Revista médica de Chile
versión impresa ISSN 0034-9887
BLUMEL M, JUAN ENRIQUE et al. Official position of the Chilean Society of Climacteric on the management of climacteric women. Rev. méd. Chile [online]. 2010, vol.138, n.5, pp. 645-651. ISSN 0034-9887. doi: 10.4067/S0034-98872010000500017.
The health of many women is affected in the climacteric period, either by symp-toms that deteriorate their life quality (QL) or by chronic diseases that affect their life expectancy. Therefore, it is mandatory to evaluate these two aspects, having as core objectives for any eventual therapeutic intervention, the improvement of QL and the reduction of cardiovascular risk and fractures. To evaluate QL it is mandatory to follow structured interviews that weigh systematically climacteric symptoms such as the Menopause Rating Scale (MRS). The paradigm of the metabolic syndrome constitutes a suitable frame to evaluate cardiovascular risk. Age, a low body weight, a history of fractures and steroid use are risk factors for fractures. A proper evaluation will allow the detection of patients with a low QL or a high risk for chronic disease, therefore identifying those women who require therapy. The clinical management should include recommendations to improve lifestyles, increase physical activity, avoidance of smoking and to follow a low calorie diet rich in vegetables and fruits. Hormonal therapy is the most effcient treatment to improve the QL and its risk is minimized when it is used in low doses or by the transdermal route. Tibolone is an alternative, especially useful in patients with mood disorders and sexual dysfunction. Vaginal estrogens are also a good option, when urogenital symptoms are the main complaint. Some antidepressants can be an effective therapy in patients with vasomotor symptoms who are not willing or cannot use estrogens. The effectiveness of any alternative therapy for menopausal symptoms has not been demonstrated. Dyslipidemia, hypertension, obesity and insulin resistance should be managed ac-cording to guidelines. Calcium and vitamin D have positive effects on bone density and certain tendency to reduce vertebral fractures. Bisphosphonates decrease the risk of vertebral fractures.
Palabras clave : Climacteric; Gonadal hormones; Menopause; Metabolic syndrome X.