Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Chilean journal of agricultural research]]> http://www.scielo.cl/rss.php?pid=0718-583920160002&lang=en vol. 76 num. 2 lang. en <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.cl/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.cl <![CDATA[<b>Floral expression and pollen germination ability in productive mountain papaya (<em>Vasconcellea pubescens</em> A.DC.) orchards</b>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-58392016000200001&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Mountain papaya (Vasconcellea pubescens A.DC.) is described as trioecious in the centers of origin of Ecuador, Colombia, and Peru. However, under cultivation conditions in La Serena (30° S, 70° W), Chile, it is found to be dioecious and monoecious. The objective was to learn about the variations in floral expression of mountain papaya. Flowers from monoecious and dioecious plants were therefore identified and quantified during two seasons. In vitro pollen germination ability was also evaluated based on the factors of site, season, and plant sex. Monoecious plant inflorescences are polygamous; female and male flowers are observed, as well as bisexual flowers that are usually deformed. This condition allows them to be classified as an ambisexual plant. The existence of flowers of different sexes appears to depend on the season; the female dioecious plant is maintained as such, independently of climatic conditions. Pollen from male flowers, from both ambisexual and male plants, germinates 75% in summer, while germination decreases to 56% in spring (P ≤ 0.05). Flowering of female plants coincides with the permanent occurrence of male flowers in ambisexual plants, which ensures pollination without the need for male plants as pollinators in orchards. Based on this information, some management practices and possible lines of research about this species are proposed. <![CDATA[<b>Diversity and path coefficient analysis of Southern African maize hybrids</b>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-58392016000200002&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Detailed knowledge on genetic diversity among germplasm is important for hybrid maize (Zea mays L.) breeding. The objective of the study was to determine genetic diversity in widely grown hybrids in Southern Africa, and compare effectiveness of phenotypic analysis models for determining genetic distances between hybrids. Fifty hybrids were evaluated at one site with two replicates. The experiment was a randomized complete block design. Phenotypic and genotypic data were analyzed using SAS and Power Marker respectively. There was significant (p < 0.01) variation and diversity among hybrid brands but small within brand clusters. Polymorphic Information Content (PIC) ranged from 0.07 to 0.38 with an average of 0.34 and genetic distance ranged from 0.08 to 0.50 with an average of 0.43. SAH23 and SAH21 (0.48) and SAH33 and SAH3 (0.47) were the most distantly related hybrids. Both single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers and phenotypic data models were effective for discriminating genotypes according to genetic distance. SNP markers revealed nine clusters of hybrids. The 12-trait phenotypic analysis model, revealed eight clusters at 85%, while the five-trait model revealed six clusters. Path analysis revealed significant direct and indirect effects of secondary traits on yield. Plant height and ear height were negatively correlated with grain yield meaning shorter hybrids gave high yield. Ear weight, days to anthesis, and number of ears had highest positive direct effects on yield. These traits can provide good selection index for high yielding maize hybrids. Results confirmed that diversity of hybrids is small within brands and also confirm that phenotypic trait models are effective for discriminating hybrids. <![CDATA[<b>GGE biplot analysis of multi-environment yield trials of rice produced in a temperate climate</b>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-58392016000200003&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Low temperature is one of the main environmental constraints for rice (Oryza sativa L.) grain production yield. It is known that multi-environment studies play a critical role in the sustainability of rice production across diverse environments. However, there are few studies based on multi-environment studies of rice in temperate climates. The aim was to study the performance of rice plants in