Revista chilena de infectología
versión impresa ISSN 0716-1018
FERRES G, Marcela; BIDART H, Teresa y ZUBIETA A, Marcela. Importance of images and etiological diagnosis of central nervous system envolvement in immunocompromised patient. Rev. chil. infectol. [online]. 2010, vol.27, n.6, pp. 541-543. ISSN 0716-1018. http://dx.doi.org/10.4067/S0716-10182010000700009.
We report a 16 years old boy with diagnosis of Acute Myeloid Leukemia with severe immune suppression secondary to his primary disease and to leukemia's treatment. Early during the course of his chemotherapy he developed symptoms and signs compatible with invasive fungal disease (IFD). Lungs were primarily compromised followed by CNS involvement with manifestations of intracranial hypertension. Laboratory exams were remarkable for prolonged neutropenia and indirect evidence of Aspergillus sp infection, with successive detection of positive and increasing levels of galactoman antigen in serum. With this case we want emphasize the great importance of invasive fungal disease in immune suppressed patients and particularly the CNS compromise. This represents a medical emergency which deserves to start a complete and comprehensive microbiology diagnosis and concomitantly start an empiric antifungal treatment. The importance of neuroimaging for a correct identification of the number, location and size of CNS lesions must be highlighted. The election of MRI, if available, should be preferred due to a better performance than CT scan. Brain biopsy should be discussed when all the non invasive attempts for etiology identification have failed. The invasive fungal CNS compromise has medical treatment and the surgical drainage has to be considered for lesions greater than 2 cm or for those making a mass effect or have failed with medical treatment.
Palabras clave : Immunocompromised patients; invasive fungal disease; central nervous system.