Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Journal of soil science and plant nutrition]]> vol. 15 num. 3 lang. pt <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> <![CDATA[Effect of pH on sorption kinetic process of acidic herbicides in a volcanic soil]]> Kinetic studies of pesticides in soil are of great importance to know the processes and parameters that govern their fate in the environment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of pH on the kinetic sorption process of four acidic herbicides, clopyralid, fluroxypyr, picloram and triclopyr on an Andisol, characterized by high organic matter content and acidic pH. The pseudo-second-order model appeared to fit the data better than other models (R² > 0.999). All herbicides were adsorbed rapidly during the first stage, but their adsorption was affected by pH and their chemical nature. The initial rate of reactions strongly decreased by increasing pH. The initial adsorption rates (h) and the sorption capacity of the herbicides showed the following order: fluroxypyr > triclopyr > picloram > clopyralid. At pH 4.0 the maximum amounts of fluroxypyr, triclopyr, picloram, and clopyralid adsorbed were respectively 75.2, 69.7, 40.5 and 11.7 %. The application of Elovich and Weber-Morris models suggests that mass transfer through the boundary layer and to a lesser degree intra-particle diffusion, control sorption kinetics, which appeared to be influenced by pH and chemical nature of the herbicides. The results obtained in this work suggest that soil pH and acidic character of herbicides could strongly affect the bioavailability of these herbicides on soil and their potential leaching. <![CDATA[<b>Interaction effects of</b> <b>nitric oxideand salicylic acid in alleviating salt stress of <i>Gossypium hirsutum</i> L.</b>]]> The effects of sodium nitroprusside (SNP, a nitric oxide donor), salicylic acid (SA), and their combination on some physiological parameters of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) seedlings grown under saline conditions were studied. 100 mM NaCl resulted in a decrease in , and induced an increase in the level of electrolyte leakage, malondialdehyde (MDA) content, O2.- , H2O2 and proline contents.0.1 mM SNP decreased Na+ and Cl- accumulation as well as the lipid peroxidation level and O2.- accumulation in leaves, which contributed to alleviate oxidative stress in cotton leaves. 0.1 mM SA alleviated the oxidative stress by increasing K+ and Mg2+ absorption and osmotic regulators accumulation, and decreasing the H2O2 content. However, the protective action of NO and SA (especially 0.05 mM SNP and 0.05 mM SA) against salt-induced oxidative damage was more efficient than the separate effects of SA and SNP.We observed that the accumulation of osmotic regulators was apparently accelerated by 0.05 mM SNP and 0.05 mM SA. As well, it was observed that they had synergistic effects in antioxidant system and ion absorption. Thus, the combination of SNP and SA can be a new indicator of a protective mechanism to lower lipid peroxidation, improve ion absorption, activate the metabolic of osmotic-regulated substances and facilitate membrane transport to detoxify reactive oxygen species (ROS). <![CDATA[<strong>Leaf nitrogen thresholds ensuring high antioxidant features of <i>Vaccinium corymbosum</i> cultivars</strong>]]> Deficiency or excess of nitrogen (N) supply can promote formation of reactive oxygen species in plants, inducing oxidative stress. Otherwise, plants may enhance phenolics biosynthesis and antioxidant capacity under N deficiency, but this effect is plant species-dependent. There is no information about influence on phenolics and antioxidant activity in highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.), in which quality and commercial importance depend on high phenolics concentration. We studied the effect of variable N supply (0 to 38 mM) on N uptake and antioxidant responses in two highbush blueberry cultivars (Legacy and Bluegold) hydroponically grown at the long-term. Nitrogen leaves concentration was enhanced for both cultivars at increasing N supply. Bluegold decreased CO2 assimilation at 0 N treatment, possibly due to both, insufficient N concentration and a decline in superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity. In contrast, SOD was activated in Legacy at 0 N, and interestingly only this cultivar maintained CO2 assimilation rates across all N treatments. Both cultivars showed higher phenolics and antioxidant activity levels at 9 mM. Despite the differential responses among the cultivars, we propose a threshold of 15 g N kg-1 DW to ensure high antioxidant activity and quality in blueberry leaves. <![CDATA[<b>Role of Nanoclays in Carbon stabilization in Andisols and Cambisols</b>]]> Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and their consequent effect on global warming are an issue of global environmental concern. Increased carbon (C) stabilization and sequestration in soil organic matter (SOM) is one of the ways to mitigate these emissions. Here we evaluated the role of nanoclays isolated from soil on C stabilization in both a C rich Andisols and C