Revista chilena de pediatría
versión impresa ISSN 0370-4106
CABREJOS M., María Eugenia; TAMAYO C., Evelyn y MALDONADO M., Edio. Molecular analysis of genome transcription in eukaryotes. Rev. chil. pediatr. [online]. 2001, vol.72, n.5, pp. 401-407. ISSN 0370-4106. http://dx.doi.org/10.4067/S0370-41062001000500002.
The transcription process is highly regulated and requires RNA polymerase and additional factors. The enzyme RNA polymerase II is composed of 8 to 14 subunits and transcribes the messenger RNA. The largest subunit contains in the amino terminal region a domain which is named CTD. CTD is composed of repetitions of a heptapeptide sequence which is fundamental for the regulation of transcription. Although RNA polymerase is a multimeric enzyme it is not by itself able to recognize the promoters and initiate specific transcription. It requires auxiliary factors called the general transcription factors, TFIIA, TFIIB, TFIID, TFIIE, TFIIF and TFIIH. These factors and RNA polymerase II are assembled at the promoter site in a step by step fashion or preassembled with RNA polymerase II. The genes are activated in response to physiological signals by activators which bind to the upstream elements of the promoter site. Also for the activation of transcription the MED complex is required. This can exist in the free form or bound to the CTD of RNA polymerase II. The DNA inside the nucleus is compacted by histones to form chromatin, which restricts the access of the transcription machinery to the promoter site. Enzymes called acetylases are able to modify the chromatin structure by acetylation of the N-terminal of the histones, producing a weakening in the DNA-histone contacts, thus allowing the transcription machinery access to the promoters and initiate transcription. There exists factors which are able to displace the nucleosomes to allow RNA polymerase II and factors to form a preinitiation complex on the DNA promoter site
Palabras clave : transcription; RNA polymerase II; mRNA; transcription regulation.