Revista chilena de historia natural
versión impresa ISSN 0716-078X
VARELA, HÉCTOR HUGO; COCILOVO, JOSÉ ALBERTO; SANTORO, CALOGERO M y ROTHHAMMER, FRANCISCO. Microevolution of human archaic groups of Arica, northern Chile, and its genetic contribution to populations from the Formative Period. Rev. chil. hist. nat. [online]. 2006, vol.79, n.2, pp. 185-193. ISSN 0716-078X. doi: 10.4067/S0716-078X2006000200005.
The microevolution of the archaic populations from Chile's northern coast and its morphological contribution to Formative period groups was studied. The sample comprised 181 individuals belonging to two Archaic (Morro-Uhle and Morro 1-1/6) and one Formative (Playa Miller-7 [Plm-7]) series of the coast and one sample from the Formative (Alto Ramírez) exhumed at the Azapa Valley. A total of 29 metric variables of the cranium were analyzed. Biological variability was assessed using discriminant analysis and Mahalanobis' D2 distance stadistic (MDS). Population structure was inferred using a method based on quantitative genetic theory that predicts a lineal relationship between average within-group phenotypic variance and group distance to the population centroid. The four samples studied proved to be different from a morphologic point of view. The greatest distance was observed between Plm-7 (coast Formative) and Alto Ramirez (valley Formative), the least between Morro-Uhle and Morro 1-1/6, the remaining distances presenting intermediate values. Regarding the total population, the most divergent group was Alto Ramírez and the least divergent was Morro1-1/6. A gradual biologic change was observed between Archaic (Morro Uhle and Morro 1-1/6) and coastal Formative populations (Plm-7) pointing to a morphological (genetic) contribution of Archaic fishermen to Formative population of Chile's northern coast, without excluding gene flow from other groups of the South Central Andean Area
Palabras clave : quantitative cranial traits; late archaic; formative; northern Chile.