depleted Cambisols. Nanoclays were analyzed for size and morphology by transmission electron microscopy, for elemental composition and molecular composition using pyrolysis-GC/MS. Moreover, nanoclays were treated with H2O2 to isolate stable SOM associated with them. Our result showed better nanoclay extraction efficiency and higher nanoclay yield for Cambisol compared to Andisols, probably related to their low organic matter content. Nanoclay fractions from both soils were different in size, morphology, surface reactivity and SOM content. Nanoclays in Andisols sequester around 5-times more C than Cambisols, and stabilized 6 to 8-times more C than Cambisols nanoclay after SOM chemical oxidation. Isoelectric points and surface charge of nanoclays extracted from the two soils was very different. However, the chemical reactivity of the nanoclay SOM was similar, illustrating their importance for C sequestration. Generally, the precise C stabilization mechanisms of both soils may be different, with nanoscale aggregation being more important in Andisols. We can conclude that independent of the soil type and mineralogy the nanoclay fraction may play an important role in C sequestration and stabilization in soil-plant systems. <![CDATA[<b>Influence of light intensity and temperature on antioxidant activity in <i>Premna serratifolia</i></b> <b>L.</b>]]> Premna serratifolia has been used to treat inflammatory disorders because it was believed to have antioxidant properties. However, scientific research on this species is currently lacking. This work assesses the antioxidant activity of P. serratifolia in relation to light intensity and temperature. Harvesting time significantly influenced the antioxidant activities in P. serratifolia leaves; the highest 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazil (DPPH) free radical scavenging activity and lowest flavonoid and phenolic contents were observed at 9 am. The opposite trend was observed at 12 noon. Temperature had a significant influence on the DPPH free radical scavenging activity and phenolic content. The DPPH antioxidant activity was negatively correlated with light intensity. The results of this study indicated that harvesting time of P. serratifolialeaves should be tailored according to the preferred antioxidant activity. <![CDATA[<b>Soil chemical properties,'Guanximiyou' pummelo leaf mineral nutrient status and fruit quality in the southern region of Fujian province, China</b>]]> Three hundred and nineteen ,Guanximiyou, pummelo (Citrus grandis) orchards from Pinghe county, the southern region of Fujian province, China, were selected for this study. The objectives were to determine (i) the soil and leafnutrient status, (ii) the relationships between leaf mineral elements and the corresponding soil elements, and (iii) the relationships between fruit quality and mineral nutrients. The results showed that soil acidification was a major problem in these orchards, with an average pH of 4.34. Soil acidification affected the availability of soil N, P, Ca, Mg, S, B, Cu and Zn and the levels of organic matter (OM) and cation exchange capacity (CEC), thus inducing soil and leaf nutrient imbalance. Indeed, severe nutrient imbalance existed in these orchard soils. 77.4% and 65.8% of soils were sub-optimum in exchangeable Mg and Ca, while 96.6% and 82.1% of soils were super-optimum in available S and P, respectively. Besides, severe nutrient deficiencies and excesses co-existed in leaves. 46.8% and 35.6% of leaves were deficient in N and Mg, while 74.8% and 70.4% of leaves were excess in B and Cu, respectively. Regressive analysis showed that leaf content of mineral elements was poorly related with the available content of the corresponding soil elements, respectively. In some orchards, severe juice sac granulation, an important factor affecting fruit quality, was observed. Regressive analysis indicated that Mg, S, Cu and Mn played a role in juice sac granulation of fruits. In conclusion, soil acidification might lead to severe soil nutrient imbalance, thus inducing leaf nutrient imbalance, eventually impairing fruit quality parameters such sac granulation. <![CDATA[<b>Revegetation of artificial grassland improve soil organic and inorganic carbon and water of abandoned mine</b>]]> Mining and related activities caused plant productivity and soil carbon content reduced in arid and semi-arid ecosystems. Soil carbon plays an essential role in ecosystem stability. Soil carbon and associated changes in soil property were important drivers and indicators of ecosystem recovery at post-mining areas. We selected 5, 10 and 20 years of restoration lands to examine the effect of artificial grassland on vegetation community and soil property. Results showed that artificial grassland markedly increased the biomass, canopy coverage and soil carbon content, but decreased soil bulk density and soil water content. After 10-year of restoration, both the biomass and soil organic carbon (SOC) content reached the peak, however, soil bulk density and soil water content arrived the lowest at depth of 0-20 cm and got the highest at depth of 20-30 cm. At 20-year of restoration