Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Chilean journal of agricultural research]]> vol. 75 num. 2 lang. en <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> <![CDATA[<b>Genotype x Environment interaction for antioxidants and phytic acid contents in bread and durum wheat as influenced by climate</b>]]> Antioxidants prevent oxidative stress and exert positive health effects. However, phytic acid among them decreases micronutrients absorption, representing also antinutrient to human and non-ruminant animals. Fifteen bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and 15 durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) genotypes were evaluated across six environments to determine contents of phytic acid (PA), inorganic P (Pi), total yellow pigment, total soluble phenolic compounds, free protein sulfhydryl groups (PSH), and also phytic acid P/Pi (Pp/Pi). The objective of this study was to quantify, for each trait the effects of environment, genotype, and their interaction; and the influence of climatic factors on the Genotype x Environment interaction (GEI) by the use of the factorial regression. GEI (P < 0.001) prevailed as source of variation over genotype (P < 0.001) in determining PA content in bread and durum wheat (44.3% and 34.7% of sum of squares-SS, respectively), PSH content in bread and durum wheat (27% and 28.4% of SS, respectively) and total soluble phenolic compounds content in durum wheat (35.5% of SS). The major contribution to the GEI represented climatic variables during stages of stem elongation for PA and phenolic compounds, and also flowering, fertilization, grain formation and grain filling for PSH. Total yellow pigment and Pi contents in bread and durum wheat were predominantly determined by genotype (P < 0.001). Models of climatic variables proved to be efficient in the explanation of more than 92% of the SS of GEI for PA and antioxidants contents. <![CDATA[<b>Phenotype and molecular diversity evaluation of some wild <i>2n Solanum </i>species (super series <i>Rotata</i>)</b>]]> New cultivars are result of the conservation and characterization of potato (Solanum) genetic resources in secondary germplasm banks. The objectives of this study were to assess phenotype diversity of 12 clones of 10 wild diploid potato species collection super series Rotata, and to determine their genetic diversity through simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. Totally 63 alleles of 20 cpSSR loci were detected i.e. 3.15 alleles on average per one microsatellite locus. Alleles ranged from two to six per locus. The highest polymorphism was detected in the locus ntcp9 and lowest were recorded having by two alleles in seven of loci. The average value of observed heterozygosity (Ho) was 0.61, whereas the mean of polymorphic information contents (PIC) was 0.49. Intergenic regions had highest variability (Higr = 0.65) compare with introns (Hin = 0.54) and exons (Hex = 0.45) of the chloroplast genome. Molecular analyses were complemented with tuft morphological measurements according to the descriptor list for the genus Solanum. SSR-based markers highlight a tendency to separate two groups of Rotata wild diploids and show the possibility of duplicities of wild potato genetic resources in the current Czech in vitro collection. <![CDATA[<b>A bayesian approach to inferring the genetic population structure of sugarcane accessions from INTA (Argentina)</b>]]> Understanding the population structure and genetic diversity in sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) accessions from INTA germplasm bank (Argentina) will be of great importance for germplasm collection and breeding improvement as it will identify diverse parental combinations to create segregating progenies with maximum genetic variability for further selection. A Bayesian approach, ordination methods (PCoA, Principal Coordinate Analysis) and clustering analysis (UPGMA, Unweighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetic Mean) were applied to this purpose. Sixty three INTA sugarcane hybrids were genotyped for 107 Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR) and 136 Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP) loci. Given the low probability values found with AFLP for individual assignment (4.7%), microsatellites seemed to perform better (54%) for STRUCTURE analysis that revealed the germplasm to exist in five optimum groups with partly corresponding to their origin. However clusters shown high degree of admixture, F ST values confirmed the existence of differences among groups. Dissimilarity coefficients ranged from 0.079 to 0.651. PCoA separated sugarcane in groups that did not agree with those identified by STRUCTURE. The clustering including all genotypes