Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Revista INVI]]> http://www.scielo.cl/rss.php?pid=0718-835820150003&lang=en vol. 30 num. 85 lang. en <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.cl/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.cl <![CDATA[<strong>Intellectuals and power within the production of social residential housing</strong>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-83582015000300001&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en <![CDATA[<strong>Biopolitics within the domestic space of Buenos Aires, a historical perspective</strong>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-83582015000300002&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Se aplicará el concepto de "biopolítica" en la construcción del espacio doméstico de la ciudad de Buenos Aires, en perspectiva histórica, en tres escenarios: en primer lugar, en los orígenes de la Municipalidad, durante el tiempo transcurrido en el último cuarto de siglo XIX, cuando, con motivo de las epidemias, comenzaron a gestarse múltiples instrumentos institucionales de control y regulación del espacio urbano que afectaron fundamentalmente al espacio doméstico; en segundo lugar, a principios de siglo XX con la emergencia de los primeros proyectos de vivienda destinados a los sectores y grupos sociales denominados como "pobres", "trabajadores" y "obreros", y finalmente en el escenario contemporáneo de los últimos años, con los diferentes dispositivos institucionales de inserción social de los grupos y sectores con problemas habitacionales.<hr/>The concept of “biopolitics” will be applied to the construction of a domestic space in the city of Buenos Aires from an historical perspective, divided into three stages: the first is related to its origins in the Municipality during the last quarter of the XIX century when as the result of the outbreak of epidemics and the emergence of multiple institutional instruments intended to control and regulate the urban space that primarily affected the domestic domain; the second stage took place at the beginning of the XX century and was related to the emergence of the first housing projects aimed at “poor”, “working-class” and “laborer” social groups; and, finally, the third period places us in the present with the creation of different institutional instruments intended to promote the social integration of groups and sectors with housing issues. <![CDATA[<strong>Peri-urban satellite towns in Santiago, Chile</strong>: <strong>contradictions between residential satisfaction and the financial vulnerability of middle-class peri-urban dwellers</strong>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-83582015000300003&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en La expansión periurbana de Santiago de Chile se relaciona al desarrollo de ciudades satélites privadas. Los proyectos construidos en la comuna de Lampa resultan interesantes de analizar dado que dan cuenta de la periurbanización de grupos socioeconómicos medios. Aunque la periurbanizacion de Santiago resulta ampliamente investigada, se observa un déficit de comprensión acerca del impacto que proyectos residenciales privados tienen en la calidad de vida del habitante. Mediante sesenta entrevistas con habitantes de las urbanizaciones Larapinta y Valle Grande, se constata una experiencia residencial definible como la felicidad paradójica del periurbanita de clase media. Esta surge de la satisfacción ante la conquista de estándares residenciales superiores, asociado a una precariedad económica surgida de una vida basada en la movilidad y exclusiva disponibilidad de equipamiento privado. Estos proyectos lejos de constituir oasis de calidad de vida, exhiben la vulnerabilidad de grupos medios con precarias herramientas para habitar la peri-urbia privada.<hr/>The peri-urban expansion in Santiago, Chile, is related to the development of private satellite towns. The projects developed in the municipality of Lampa deserve some analysis since they shed light on the establishment of emerging middle-income groups in peri-urban areas. Though the process of peri-urbanization of Santiago has been widely studied, the impact of private housing projects on the quality of life of inhabitants remains unclear. Through sixty interviews with inhabitants of Larapinta and Valle Grande, this paper confirms the paradoxical happiness of middle-class peri-urbanites. Such a contradiction emerges from the satisfaction related to the achievement of higher residential standards and the financial vulnerability derived from a lifestyle based on mobility and the availability of private facilities. Far from being a haven of livability, these projects show the vulnerability of middle-income groups with precarious tools to inhabit the private peri-urban sphere. <![CDATA[<strong>Popular habitat and labor market</strong>: <strong>unequal urban development in El Alto (Bolivia)</strong>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-83582015000300004&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en