cold environments. Four experimental lines and six cultivars were evaluated at three locations during three seasons. The grain yield data were analyzed with ANOVA, mixed models based on the best linear unbiased predictors (BLUPs), and genotype plus Genotype × Environment interaction (GGE) biplot. High genotype contribution (> 25%) was observed in grain yield and the interaction between genotype and locations was not very important. Results also showed that 'Quila 241319' was the best experimental line with the highest grain yield (11.3 t ha-1) and grain yield stability across the environments; commercial cultivars were classified as medium grain yield genotypes. <![CDATA[<b>3-Dichloroacetyl oxazolidine protect maize from imazethapyr herbicide injury </b>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-58392016000200004&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Safeners are an important tool used to ensure the safe using of herbicide. The objective of this paper was to investigate the protective effect of four 3-dichloroacetyl oxazolidine safeners (3-dichloroacetyl-2,2-dimethyl-1,3-oxazolidine [R-28725], racemate of 3-dichloroacetyl-2,2-dimethyl-4- ethyl-1,3-oxazolidine, and its two chiral stereoisomers) in reducing the injury caused by imazethapyr. Physiological and biochemical tests were conducted under laboratory condition, by using seed treatment with safeners and soil treatment with imazethapyr, respectively. The interaction of two safeners (R-28725 and R-stereoisomer) and imazethapyr reduced the injury of maize significantly, and also increased glutathione content, activity of glutathione S-transferases, and activity of acetolactate synthase in maize. When induced by R-stereoisomer, the GSH content in root and in shoot increased 100.7% and 73.6%, respectively. When induced by R-28725, the GST activity in vivo increased threefold and the GST activity in vitro more than doubled. The kinetic parameter Vmax of GST in the maize treated with R-28725 and R-stereoisomer increased by 102.2% and 81.9%, respectively, compared with the control. The results also showed that R-28725 and R-stereoisomer induced glutathione S-transferases affinity for the substrate of conjugation reaction significantly. <![CDATA[<b>Herbicides cross resistance of a multiple resistant short-awn foxtail (Alopecurus aequalis Sobol.) population in wheat field</b>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-58392016000200005&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Alopecurus aequalis Sobol. is a common grass weed, which has become increasingly troublesome to control in China wheat fields. One A. aequalis population, collected from Anhui Province China, was suspected to be resistant to fenoxaprop-P-ethyl and mesosulfuron-methyl. This study aimed to establish the cross-resistance pattern using the purified subpopulation and explore the potential target- site and non-target-site based resistance mechanisms. Sequencing results showed that a single nucleotide change of ATT to AAT was present in acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACCase) gene of the resistant (R) plants, resulting in an Ile2041Asn amino acid substitution. Besides, another single nucleotide change of CCC to CGC was present in acetolactate synthase (ALS) gene of the R plants, resulting in a Pro197Arg amino acid substitution. The homozygous resistant plants were isolated and the seeds were used in whole-plant herbicide bioassays. Compared with the susceptible (S) population, R population displayed high level resistance to fenoxaprop-P-ethyl and mesosulfuron- methyl. Cross resistance patterns showed that the R population was highly resistant to clodinafop-propargyl, moderately resistant to pyroxsulam and flucarbazonc- sodium, lowly resistant to pinoxaden, and susceptible to tralkoxydim, sethoxydim, and isoproturon. The pretreatment of piperonyl butoxide reduced the 50% growth reduction (GR50) value of fenoxaprop-P-ethyl, suggesting that target-site resistance and non-target-site resistance mechanisms were both present in fenoxaprop- P-ethyl-resistance of A. aequalis. This is the first report of ACCase Ile2041Asn and ALS Pro197Arg mutation in A. aequalis <![CDATA[<b>Response of some chickpea (<em>Cicer arietinum</em> L.) genotypes to <em>Orobanche foetida</em> Poir. parasitism</b>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-58392016000200006&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en In Tunisia, broomrape (Orobanche foetida Poir.) causes major drawbacks especially in faba bean (Vicia faba L.) Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) suffers little damage compared to faba bean, but with the winter sowing chickpea cultivars, broomrape might become a serious problem for chickpea cultivation. The development of resistant cultivars remains the most efficient way to solve this problem. The behavior of six chickpea genotypes to O. foetida was studied under field natural infestation and artificial inoculation in pots and petri dishes in greenhouse conditions. During the cropping seasons 2010-2011 and 2012-2013 the level of infection was very low. The number of emerged parasites per host plant varied from 0.18 to 0.43 and the incidence from 6.5% to 23%. Among the six tested genotypes, G1, G2, and G4 showed partial resistance to O. foetida with low number and dry weight of emerged parasite and high grain yield compared to the other genotypes, although no significant differences were recorded. In pot experiments, the number and total dry weight of broomrape per plant were lower for G1 and G2 genotypes than the other genotypes. Parasitism does not affect significantly the shoot dry weight and number of pods of these genotypes. The total chlorophyll content was significantly reduced under infestation in all genotypes. In Petri dishes experiments, results showed that percent germination of O. foetida seeds varied from 49% to 65% and does not play a role in the resistance of chickpea genotypes. In contrast, broomrape attachment was lower and slower for the genotypes G1, G2, and G4 than the other genotypes. Resistance in chickpea genotypes was characterized by few parasite attachments on roots and a limited growth of established tubercles. No necrosis of attached tubercles was observed in the different experiments. <![CDATA[<b>Analyses of the community compositions of root rot pathogenic fungi in the soybean rhizosphere soil</b>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-58392016000200007&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr.) root rot is an important disease of soybean under continuous cropping, and root rot is widely distributed throughout the world. This disease is extremely harmful, and it is difficult to prevent and control. The study aimed to elucidate the composition of root rot pathogenic fungal communities in the continuous cropping of soybean. In this study, we employed PCR- DGGE technology to analyze the communities of root rot pathogenic fungi in soybean rhizosphere soil subjected to continuous cropping during a season with a high incidence of root rot in Heilongjiang province, China, the main soybean producing area in China. The results of 13 DGGE bands were analyzed by phylogenetic revealed that the predominant root rot pathogenic fungi in rhizosphere soil in the test area were Pythium ultimum and Fusarium species. The results of cluster analysis showed that the duration of continuous cropping, the soybean variety and the plant growth stage all had significant effects on the diversity of root rot pathogenic fungi in rhizosphere soil. <![CDATA[<b>Insecticidal activity of a protein extracted from bulbs of Phycella australis Ravenna against the aphids Acyrthosiphon pisum Harris and Myzus persicae Sulzer</b>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-58392016000200008&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Aphids cause significant losses in many agricultural crops and in many cases cause repeated insecticide sprays, which increase the risk of resistance. Therefore, other alternatives are needed to control them. The toxic, anti- reproductive, and feeding deterrent effects of a mannose- binding lectin isolated from bulbs of Phycella australis Ravenna (Amaryllidaceae), named Phycella australis- agglutinin (PAA) was assayed on nymphs of the aphids Acyrthosiphon pisum Harris and Myzus persicae Sulzer fed with an artificial diet. After 72 h of PAA exposure, lethal concentration (LC50) values were 109 and 313 µg mL-1 for A. pisum and M. persicae, respectively, while LC90 values were 248 and 634 µg mL-1. Sub-lethal concentrations of PAA significantly reduced the aphid fecundity at a concentration of 80 µg mL-1. Only a total of 5.7 descendants per female were recorded for A. pisum (32% control progeny) and 12.4 for M. persicae (39% control progeny). Acyrthosiphon pisum was strongly deterred by PAA under choice conditions, as after 72 h exposed to 80 µg PAA mL-1 of diet, the feeding deterrent index was 0.91 for A. pisum and only 0.38 for M. persicae. In conclusion, the mannose- binding lectin isolated from bulbs of P. australis showed acute and chronical insecticidal activity against the pea and green peach aphids. <![CDATA[<b>Chemical profile and antifungal potential of essential oils from leaves and flowers of Salvia algeriensis (Desf.)