neither showed resemblance to populations find by STRUCTURE, but clustering performed considering only individuals displaying a proportional membership > 0.6 in their primary population obtained with STRUCTURE showed close similarities. The Bayesian method indubitably brought more information on cultivar origins than classical PCoA and hierarchical clustering method. <![CDATA[<b>Individual and combined (Plus-hybrid) effect of cytoplasmic male sterility and xenia on maize grain yield</b>]]> Plus-hybrid effect refere to a combined effect of cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) and xenia in maize (Zea mays L.) It could be used in commercial production by growing a mixture of 80% CMS hybrid and 20% of another fertile hybrid. The aim of this research was to examine individual and combined CMS and xenia effects on two hybrids widely grown in Serbia. Sterile and fertile versions of ZP 1 and ZP 2 hybrids (three-way; Iodent x Lancaster dents) were used as females, while ZP 1, ZP 2, ZP 3, ZP 4, and ZP 5 (three-way or single cross; Iodent (BSSS) x Lancaster dents) were used as pollinators. All of them belong to medium maturity group. The trial was set up at one location in Serbia (Zemun Polje) in 2009, 2010, and 2011. Molecular analysis of the five genotypes was done using simple sequence repeat (SSR) primers. Plus-hybrid effect on grain yield ranged from -6.2% to 6.2%; on thousand kernel weight from -1.7% to 5.2%; on number of kernels per area from -1.0% to 8.0%. The poor response could be due to a use of three-way instead of single cross hybrids in S type of sterility. Modified Rogers' distance between hybrids was in the range 0.211 to 0.378 and was not relevant for the effect, which depended mostly on the sterile hybrid genotype and the fertile hybrid pollinator ability. This approach should be more suitable for female hybrids with slightly poorer performance, already being produced on a sterile base. <![CDATA[<b>Agronomic performance of naked oat (<i>Avena nuda </i>L.) and faba bean intercropping</b>]]> The most common cereals for faba bean (Vicia faba L.) used in intercrops is conventional oat (Avena sativa L.) An alternative to oat may be naked oat (Avena nuda L.), whose oil content and quality is double. Here, intercropping of naked oat with two different faba bean cultivars (determinate-high tannin and indeterminate-low tannin) was compared with sole crops of each species in 2006-2008. The treatments were: sole naked oat at 500 kernels m², indeterminate sole faba bean at 50 seeds m², determinate sole faba bean at 70 seeds m², and an additive series of 25%, 50%, and 75% of faba bean seeding rate mixed with the naked oat seeding rate. Our results demonstrated that intercropping increased the Land Equivalent Ratio by +3% to +9% over sole cropping. Raising the faba bean seeding rate in a mixture from 25% to 75% reduced oat grain yield from 630 (determinate cultivar) to 760 kg ha-1 (indeterminate cultivar) but increased faba bean grain yield from 760 kg ha-1. Higher yield and leaf area index (LAI) and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) values show that the indeterminate cultivar of faba bean is more suitable in mixture with naked oat. The high value of competition index (CR > 1) indicates domination and aggressiveness of faba bean towards naked oat. Regardless of cultivar type, mixture of faba bean with naked oat is less productive than pure sowing. <![CDATA[<strong>Physiological and photosynthetic response of quinoa to drought stress</strong>]]> Water shortage is a critical problem touching plant growth and yield in semi-arid areas, for instance the Mediterranean región. For this reason was studied the physiological basis of drought tolerance of a new, drought tolerant crop quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) tested in Morocco in two successive seasons, subject to four irrigation treatments (100, 50, and 33%ETc, and rainfed). The chlorophyll a fluorescence transients were analyzed by the JIP-test to transíate stress-induced damage in these transients to changes in biophysical parameter's allowing quantification of the energy flow through the photosynthetic apparatus. Drought stress induced a significant decrease in the maximum quantum yield of primary photochemistry (Φpo = Fv/Fm), and the quantum yield of electron transport (Φeo). The amount of active Photosystem II (PSII) reaction centers (RC) per excited cross section (RC/CS) also decreased when exposed to the highest drought stress. The effective antenna size of active RCs (ABS/RC) increased and the effective dissipation per active reaction centers (DIo/RC) increased by increasing drought stress during the growth season in comparison to the control. However the performance index (PI), was a very