, n.3, pp. 238-247. ISSN 0716-1018. doi: 10.4067/S0716-10182011000300007.
Diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis (TBM) is always a challenge. We must give importance for duration of clinical manifestations. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) has own characteristic and it have to be control several times during the treatment. Adenosin deaminase with cut off more than 15 UI/mL and M. tuberculosis polymerase chain reaction in CSF are the most relevant diagnostic tests. Radiologic test gives diagnostic clues but do not confirm the diagnosis. In the future we can structure a score with all these elements to support the clinician in the diagnostic process. The treatment of TBM because of its high morbidity and high mortality has to be necessarily more intensive and prolonged and we must select drugs with a good penetration into the central nervous system (SNC). A therapeutic scheme with duration of 12 months with two phases is proposed, the diary phase during the first three months of treatment includes isoniacid, rifampicin, pirazinamid and ethambutol or moxifloxacin. Streptomycin must not be included due to own erratic SNC penetration and its known toxicity. The second twice a week phase has to be changed by a three times per week phase during 9 months and it must include isoniacid, rifampicin and pirazinamide. Dexamethasone is added during the first 6 weeks of treatment. Patients with HIV infection than required treatment with antiretroviral drugs have to start ART treatment when diary phase has finished and must not include protease or integrase inhibitors.
Palabras clave : Tuberculous meningitis; diagnosis; adenosin deaminase; treatment.