El Alto generalmente es descripto como un cinturón homogéneo de pobreza y de población de origen aymara. Sólo se encuentran afirmaciones incipientes, con escasa evidencia empírica sistematizada, sobre el desarrollo urbano desigual (y combinado) de la ciudad de El Alto. De aquí la pertinencia de esta investigación cuyo objetivo es analizar la inserción de los migrantes rurales en dos barrios de la ciudad de El Alto: en la zona periférica "El Porvenir I" y en el área céntrica 16 de Julio, en el período que comprende el inicio del neoliberalismo en el país (1985) hasta el año 2012. En primer lugar, se indaga sobre el acceso a la ciudad en relación a la calidad de la vivienda y la provisión de los servicios públicos domiciliarios. En segundo lugar, su inserción en el mercado laboral con el fin de abordar la problemática del desarrollo urbano desigual que se vislumbra en la periferia de El Alto. Una parte de la información fue obtenida mediante entrevistas semi-estructuradas a informantes clave y a los residentes de la ciudad; a través de la aplicación de una encuesta (muestreo estratégico no probabilístico) en los barrios bajo estudio, donde fueron seleccionados en total 100 hogares.<hr/>El Alto is generally described as a homogeneous area of poverty with a population of Aymara origin. There is only preliminary information, with little systematized empirical evidence, about the unequal (and combined) urban development of the city. Hence the relevance of this research, which is intended to explore the incorporation of rural migrants into two neighborhoods of the city: "El Porvenir I", located in the peripheral area of the city, and "16 de Julio", located in the downtown area of El Alto. This research analyzes the period from the adoption of neoliberalism (1985) to 2012. In the first place, this research examines the access to the city in relation to the quality of dwellings and the provision of public domiciliary services. In second place, the incorporation into the labor market is analyzed in order to address the issues regarding the unequal urban development in the outskirts of El Alto. Part of the information was collected through semi-structured interviews with key actors and inhabitants of the city. Other information was collected through the implementation of a survey (non-probabilistic strategic sampling) that interviewed 100 households located in the case study neighborhoods. <![CDATA[<strong>Basic needs</strong>: <strong>durable goods and services of proper housing</strong>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-83582015000300005&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Os instrumentos de Direitos Humanos sobre moradia da Organização das Nações Unidas (ONU) são revistos como fonte institucional da origem do Déficit Habitacional para a América Latina. Em paralelo, uma definição para as variáveis que estas nações aplicam, construída com informação de seus Institutos de Estatística. A seguir, se realiza uma comparação destas variáveis com o indicador &apos;Moradia Adequada&apos;, do Pacto Internacional dos Direitos Econômicos, Sociais e Culturais (Pidesc) de 1991. O anterior, analisado sob os critérios dos Métodos Direto e da Renda, que estabelecem os carentes de necessidades básicas, é o que desencadeia o propósito deste artigo, identificar o que estes países e organismos multilaterais consideram como moradia adequada: um diagnóstico a partir do Déficit Habitacional, cuja base são as necessidades básicas constituídas por bens e serviços duráveis, que são atingidas desde a capacidade econômica das famílias. Mesmo que documentos nacionais e de órgãos multilaterais, apresentem o ‘grau de Moradia Adequada&apos; das nações, baseados nestes indicadores, o Déficit Habitacional diagnostica a carência; avalia o acesso à moradia e aos serviços básicos tomados como bens e serviços de programas de habitação oferecidos pelos Estados; não estabelece a capacidade das famílias para satisfazer essas deficiências, nem o grau de Moradia Adequada.<hr/>This paper analyzes the Human Rights Instruments of the United Nations (UN) over Housing within the context of Housing Shortage in Latin America. Likewise, we also provide a definition of the variables used by these nations in accordance with their respective Institutes for Statistics. Then, these variables are compared with the "Housing Index" developed by the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights in 1991. The implementation of the Direct and Income Methods, which measure the lack of basic needs, generate what is labeled by these countries and multilateral agencies as proper housing: a diagnosis from a Housing Shortage perspective. Such an approach is based on basic needs and the possession of durable goods and services, which are acquired according to the financial capability of households. Even though the documents issued by national and multilateral agencies reveal the "Proper