sensitive indicator of the physiological status of plants. Leaf area index, leaf water potential and stomatal conductance decreased as the drought increased. These results indicate that, in quinoa leaf, JIP-test can be used as a sensitive method for measuring drought stress effects. <![CDATA[<b>Hypoxia treatment on germinating faba bean (<i>Vicia faba </i>L.) seeds enhances GABA-related protection against salt stress</b>]]> The γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is a non-protein amino acid with some functional properties for human health. Its content is usually lower in plant seeds. Hypoxia or salt (NaCl) stress is an effective way for accumulating GABA during seed germination. However, NaCl stress on GABA accumulation under hypoxia is currently infrequent. The effect of NaCl on GABA accumulation in germinating faba bean (Vicia faba L.) under hypoxia was therefore investigated in this study. Faba bean seeds were steeped in citric acid buffer (pH 3.5) containing NaCl with a final O2 concentration of 5.5 mg L-1 and germinated for 5 d. Results showed that 60 mmol L-1 NaCl was the optimum concentration for GABA accumulation in germinating faba beans under hypoxia. Germination for 5 d under hypoxia-NaCl stress was less beneficial for GABA accumulation than only hypoxia (control). Polyamine degradation pathway played a more important role for accumulating GABA in germinating faba bean as an adaptive response to NaCl stress. Removing NaCl significantly increased GABA content, while it decreased glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) activity. Simultaneously, polyamine was accumulated, which might be related to the enhancement of physiological activity after recovery. When treated with aminoguanidine (AG) for 3 d, GABA content decreased by 29.82%. These results indicated that the tolerance ability of GABA shunt to NaCl stress was weaker than that of polyamine degradation pathway. The NaCl treatment for 3 d under hypoxia could raise the contribution ratio of polyamine degradation pathway for GABA accumulation. The contribution ratio of polyamine degradation pathway for GABA formation was 29.82% when treated for at least 3 d <![CDATA[<b>High salt induced oxidative damage and antioxidant response in tomato grafted on tobacco</b>]]> One of the major limitations on agricultural development in many countries is the high salinity of the groundwater used in irrigation. Grafted plants may exhibit phenotypic variations from scion and rootstock plants in terms of abiotic stress tolerance, and be a method for improvement of tolerance in agricultural practices. The aim of the present study was to investigate response of Solanum lycopersicum L. ('Elaziğ') grafted on Nicotiana tabacum L. ('Samsun') and Nicotiana rustica L. ('Hasankeyf'), namely "Tomacco" plant (patent nr TR-2008-05391-B), to 10-d high NaCl irrigation. Physical development, chlorophyll a and b, total chlorophyll, total carotenoid, and anthocyanin levels were evaluated. Proline, lipid peroxidation, and electrolyte leakage levels were assayed in roots and leaves together with ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and catalase (CAT) activities. Considering alterations in chlorophyll contents, proline, malondialdehyde (MDA), and conductivity levels, and antioxidant enzyme activity levels scion and self-grafted plants seem to be more affected by salt treatments than tobacco and rootstock grafted plants. Tobacco roots seem to have better adaptive responses against salt stress in comparison to tomato as supported by changes in proline, APX, and CAT levels. Self-grafting experiments further supported grafting tomato onto tobacco rootstocks enhanced salt tolerance and adaptive response of scions and these changes seem to be dependent on rootstock rather than graft-induced changes. In conclusion, we demonstrated that previously defined graft unions of tomato on tobacco, which have increased fruit yield, had also enhanced tolerance to high salt stress and a promising technique for the cultivation of more salt tolerant varieties. <![CDATA[<b>Electrophysiological and behavioral responses of pea weevil <i>Bruchus pisorum </i>L. (Coleóptera: Bruchidae) to volatiles collected from its host <i>Pisum sativum </i>L</b>]]> The pea weevil (Bruchus pisorum L.) (Coleóptera: Bruchidae) is one of the most damaging pests of pea (Pisum sativum L.) We investigated the role of pea volatiles on the electrophysiological and behavioral response of B. pisorum using electroantennography (EAG) and olfactometry bioassays. Plant volatiles emitted at different phenological stages were collected in situ by headspace on Porapak Q traps and analyzed through gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Most abundant volatiles identified in