land, the biomass (above- and belowground) and SOC content (0-30 cm) significantly decreased by 46.2 % and 67.0 % with compared to 10-year of restoration land, while soil bulk density of 0-10 cm and 10-20 cm depths increased by 7.8 % and 21.4 %, respectively, soil water content (0-30 cm) increased by 11.6 % . It was evident that artificial grassland as an effective ecological restoration approach could improve soil physic-chemical property, while properly anthropogenic perturbations were also needed to stimulate plant growth. <![CDATA[<b>Prediction accuracy of selected spatial interpolation methods for soil texture at farm field scale</b>]]> Soil texture was examined in four crop fields with areas of 10 to 45 ha located in northern and central Poland. In each field, from 21 to 60 soil samples were collected using stratified sampling. The content (%) of soil particles, i.e., sand, silt and clay, was then evaluated using laboratory methods. The apparent electrical conductivity (ECa) was measured and used as ancillary data for the interpolation of soil texture. The obtained data were used to compare selected spatial interpolation methods according to the accuracy of prediction. The examined methods were evaluated based on the results of cross-validation tests. Two methods of validation were used: leave-one-out cross-validation and validation based on a test set of points, with approximately 30% randomly selected. The smallest root mean square error (RMSE) for the prediction of sand, silt and clay was observed for ordinary cokriging in which ECa was used as a covariate. The other three methods, i.e., inverse distance weighting, radial basis functioning and ordinary kriging, had very similar RMSE values, which were approximately 10% higher compared to ordinary cokriging. <![CDATA[<b>Effects of seed and vegetative stage cysteine treatments on oxidative stress response molecules and enzymes in <i>Ocimum basilicum</i> L. under cobalt stress</b>]]> In this research, the effects of seed and vegetative stage cysteine treatments on the oxidative stress response of molecules and enzymes in Ocimum basilicum L. under cobalt stress were studied. Parameters such as proline content, lipid peroxidation, leaf protein content, ascorbate peroxidase, catalase, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase and polyphenoloxidase activity were measured. Research was conducted in two separate trials including seed treatment and the treatment of plant at vegetative stage. In both cases, cobalt treatment was done in vegetative stage. Concentrations of 0, 0.5 and 2.5 mM cysteine and 0, 100 and 500 µM cobalt were used. Higher concentrations of cobalt increased MDA, other aldehydes, proline content and activity of CAT, APX, and PPO compared with the control (without cobalt and cysteine). Cobalt stress decreased leaf protein content compared with the control. Seed treatment with cysteine reduced the MDA, other aldehydes, proline, leaf protein content and APX activity of plants compared to plant treated with cobalt and without cysteine. Plant treatment with cysteine at vegetative stage caused an increase in leaf protein and a decrease in MDA, other aldehydes, proline, content and activity of CAT, APX and PPO. The results showed that seed treatment with cysteine could alleviate cobalt stress effects in lower concentrations while cysteine applied invegetative stage was more effective at higher concentrations of cobalt. Based on these results probably cysteine due to protection of membrane decreased oxidative stress created by cobalt treatment. <![CDATA[Functional resistance and resilience of the pore system of an andisol exposed to different strategies of pasture improvement under sheep grazing]]> In southern Chile, different strategies have been utilized to improve the production levels of degraded pastures. Due to grazing, soils are subjected to mechanical and hydraulic stresses throughout the year. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of different strategies to improve a degraded naturalized pasture under sheep grazing on the resistance and resilience of the pore system of an Andisol subjected to mechanical and hydraulic stresses. Undisturbed soil samples were collected from two tilled, seeded and fertilized pastures (T1-T2), a non-tilled degraded and naturalized pasture with no fertilization (T3), a fertilized pasture (T4) and a non-tilled-fertilized and ungrazed pasture (T5). Also, cylinders were filled with homogenized soil (T6). The tilled and non-tilled pastures (T1-T5) were able to maintain their functions of storage and transport of water and air as well as their mechanical properties against both stresses. No significant differences between the pasture improvement strategies were observed when evaluated during the second year after the implementation of the improvement strategies, which highlights the high resistance and resilience capacity of the Andisol. However, some tendencies (e.g. while the air capacity and permeability tended to increase following mechanical stress, plant available water increased; the opposite was observed following hydraulic stress) and significant differences (due to