Housing" state of each country, Housing Shortage refers to scantiness, analyzes the access to housing and basic services such as the goods and services provided by the State and does not establish the capacity of households to satisfy their needs or the degree of proper housing. <![CDATA[<strong>The cultural landscapes of Unesco from the Latin American and the Caribbean perspective</strong>: <strong>Conceptualizations, situations and potentials</strong>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-83582015000300006&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Los paisajes patrimoniales son un campo emergente en el debate científico y los paisajes culturales de la Lista del Patrimonio Mundial son un interesante objeto de reflexión, puesto que poseen un relevante reconocimiento internacional y representan una categoría en expansión de esta Lista. América Latina y El Caribe, como región de Unesco, tiene una presencia en la Lista relativamente por debajo de lo que significaría un registro representativo de bienes culturales en la escala planetaria. Ambas circunstancias constituyen oportunidades para acrecentar sus paisajes culturales en la Lista, y, sobre todo, para profundizar en el conocimiento y valoración de una figura que sintetiza el acervo patrimonial de una comunidad y se erige en una potencialidad para el desarrollo territorial y el incremento de la calidad de vida de las poblaciones. Este artículo analiza la Lista de Unesco y la situación de América Latina y el Caribe respecto a ella, repasa los procedimientos y posibilidades para la inscripción de nuevos paisajes culturales en la citada Lista y esboza algunos patrones que ayuden a avanzar en la complejidad de la gestión de estos paisajes.<hr/>Cultural landscapes are an emerging field in the scientific debate on landscapes. In this regard, the cultural landscapes included in the World Heritage List are interesting objects of reflection since they possess relevant international recognition and represent an expanding category in this list. Latin America and the Caribbean, as a Unesco region, have a relatively low presence in this List in terms of cultural capital at a global scale. These circumstances provide opportunities to increase the number of cultural landscapes on this list and, most notably, expand the knowledge and appreciation of a figure that both synthesizes the heritage background of a community and paves the way for land development and the increase in the quality of life of those involved. This paper analyzes the Unesco List and the situation of Latin America and the Caribbean, reviews the procedures and possibilities for the registration of cultural landscapes and outlines some patterns intended to provide deeper insights into the complexity related to the management of these landscapes. <![CDATA[<strong>The housing appropriation process</strong>: <strong>establishing differences between fascination and satisfaction</strong>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-83582015000300007&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en O ensaio trata da satisfação residencial em unidades produzidas por programas de governo no Brasil. Satisfação residencial é decorrente do processo de apropriação da casa e ocorre nos primeiros anos de ocupação de um novo espaço de moradia. Apropriar-se significa dotar a moradia de significados e representações que dizem respeito, mais do que às dimensões físicas e ao atendimento das necessidades programáticas, aos aspectos simbólicos relativos ao bem estar, pertencimento e identidade. Tais percepções recebem interferência direta do que ocorre já nos primeiros meses de ocupação, com sentimentos que podem ir do deslumbramento (quando a nova casa é percebida como melhor - mesmo que não o seja de fato - que a anterior) ao choque (quando a nova casa é percebida como pior - mesmo que não o seja de fato - que a anterior). Saber isolar o eco do deslumbramento ou choque na opinião do morador a respeito de sua nova moradia é vital para o pesquisador identificar o potencial de adequação do espaço à família usuária e a real medida da satisfação expressa. O artigo inclui estudo de caso realizado junto a moradores de conjuntos produzidos por programas federais nos últimos 04 anos no Estado de Santa Catarina, Brasil.