all phenological stages were terpenes and green leaf volatiles. All tested volatile extracts elicited significant EAG responses in both male and female B. pisorum, with females exhibiting a greater response (1.35 mV) than males (1.02 mV) to pea-pod volatiles. Volatiles from each phenological stage stimulated an attractant behavioral response of both males and females B. pisorum in olfactometer bioassay. A larger attraction of B. pisorum females was observed to volatiles from pods over other phenological stages (P < 0.001). These results suggest the relative importance of volatiles cues from plant mediating host location by B. pisorum. This work showed that plant volatiles elicited electrophysiological and behavioral responses and that B. pisorum female can discern between phenological stages of P. sativum based on those chemical cues. <![CDATA[<b>Phosphorus use efficiency in pima cotton <i>(Gossypium barbadense </i>L.) genotypes</b>]]> In the Brazilian Cerrado, P deficiency restricts cotton production, which requires large amounts of phosphate fertilizer. To improve the yield of cotton crops, genotypes with high P use efficiency must be identified and used. The present study evaluated P uptake and use efficiency of different Gossypium barbadense L. genotypes grown in the Cerrado. The experiment was carried out in a greenhouse with a completely randomized design, 15 x 2 factorial treatment structure (15 genotypes x 2 P levels), and four replicates. The genotypes were MT 69, MT 70, MT 87, MT 91, MT 92, MT 94, MT 101, MT 102, MT 103, MT 105, MT 106, MT 110, MT 112, MT 124, and MT 125; P levels were sufficient (1000 mg pot-1, PS treatment) or deficient (PD treatment). Dry matter (DM) and P levels were determined in cotton plant parts and used to calculate plant P content and use efficiency. In general, DM and P content were higher in the PS than in the PD treatment, with the exception of root DM and total DM in some genotypes. Genotypes also differed in terms of P uptake and use capacity. In the PS treatment, genotypes MT 92 and MT 102 had the highest response to phosphate fertilization. Genotype MT 69 exhibited the most efficient P uptake in the PD treatment. Genotype MT 124 showed the best shoot physiological efficiency, apparent recovery efficiency, and utilization efficiency, whereas MT 110 exhibited the highest root physiological efficiency. <![CDATA[<b>Effects of supplemental irrigation on water consumption characteristics and grain yield in different wheat cultivars</b>]]> Shortage of water resources is a major limiting factor for wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) production in the North China Plain. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of supplemental irrigation (SI) on water use characteristics and grain yield of the wheat cultivars 'Jimai 22'and 'Zhouyuan 9369'. Two supplemental irrigation treatment regimens were designed based on target relative soil moisture contents in 0-140 cm soil layers at jointing rising to 75% of field capacity (FC) for each cultivar, and at anthesis rising to 65% and 75% (W1), and 70% and 80% (W2) in 2009-2010 and 2010-2011, respectively. Rain-fed (W0) treatment was used as control. Under W1, grain yield of 'Jimai 22' was 5.22% higher than that of W2, and water use efficiency (WUE) of 'Zhouyuan 9369' was 4.0% higher than that under W2. No significant differences in WUE of 'Jimai 22' and grain yield of 'Zhouyuan 9369' were observed for the two treatment regimens in 2009-2010. Grain yield and WUE in W1 were higher than those of W2 for both cultivars in 2010-2011. W1 enhanced soil water consumption compared to W2, especially in the 100-200 cm soil layers, for both cultivars in 2009-2011. Meanwhile, 'Jimai 22' showed higher soil water consumption and ET from anthesis to mature stage, which resulted in increase in grain yield and WUE of 'Jimai 22' by 8.15-21.7% and 7.75-11.73% in 2009-2010 and 2010-2011, respectively, compared with 'Zhouyuan 9369'. Thus, our results showed that SI increased the yield and WUE of 'Jimai 22' and W1 was the better treatment regimen. <![CDATA[<b>Dynamics of bacterial metabolic profile and community structure during the mineralization of organic carbon in intensive swine farm wastewater</b>]]> Land application of intensive swine farm wastewater has raised serious environmental concerns due to the accumulation and microbially mediated transformation of large amounts of swine wastewater organic C (SWOC). Therefore, the study of SWOC mineralization and dynamics of wastewater microorganisms is essential to understand the environmental impacts of swine wastewater application. We measured the C mineralization of incubated swine wastewaters with high (wastewater H) and low (wastewater L) organic C concentrations. The