</b>: <b>A comparative study</b>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-58392016000200009&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Salvia is a plant genus widely used in folk medicine in the Mediterranean area since antiquity. A large number of Salvia essential oils have been reported against diverse microorganisms. In the current study, chemical composition of essential oils from leaves and flowers of Salvia algeriensis (Desf.) was determined using gas chromatography-electron impact mass spectrometry (GC-EIMS) as well as their antifungal activity against phytopathogenic fungi Alternaria solani and Fusarium oxysporum exploring disk method. The GC-EIMS analysis identified 59 compounds (84.8%) in the essential oil obtained from leaves of S. algeriensis. Its major constituents were benzaldehyde (9.7%), eugenol (8.7%) and phenylethyl alcohol (8.4%). In flowers oil, 34 compounds (92.8%) were detected. The main ones were viridiflorol (71.1%) and globulol (8.6%). The essential oil obtained from leaves exhibited the highest antifungal activity, where the effective dose inhibiting 50% of mycelial fungal (ED50) against A. solani was 0.90 μL mL-1 with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) equal to 2 μL mL-1, whereas the ED50 and MIC in F. oxysporum culture was 1.84 μL mL-1 and 3 μL mL-1 respectively. The mycelial inhibition by flowers oil varies from 1.77 μL mL-1 (ED50) with A. solani culture (MIC 6.5 μL mL-1) to the lowest effect recorded (ED50 3.00 μL mL-1 and MIC 9.33 μL mL-1) against F. oxysporum. To our best knowledge, this is the first report on S. algeriensis, their leaves oil can constitute an alternative biocontrol against phytopathogenic fungi commonly controlled by chemical fungicides. <![CDATA[<b>Effects of organic fertilizers on the vegetative, nutritional, and productive parameters of blueberries 'Corona', 'Legacy', and 'Liberty'</b>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-58392016000200010&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Organic farming does not allow using certain inputs, such as N, which differ in nutrient release rates and dynamics. To evaluate the effect of different organic fertilizers on the vegetative, nutritional, and productive parameters of blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum L.), a pot experiment was conducted in three consecutive seasons in a sandy soil of south-central Chile using 'Corona', 'Legacy' and 'Liberty'. The following fertilizers were evaluated: compost (CM), Purely Grow (PG), Purely Lysine (PL), Fertil (F), blood meal (BM), lupine meal (LM), along with a control treatment without fertilization (C) and two conventional treatments with urea (CF) and sodium nitrate (S). Results indicate that vegetative growth and leaf N concentration prior to senescence were different among cultivars in the three evaluated seasons. The highest leaf N concentration was recorded in 'Corona' followed by 'Legacy' and 'Liberty' while levels tended to increase in the seasons. Quick-release N sources had greater effects on these parameters but with differences among cultivars. Fruit yield and weight were higher in 'Corona' followed by 'Legacy' and 'Liberty'. Fruit yield was generally higher when using LM and F and showed no effect on fruit weight. Leaf chlorophyll content was higher in 'Corona' followed by 'Legacy' and 'Liberty', which increased when using CF, LM, BM, and PG. Finally, the organic fertilizer and blueberry cultivar that obtained the highest values for most of the evaluated parameters were LM and Corona, respectively. <![CDATA[<b>Maize inbreds from different heterotic groups as favorable sources for increased potential bioavailability of magnesium, iron, manganese and zinc</b>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-58392016000200011&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Malnutrition, as a global problem, is mainly caused by low level of mineral elements in staple food (deficient soil). Biofortification is based on selection of genotypes with enhanced concentration of mineral elements in grain, as well as decreased concentration of substances which interfere bioavailability of mineral elements in gut (like phytic acid), and increased content of substances that