Revista médica de Chile
versão ISSN 0034-9887
OVALLE, Alfredo et al. Risk factors for preterm deliveries in a public hospital. Rev. méd. Chile [online]. 2012, vol.140, n.1, pp. 19-29. ISSN 0034-9887. doi: 10.4067/S0034-98872012000100003.
Background: Preterm births are responsible for 75 to 80% of perinatal mortality. Aim: To determine the factors associated with preterm births, using maternal clinical data, laboratory results and pathological placental findings. Patients and Methods: Retrospective study of 642 preterm single births at 22-34 weeks' gestation. Four hundred and seven cases with pathological placental studies were included. Births were subdivided into preterm births as a consequence of a medical indication and spontaneous births with or without premature rupture of membranes (PROM). Risk factors for preterm births were classified as maternal, fetal, placental, indeterminable and unclassifiable. Results: The proportions of preterm births were spontaneous 69% (with PROM 27% and with intact membranes 42%) and medically indicated births 31%. A risk factor associated with prematurity was identified in 98 and 85% of medically indicated and spontaneous births, respectively. Ascending bacterial infection (ABI) was the most frequently associated factor with spontaneous preterm delivery in 51% of women (142/280, p < 0.01) and with preterm births of less than 30 weeks in 52% of women (82/157, p < 0.01). Vaginal or urinary infection with Group B Streptococcus, was the most common clinical condition associated with ABI related deliveries. Hypertension was present in 94 of 127 medically indicated preterm deliveries (preeclampsia in 62% and chronic hypertension in 12%), and in 29% (preeclampsia 24%) of preterm births of more than 30 weeks. Congenital anomalies were mainly associated with a maternal age over 35 years in 15% (14/92) of women. The frequency of placental diseases was higher in spontaneous preterm deliveries (14%) and in pregnancies of more than 30 weeks in (14%). Conclusions: ABI was the most common factor associated with spontaneous preterm births at 2234 weeks, while preeclampsia is the most common factor associated with medically indicated preterm births.
Palavras-chave : Delivery, obstetric; Placenta; Premature birth; Vaginosis, bacterial.