dynamics of bacteria metabolic profile and community structure were also investigated. The results showed that SWOC mineralization was properly fitted by the two-simultaneous reactions model. The initial potential rate of labile C mineralization of wastewater H was 46% higher than that of wastewater L, whereas the initial potential rates of recalcitrant C mineralization of wastewaters H and L were both around 23 mg L-1 d-1. The bacterial functional and structural diversities significantly decreased for both the wastewaters during SWOC mineralization, and were all negatively correlated to specific UV absorbance (SUVA254; P < 0.01). The bacteria in the raw wastewaters exhibited functional similarity, and both metabolic profile and community structure changed with the mineralization of SWOC, mainly under the influence of SUVA254 (P < 0.001). These results suggested that SWOC mineralization was characterized by rapid mineralization of labile C and subsequent slow decomposition of recalcitrant C pool, and the quality of SWOC varied between the wastewaters with different amounts of organic C. The decreased bio-availability of dissolved organic matter affected the dynamics of wastewater bacteria during SWOC mineralization. <![CDATA[<b>The effect of floating covers on gas emissions from liquid pig manure</b>]]> Livestock manure is the source of different pollutant gases that can generate soil acidification, eutrophication, and contribute to global warming, or have a negative impact on health. Covers can control gas emissions from manure, but their impact is still under discussion. The aim of this experiment was to study the effect of different covers on methane (CH4), nitric oxide (NO), hydrogen sulfide (H2S), ammonia (NH3), carbon monoxide (CO), and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from liquid pig manure. Six types of floating covers were tested: light expanded clay aggregate (leca), peat, sunflower oil, sawdust, straw, and plastic film. Manure was stored at 5, 15, and 25 °C for 37 d. Gas emissions were measured from the headspaces of the dynamic chambers. The results of our study showed that both cover and temperature have a noticeable impact on gas emissions from liquid pig manure. The plastic film cover was the most efficient at all tested temperatures because it reduced emissions of all the measured gases. In this case, mean emission reductions were: CH4 91.5% (P < 0.01), NO 92.0% (P < 0.05), H2S 78.1% (P < 0.05), NH3 54.7% (P < 0.01), CO 98.4% (P < 0.01), and CO2 67.1% (P < 0.01). Other covers had an inconsistent impact on separate gas emissions. However, covers generally helped to decrease NH3, H2S, and CO2 emissions. <![CDATA[<b>Use of tannins to improve fatty acids profile of meat and milk quality in ruminants</b>: <b>A review</b>]]> This paper reviews how tannins, through their effects on rumen lipid metabolism, can affect the composition of ruminants' meat and milk fat. Tannins are a heterogeneous group of plant secondary compounds known for both beneficial and detrimental effects on animals' digestive physiology. Tannins supplementation of ruminants' diets alters both in vivo and in vitro unsaturated fatty acids biohydrogenation and hence the profile of fatty acids outflowing the rumen, which can influence milk and meat content of beneficial fatty acids such as linolenic acid (c9,c12,c15-18:3), vaccenic acid (ti 1-18:1) and rumenic acid (c9,t11-18:2), among others. Published information indicates that tannins could inhibit biohydrogenation though affecting ruminal microorganisms. Some studies found increments in linolenic, rumenic and/or vaccenic acids in meat and milk fat using different sources of tannins; however, the effects of tannins supplementation on milk and meat fatty acid profile are not consistent, and there are contradictory results published in the literature. Effects of tannin supplementation on fatty acids biohydrogenation are affected by the chemical type of tannins, the complexity of their interactions with dietary components, and the potential microbial adaptation to tannins. In addition, the duration of the tannins-feeding period may also affect milk and meat fatty acid profile. Characterizing the effects of each specific tannic compound on different biohydrogenation steps and on the microbial species conducting them, as well as the interaction between specific tannin compounds and other dietary components can help to take greater advantage of tannins potential to contribute to improve human health through promoting beneficial fatty acids in ruminants products. <![CDATA[<b>Soil change induced by the application of biodigested vinasse concentrate, and its effects on growth of sugarcane</b>]]> Vinasse (or stillage) is a byproduct from ethanol production, which