Revista médica de Chile
versión ISSN 0034-9887
LAGOS, Liza Paz et al. Risk of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder in Aymara and Rapa-Nui school children: Association with dopaminergic system polymorphisms. Rev. méd. Chile [online]. 2011, vol.139, n.5, pp. 600-605. ISSN 0034-9887. doi: 10.4067/S0034-98872011000500006.
Background: Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common, highly heritable neurobiological disorder of childhood onset, characterized by hyperactivity, impulsiveness or inattentiveness. Aim: To search for differences in risk for ADHD and its components among Chilean native and mixed populations and to look forpossible associations with dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4) and dopamine transporter 1 (DAT1) polymorphisms. Material and Methods: School teachers were requested to complete the Conners test, which uses DSM-IV criteria, to screen for ADHD risk among Aymara and Rapa-Nui students. Results: Rapa-Nui children from Easter Island had the highest risk of hyperactivity/impulsiveness. Aymara children from the Arica-Parinacota Region had lower scores. Although inattentiveness scores had lower differences between groups, overall ADHD score differences among studied populations were highly significant. DRD4 and DAT1 alleles had a heterogeneous distribution. Easter islanders had more divergent frequencies, mostprobably as a result of separate migration routes utilized at different timeperiods during the colonization of America and Polynesia. Conclusions: The comparison of ADHD risk parameters between Rapa-Nui and Aymara children showed marked differences. Allele distri-bution of dopamine polymorphisms in Easter Island was also significantly different from northern Chile, due probably to different colonization histories. These findings suggest that higher ADHD risk scores in Easter Island children may be linked to the presence of different DRD4 alleles.
Palabras clave : Attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity; Indians, South American; Polynesia; Receptors, dopamine DH.