the simulated effect of aggregate destruction during tillage, a decrease in air capacity, and an increase in soil shrinkage capacity after compaction were assessed) were observed, which highlight the necessity for further studies to better understand the complex interactions in pasture systems. <![CDATA[<b>Nitrous oxide emissions from black soils under a continuous soybean cropping system in northeast China</b>]]> A large number of natural wetlands in northeast China have been reclaimed as farmland in the last few decades, and soybean is the main rain-fed crop here. For the depth understanding of nitrous oxide (N2O) emission from reclaimed soybean fields, using static opaque chamber method, we conducted a four-year N2O flux measurement at two adjacent soybean fields cultivated after wetland drainage in 1987 and 1993, respectively, in the Sanjiang Plain of northeast China Using static opaque chamber method,. Both sites had two treatments including soybean cropped and bare soils (i.e., SF87, BS87, SF93 and BS93). The results showed that soil N2O emission from all of the plots was severely inhibited by the low temperature in winter (November to March), while a N2O emission pulse occurred during the spring thaw (April and May). Temporal variation of the N2O fluxes during the growing season varied over all the four years but was mainly affected by soil water-filled pore space (WFPS). Intense rainfall events increased the intensity and duration of N2O pulses during the growing season, and most high fluxes were occurred at WFPS > 45%. The mean annual N2O emission from all treatments over four years was 4.8 ± 1.2 kg N ha-1 (ranges: 1.9-19.8), and one third of the emission originated from the spring-thaw. In addition, soybean growth did not increase N2O emissions during the growing season, which support the cancellation of N2O emission calculations from nitrogen fixed by legumes in the 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories. <![CDATA[<b>Bioaccumulation of iron, selenium, nitrate, and proteins in chard shoots</b>]]> The present research was aimed at the foliar biofortification of chard plants with iron and selenium and at determining the influence of this treatment on the accumulation of these elements, as well as proteins and nitrate, in the aerial portion (shoot) of chard. A 3² factorial experiment was conducted for the above purpose, and the study factors were the foliar applications of Fe (0, 2500 and 5000 mg L-1) and Se (0, 10 and 20 mg L-1). The foliar applications were performed every 15 days for a total of four spray applications. The variables evaluated were the accumulations of Fe, Se, proteins, and nitrate in the shoot. Two samples were collected after performing the second and fourth foliar spray applications. The results indicate that increasing application concentrations of Fe and Se promote greater foliar accumulations of these elements. Foliar applications of Se did not affect the accumulation of nitrate; however, a greater foliar accumulation of Se produced a greater accumulation of proteins. On the other hand, after only four foliar spray applications of Fe at a dose of 5000 mg L-1, there was a statistically significant accumulation of nitrate, which had a positive correlation with the lower accumulation of proteins. <![CDATA[Effects of soil management regimes on biochemical properties of a loess soil]]> A long-term field experiment was conducted over a twenty year period to examine the effects of three different soil management regimes (Abandonment, Fallow and Cropping) and eight nutrient management regimes under Cropping on soil organic carbon (SOC), N and P levels, microbial biomass, and enzymatic activities related to C, N, and P cycling in a loess soil. The nutrient management regimes examined involved treatment with various combinations of inorganic nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium fertilizers (N, NP, PK, and NPK), as well as combinations of NPK fertilizers with either residual plant material (SNPK) or manure (MN1PK and MN2PK). Abandonment resulted in greater levels of soil microbial biomass than did Cropping but similar levels of enzyme activity were observed under both regimes. The Fallow regime gave significantly lower soil organic carbon levels and enzyme activities than did Cropping. Within the Cropping system, the treatments containning nitrogen and phophorus significantly improved SOC, N and P levels and also increased microbial biomass and enzyme activity relative to the control. In general, the highest values of the tested soil parameters were observed under the M2NPK treatment. With the exception of invertase, the activity of all soil enzymes tested correlated significantly with SOC and microbial biomass. It was concluded that the use of fertilization regimes involving applying organic material in conjunction with NPK fertilizers should be encouraged in order to maintain or improve the chemical and biological properties of the tested loess soil and to thereby increase its productivity. <![CDATA[<b>Effect of glucose, root exudates and N forms in mycorrhizal symbiosis using <em>Rhizophagus intraradices</em></b>]]> We investigated