Archivos de medicina veterinaria
version ISSN 0301-732X
FAVIC, MYRIAM et al. Role of insectivorous bats in the transmission of Rabies in Chile. Arch. med. vet. [online]. 1999, vol.31, n.2, pp. 157-165. ISSN 0301-732X. doi: 10.4067/S0301-732X1999000200002.
The importance of wild animals in the epidemiology of rabies in Chilewas not recognized until 1985. Since then the epidemiology of rabies hasbeen characterized by the presence of an endemic cycle in the species ofthe Order Chiroptera. In 1996, after 24 years without human rabies cases,a child died of the disease. The victim was infected with an antigenicvariant 4 (AgV4) virus whose reservoir is the non-hematophagous bats Tadaridabrasiliensis. This event emphatized the need for a better characterizationof rabies selvatic cycles, their geographical distribution, and the riskfactors that influence the virus transmission to humans and domestic animalsin the country. From a total of 250 isolates obtained between 1977 and 1997, 119 werereactived. These samples were antigenically characterized by the indirectinmunofluorescence technique using a panel of 8 monoclonal antibodies directagainst epitopes of the viral nucleoprotein produced by the Centers ofDisease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA. The analysis showedthat all the viruses obtained from non-hematophagous bats were AgV4 sevenout of 10 canine isolates were AgV4. The other 3 canine viruses were AgV1,whose reservoir is the dog. Of the 3 bovine isolates, 2 was AgV1 and 1AgV4. Three feline and one porcine viruses was caracterized as AgV4. Itwas determined that a bovine rabies case reported in 1977 and all the virusesisolated from domestic animals since 1990 were AgV4. These results allowed to conclude that, in Chile, the non-hematophagousbats Tadarida brasiliensis was a rabies selvatic reservoir before1985, and since then it has been the only wild reservoir know responsiblefor rabies sporadic cases in human and domestic animals
Keywords : Monoclonal Anbitodies; Antigenic Variant; Rabies.