<hr/>This paper analyzes residential satisfaction within the context of the housing units developed by the Brazilian State. Residential satisfaction is the culmination of the housing appropriation process and occurs during first years of the occupation of a new space. The concept of appropriation means providing new dwellings with meanings and representations related to the symbolic aspects of welfare, belonging and identity, thus transcending physical and satisfaction aspects. These perceptions are directly affected during the first months of the occupation as the result of emotions ranging from fascination (the new housing unit is regarded as better than the previous dwelling when in fact it is not) to great disgust (the new housing unit is regarded as worse than the previous dwelling when in fact it is not). Isolating feelings such as novelty or disgust from the opinion of users would enable researchers to identify the adaptation potential of spaces in relation to families and estimate real satisfaction levels. This paper includes a case study conducted in the housing developments built by the State in Santa Catarina, Brazil, over the last four years. <![CDATA[<strong>Hygrothermal comfort within the context of social housing and the perceptions of dwellers</strong>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-83582015000300008&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en La construcción de vivienda social en Chile ha estado sujeta a una serie de exigencias que buscan entregar a los habitantes las condiciones mínimas para su desarrollo. Estas van desde aspectos sociales, hasta aspectos constructivos de la vivienda. La Reglamentación Térmica actualmente vigente establece una serie de requisitos que buscan atender uno de los muchos requerimientos en vivienda social, como es el confort higro-térmico. El confort higro-térmico determina una serie de factores como la humedad, temperatura y ventilación de los espacios habitados y se relaciona directamente con las características de la vivienda, con el clima del entorno y con los habitantes. De todos estos factores, la reglamentación térmica regula específicamente los aspectos térmicos. Éstos han sido modificados en los últimos años incorporando nuevas exigencias en techumbres, muros, pisos ventilados y ventanas. A pesar de estos avances en la normativa, ¿se han visto reflejados en la percepción que tienen los habitantes de sus propias viviendas?.<hr/>In Chile the construction of social housing has been subject to a series of requirements aimed at providing dwellers with minimum living conditions. These requirements range from the social to the structural aspects of housing. The Thermal Building Regulations currently in force establishes a series of requirements intended to address some of the conditions of social housing, such as hygrothermal comfort. Hygrothermal comfort determines a series of factors such as humidity, temperature and ventilation of inhabited spaces and is directly related to the features of dwellings, the environment and inhabitants. The above regulations are specifically focused on thermal aspects, which have been modified over the last years through the incorporation of new specifications for roofs, walls, ventilated under-floors and windows. Despite these advances in these regulations, has this progress been reflected in the perception of inhabitants about their dwellings?. <![CDATA[<strong>Diseño urbano inclusivo para Santiago Centro. </strong><strong>Concurso internacional 1972. Santiago de Chile</strong> María Isabel Pavez Reyes, Editora]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-83582015000300009&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en La construcción de vivienda social en Chile ha estado sujeta a una serie de exigencias que buscan entregar a los habitantes las condiciones mínimas para su desarrollo. Estas van desde aspectos sociales, hasta aspectos constructivos de la vivienda. La Reglamentación Térmica actualmente vigente establece una serie de requisitos que buscan atender uno de los muchos requerimientos en vivienda social, como es el confort higro-térmico. El confort higro-térmico determina una serie de factores como la humedad, temperatura y ventilación de los espacios habitados y se relaciona directamente con las características de la vivienda, con el clima del entorno y con los habitantes. De todos estos factores, la reglamentación térmica regula específicamente los aspectos térmicos. Éstos han sido modificados en los últimos años incorporando nuevas exigencias en techumbres, muros, pisos ventilados y ventanas. A pesar de estos avances en la normativa, ¿se han visto reflejados en la percepción que tienen los habitantes de sus propias viviendas?.<hr/>In Chile the construction of social housing has been subject to a series of requirements aimed at providing dwellers with minimum living conditions. These requirements range from the social to the structural aspects of housing. The Thermal Building Regulations currently in force establishes a series of requirements intended to address some of the conditions of social housing, such as hygrothermal comfort. Hygrothermal comfort determines a series of factors such as humidity, temperature and ventilation of inhabited spaces and is directly related to the features of dwellings, the environment and inhabitants. The above regulations are specifically focused on thermal aspects, which have been modified over the last years through the incorporation of new specifications for roofs, walls, ventilated under-floors and windows. Despite these advances in these regulations, has this progress been reflected in the perception of inhabitants about their dwellings?.