contains organic matter, K, N, and other plant nutrients that is regularly used as soil fertilizer. However, high transportation costs limits its application in areas far from distilleries. The possibility of biogas production from vinasse, and the direct or indirect advantages of its use, is a way to reduce costs due to its concentration. Biodigested vinasse concentrate (BVC) is an alkaline product that is very different from common vinasse. Therefore, the objective of this study was to compare the effect of BVC with common vinasse (CV) or KCl, with or without N fertilization, on soil fertility and growth and nutrition of sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) plants. Plants were grown in pots containing Oxisol under different treatments and maintained for 60 d under greenhouse conditions; variables related to soil fertility, plant growth, and mineral nutrition were evaluated. It was observed that adding BVC induces higher soil pH (5.9 to 6.3) and lower potential acidity (13 to 10 mmol c dm-3) compared with KCl, and similar soil chemical changes to CV addition. Plants fertilized with BVC and N showed lower root dry matter (DM) (4.02 g) compared with those fertilized with KCl and CV (6.3 and 5.44 g, respectively). Plants fertilized with BVC have similar total DM (18.25 and 20.31 g) accumulation and nutritional conditions compared with those fertilized with CV and KCl. Plants fertilized with BVC had the highest Na accumulation (0.36 and 0.48 g plant-1). <![CDATA[<b><i>Pochonia chlamydosporia </i></b><b>var. <i>chlamydosporia </i>(Goddard) Zare & W. Gams for the management of lettuce infected with <i>Meloidogyne javanica </i>(Treub, 1885)</b>]]> The application of the nematophagous fungus Pochonia chlamydosporia var. chlamydosporia (Goddard) Zare & W. Gams during seedling production of vegetable crops can be an efficient approach to control root-knot nematode. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of treating seedlings and/or soil with bionematicide (wettable powder formulation) based on chlamydospores from isolate Pc-10 on the Meloidogyne javanica (Treub, 1885) control in lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.). Isolate Pc-10 was diluted in water and applied when watering the seedlings (0, 4.5, 9.0, 13.5, and 18.0 g L-1) and/or to the potted soil (5000 chlamydospores g-1) used for growing lettuce. The soil in each pot was infested with 3000 M. javanica eggs. The number of M. javanica eggs was reduced in lettuce roots when isolate Pc-10 was applied either to seedlings or soil; there was no interaction between application methods. The decrease in the number of eggs was proportional to the increase of isolate Pc-10 applied to seedlings with maximum reduction of 43.5% at the 18 g L-1 dose. When the fungus was applied to the soil, the number of eggs was reduced by 12.3%. Increasing doses of isolate Pc-10 reduced the number of galls up to 21% with the 18 g L-1 dose. Applying bionematicide based on P. chlamydosporia isolate Pc-10 at 18 g L-1 on seedlings controls M. javanica in lettuce. <![CDATA[<b>Effect of micro-alga supplementation on goat and cow milk fatty acid composition</b>]]> The microalgae cultivation has been developed over the last decades because it is capable of producing valuable metabolites, such as n-3 fatty acids for nutraceutical purposes. Aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the micro-alga as fat supplement on fatty acid profile of goat and cow milk, with particular reference to n-3 fatty acids and rumenic acid. Twenty dairy goats and 16 dairy cows were randomly allocated to two isonitrogenous treatment groups to investigate the effect of micro-alga supplementation on the composition and fatty acid profile of milk. The 1st goat group was fed with alfalfa hay and concentrate; the 2nd goat group received the same forages but the concentrate was supplemented with 10 g kg-1 DM intake micro-alga. The control group cows were fed with alfalfa hay, corn silage and concentrate, while the experimental animals were fed with the same forages but the concentrate was supplemented with 7.4 g kg-1 DM intake micro-alga. The experimental periods lasted for 17 d. The micro-alga supplements considerably increased rumenic acid concentration in milk (1.20% ví. 1.54%, P < 0.001 for goats; 0.75% vs. 0.85%, P < 0.05 for cows). The n-3 fatty acids were higher in milk (1.02 vs. 1.35; P < 0.001 for goats; 0.47 vs. 0.56; P < 0.05 for cows) and in addition the n-6/n-3 ratio was also more favorable in the micro-alga supplemented groups (3.53 vs. 2.88; P < 0.01 for goats; 4.18 vs. 3.36; P < 0.05 for cows). It is concluded that the diet with micro-alga supplementation significantly increased the concentration of beneficial fatty acids in both goat and cow milk.