Revista médica de Chile
versión impresa ISSN 0034-9887
CASTILLO A, JONATHAN; GARCIA M, PATRICIA y ROA S, JUAN CARLOS. Genetic alterations in preneoplastic and neoplastic injuries of the gallbladder. Rev. méd. Chile [online]. 2010, vol.138, n.5, pp. 595-604. ISSN 0034-9887. doi: 10.4067/S0034-98872010000500011.
This article aims to review the most relevant morphological and molecular aspects involved in gallbladder (GB) cancer. In Chile, gallbladder cancer is the main cause of death due to cancer, among women older than 40 years. However, there is almost none information about the morphological changes and the genetic alterations in-volved in the beginning and development of this neoplasia. Two carcinogenic ways have been described. The sequence adenoma-carcinoma is accepted to be less frequent and important. The most important is the sequence where a metaplasia evolves to displasia that progresses to carcinoma in situ and fnally it becomes invasive. This progress requires 10 to 15 years approximately. During this time, a continue progression of injuries have been described. Molecular research studies show genetic anomalies in some genes which are temporary events in preneoplastic injuries of the gallbladder. Some of them even exist before the frst morphological changes, while the expression of tumor suppressor genes like p53, adhesion molecules and oncogenes, among others, can be related to late GB carcinogenesis. The K-ras gene seems to play a role in this neoplasia, mainly in those that present an abnormal biliopancreatic union. The microsatelital instability has been found in a small subset of preneoplastic and neoplastic lesions. The existence of methylation in the promotor gene areas has been related to the cellular proliferation, invasion and metastasis and also in cases of chronic cholecystitis, suggesting that this epigenetic phenomenon represents a crucial early event in GB carcinogenesis.
Palabras clave : Epigenesis, genetics; Gallbladder neoplasms; Molecular biology.