Revista médica de Chile
versión ISSN 0034-9887
CRUZ CH, Rodrigo et al. Frequency of pulmonary mycoses determined by analyzing lung secretion samples. Rev. méd. Chile [online]. 2012, vol.140, n.5, pp. 595-601. ISSN 0034-9887. doi: 10.4067/S0034-98872012000500006.
Background: The frequency of pulmonary mycoses has increased in the past few years specially in immunocompromised patients. Aim: To determine the frequency of invasive fungal diseases by analyzing lung secretion samples. Material and Methods: Samples of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) tracheal aspiration (TA) and induced sputum (IS) were obtained from patients of five hospitals in the Valparaíso Region for the diagnosis of invasive or non-invasive fungal disease, and pneumocystis (PCP), in the period 2007-2010. Clinical data of patients was obtained reviewing medical records or interviewing attending physicians. The diagnosis considered the clinical condition of the patient (immunocompromised or prior lung damage), computed tomography imaging, direct microscopy and cultures. European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer/Mycoses Study Group (EORTC/MSG) criteria was used for the diagnosis of invasive fungal diseases. Results: Ninety respiratory samples were received and 39 fungal infections were diagnosed. Eleven were probably invasive, seven were non-invasive and 21 were PCP. All patients with probable invasive disease had neutropenia. Most patients with non-invasive infections had bronchiectasis. Aspergillus fumigatus was the main causing agent in both invasive and non-invasive fungal diseases. Patients with PCP were mostly adults with AIDS and children with leukemia. The total mortality rate of patients with invasive fungal disease was of 73%. No deaths were recorded among patients with non-invasive disease. Among patients with PCP, three of 11 HIV and six of 10 non HIV subjects died. Conclusions: Aspergillus fumigatus predominates both in invasive and non-invasive pulmonary mycoses. The former has a high mortality. PCP occurred mainly in adult patients with HIV-AIDS.
Palabras clave : Aspergillus fumigates; Lung diseases, fungal; Pneumonia, neumo-cystics.