the effects of glucose and root exudates in combination with different nitrogen (N) forms on the spore germination rate and hyphal growth of the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus Rhizophagus intraradices. Spores were cultured for 20 days at 26 ºC in agar medium containing either glucose or root exudates at different concentrations. Nitrogen was supplied in the form of 4 mM NaNO3, 4 mM NH4Cl, 4 mM NH4NO3 or 2 mM urea. Three different controls without added N were used: deionized water, glucose, and root exudates. After 20 days, Glucose concentrations of 10, 25, 40 and 50 g L-1 inhibited the spore germination; however, when the concentration of glucose was 5 g L-1, the mean hyphal length was longer than that in the control. Glucose plus different forms of N sources also has no positive effect on the germination as well as hyphal growth. The addition of root exudates significantly improved both the spore germination rate and hyphal lengths in all four media (root exudates +4 mmol NaNO3, root exudates +4 mmol NH4Cl, root exudates +4 mmol NH4NO3 and root exudates +2 mmol urea). After incubation for 20 days, the highest spore germination rates (80.33%) were detected in the root exudate + urea medium, while that in the root exudate + NaNO3 medium was lower than in the control. In all these four media, hyphal growth was initially rapid and slowed in the later stages of incubation. Finally, the greatest hyphal length (15. 15 mmspores-1 was observed in the root exudate + NH4NO3 medium, while the lowest was observed in the exudate + NaNO3 medium. <![CDATA[<b>Effects of different no-tillage modes on soil CO<sub>2</sub> fluxes from paddy fields in central China</b>]]> Differences in soil CO2 emissions between no-tillage (NT) and conventional intensive tillage have been well assessed in paddy fields, but few studies evaluate the effects of different NT modes on soil CO2 emissions. Therefore, a field experiment was conducted to assess paddy soil CO2 flux as affected by different NT modes ENT#091;ridge cultivation with NT (RNT) and conventional flat cultivation with NT (FNT)ENT#093; and its influencing factors during the 2012-2014 rice growing seasons in central China. Soil CO2 fluxes were determined by a LI-8100A soil CO2 flux system. The mean soil CO2 fluxes on the ridges in the RNT treatment increased by 49%, 52% and 35% compared with those on the flat land in the FNT treatment in 2012, 2013 and 2014, respectively. Cumulative CO2 its emissions ranged from 1042 g m-2 to 1489 g m-2 from the RNT treatment, and from 724 g m-2 to 1016 g m-2 for the FNT treatment. Moreover, soil CO2 emissions were significantly correlated with dissolved organic C, aboveground biomass and root biomass. Therefore, our results suggesting that annual rice-fallow-oilseed rape rotation should be considered to assess the effects of tillage systems on soil CO2 emission. <![CDATA[Stability and maturity of maize stalks compost as affected by aeration rate, C/N ratio and moisture content]]> To estimate the order of importance of factors affecting the stability and maturation of compost, cow feces and maize stalks were co-composted at different aeration rates "AR" (22, 44 and 66 L kg-1 DM . min-1) of C/N ratios (16, 19, 22), and moisture contents "MC" (60 %, 65 %, 70 %). A composting process was monitored by physical and chemical methods. The thermophilic phase with all treatments was long enough to meet sanitation requirements. The emitted carbon dioxide and the losses total organic carbon and total extractable carbon increased with increasing aeration rate, there was a significant difference between the treatments with low and high aeration rate, but no significant differences between those two treatments and the moderate aeration rate. The total nitrogen contents of all treatments decreased during the thermophilic phase, while it was increased after that for all treatments except T8. The compost with the highest initial C/N ratio was significantly different from the other treatments and had the highest values of humic substances, degree of humification and humification rate. The compost with the lowest initial C/N ratio was significantly different from the other treatments and had the lowest germination index (57-67%). Aeration rate was the main factor influencing compost stability, while the C/N ratio mainly contributed to compost maturity, and the moisture content had an insignificant effect on the compost quality. The recommended parameters for composting are an aeration rate of 0.44 L kg-1 DM. min-1 and a carbon to nitrogen ratio of 19 with moisture content of 60-70%. <![CDATA[<b>Effects of irrigation with treated agro-industrial wastewater on soil chemical characteristics and fungal populations during processing tomato crop cycle</b>]]> This study was carried out in 2012 at Stornarella (Italy; 41° 15’29" N; 15° 43, 56" E; 154 m a.s.l.). We investigated the effects of reuse of secondary treated agro-industrial wastewater for irrigation, in comparison with conventional groundwater, and we monitored soil chemical characteristics and fungal populations during the crop cycle of processing tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.). Compared to the groundwater, the wastewater had significantly higher electrical conductivity, total suspended solids, sodium, calcium, magnesium, potassium, sodium adsorption ratio, chemical oxygen demand, biological oxygen demand over five days, ammonium-nitrogen, phenols, bicarbonates, phosphates, sulphates and chlorides. Most of these parameters were significantly greater also in the wastewater-irrigated soil. During the tomato crop cycle, there were significant shifts in the structure of the soil microfungal community. Saprophytic species increased in the wastewater-treated soil, while phytopathogens such as Fusarium oxysporum progressively decreased. More investigations into the mechanisms by which wastewater acts on disease suppression is needed to make the use of such wastewaters more predictable. The irrigation water source did not significantly affect the qualitative traits of the crop yield. For both irrigation treatments, the most important qualitative parameters that characterized the processing tomato fruit (i.e., dry matter content, pH, soluble solid content, colour parameters) were in agreement with reports in the literature. <![CDATA[<b>Optimization of phosphate solubilization by <i>Aspergillus niger</i> using plackett-burman and response surface methodology</b>]]> Phosphorus is one of the major components required for the metabolic activities and for the growth of any organism. Many soil organisms are known to solubilize inorganic phosphates. Aspergillus niger isolated from the soil showed extensive solubilization of Tri-calcium phosphate.It was observed that the solubilization was due to drop in pH.Acidification was due to production of organic acids by the fungi. The effect of different medium components on the solubilization of phosphate was determined using the Packett-Burman design. It was observed that glucose and ammonium sulphate had significant effect on phosphate solubilization.Considering the Plackett-Burman results, the response surface methodology was used for optimization of these medium components along with tri-calcium phosphate on P-solublization. The analysis from RSM revealed that the optimum values for the tested variables were glucose - 2g/50ml, ammonium sulphate -0.2g/50ml and tri-calcium phosphate - 1g/50ml. Phosphate solubilization of 3.64 mg/ml was observed as comparison to original level of 1.88mg/ml, which was a 1.93-fold increase was obtained. From the HPLC analysis it was observed that oxalic acid and lactic acid were the major acids responsible for enhancing the P solubilization. <![CDATA[<b>Evaluation of the phosphate solubilization potential of <em>Trichoderma</em> strains (Trichoplus JCO) and effects on </b> <b>rice biomass</b>]]> This study aims to evaluate the phosphate solubilization potential of the Trichoderma spp. isolates found in the commercial product Trichoplus JCO. The strains were isolated, molecularly identified and grown in vitro. The soluble phosphate concentration was quantified at 3, 6, 9 and 12 days after transplanting. Rice was inoculated with the Trichoderma strains in greenhouse conditions with 10 to 60 x10(8) conidia per gram of rice and then planted. At 30 and 45 days after planting (DAP), plant growth characteristics were determined. The phosphate concentrations of most of the Trichoderma strains showed a general trend of increasing from days 3 to 9. At 30 DAP, Tr. Harz and Tr. TSM had a higher significant difference. At 45 DAP, the rice inoculated with Tr. Harz, Tr. Euc and Tr. TSM had the greatest increase in the total dry matter compared with the control. The rice inoculated with Tr. Euc and Tr. TSM had the best relative efficiencies, and the rice inoculated with Tr. Din and Tr. TSM demonstrated the highest P-UEF. Finally, the rice inoculated with Tr. Harz (T. asperelloides), Tr. Euc (T. harzianum) and Tr. TSM (T. harzianum) had the highest efficiency in phosphate solubilization with increases in rice biomass. <![CDATA[<b>Changes in chemical composition of litter during decomposition</b>: <b>a review of published <sup>13</sup>C NMR spectra</b>]]> The aim of the study was to evaluate changes in chemical composition of litter during early stages of decomposition based on a comparative analysis of published 13C NMR spectra. We collected over 130 13C NMR spectra from peer-reviewed articles that contained spectra for undecomposed litter and for litter in at least one stage of decomposition. We measured the areas of peaks representing individual chemical components and interpreted the proportions of those peak areas as proportions of respective chemical components. Results indicate that fresh herb litter tends to contain more carbohydrates and less phenolic compounds and to have lower remaining mass, indicating faster decomposition. Carbohydrates consistently decrease during decomposition, while the proportions of aromatic and aliphatic compounds increase. Changes in the proportions of individual chemical components are negatively correlated with their initial content. The proportion of aromatic components correlates positively with the C/N ratio and negatively with the decomposition constant.