increase availability (such as β-carotene). The experiment with 51 maize (Zea mays L.) inbred lines with different heterotic background was set up in order to evaluate chemical composition of grain and to determine the relations between phytic acid (PA), β-carotene, and mineral elements: Mg, Fe, Mn, and Zn. The highest average phytate, β-carotene, Fe, and Mn content was found in grain of inbreds from Lancaster heterotic group. The highest content of Mg was in grain of Independent source and Zn in grain of BSSS group. Increased level of Fe and Mn in Lancaster lines could be partially affected by higher PA content in grain, while increased β-carotene content could improve Mn and Zn availability from grain of BSSS genotypes and Mg availability from Lancaster inbreds. It is important to underline that PA reduction is followed by Zn content increase in grain of Lancaster heterotic group, as well as that variations in Mg, Fe, and Mn contents are independent on PA status in inbreds from Independent source, indicating that the genotypes with higher Mg, Fe and Mn status from this group could serve as favorable source for improved Mg, Fe, and Mn absorption. <![CDATA[<b>Effect of foliar application of Cu, Zn, and Mn on yield and quality indicators of winter wheat grain</b>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-58392016000200012&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Micronutrients are part of many crucial physiological plant processes. The combined application of N and micronutrients helps in obtaining grain yield with beneficial technological and consumer properties. The main micronutrients needed by cereals include Cu, Mn, and Zn. The subject of this study was to determine yield, quality indicators (protein content and composition, gluten content, grain bulk density, Zeleny sedimentation index, and grain hardness), as well as mineral content (Cu, Zn, Mn, Fe) in winter wheat grain (Triticum aestivum L.) fertilized by foliar micronutrient application. A field experiment was carried out at the Educational and Experimental Station in Tomaszkowo, Poland. The application of mineral fertilizers (NPK) supplemented with Cu increased Cu content (13.0%) and ω, α/β, and γ (18.7%, 4.9%, and 3.4%, respectively) gliadins in wheat grain. Foliar Zn fertilization combined with NPK increased Cu content (14.9%) as well as high (HMW) and low molecular weight (LMW) glutenins (38.8% and 6.7%, respectively). Zinc fertilization significantly reduced monomeric gliadin content and increased polymeric glutenin content in grain, which contributed in reducing the gliadin:glutenin ratio (0.77). Mineral fertilizers supplemented with Mn increased Fe content in wheat grain (14.3%). It also significantly increased protein (3.8%) and gluten (4.4%) content, Zeleny sedimentation index (12.4%), and grain hardness (18.5%). Foliar Mn fertilization increased the content of ω, α/β, and γ gliadin fractions (19.9%, 9.5%, and 2.1%, respectively), as well as HMW and LMW glutenins (18.9% and 4.5%, respectively). Mineral NPK fertilization, combined with micronutrients (Cu + Zn + Mn), increased Cu and Zn content in grain (22.6% and 17.7%, respectively). The content of ω, α/β, and γ gliadins increased (20.3%, 10.5%, and 12.1%, respectively) as well as HMW glutenins (7.9%). <![CDATA[<b>Cadmium phytoextraction capacity of white lupine (<em>Lupinus albus</em> L.) and narrow-leafed lupine (<em>Lupinus angustifolius</em> L.) in three contrasting agroclimatic conditions of Chile </b>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-58392016000200013&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The phytoextraction process implies the use of plants to promote the elimination of metal contaminants in the soil. In fact, metal-accumulating plants are planted or transplanted in metal-contaminated soil and cultivated in accordance with established agricultural practices. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the productivity and Cd phytoextraction capacity of white lupine (Lupinus albus L.) and narrow-leafed lupine (Lupinus angustifolius L.), as well as the effect on residual Cd concentration in the soil. Both species of lupines were grown at three CdCl2 rates (0, 1, and 2 mg kg-1), under three agroclimatic conditions in Chile in 2013. In the arid zone (Pan de Azúcar, 73 mm precipitation), narrow-leafed lupine production was significantly (P < 0.05) higher than white lupine (4.55 vs. 3.26 Mg DM ha-1, respectively). In locations with higher precipitation (Santa Rosa, 670 mm; Carillanca, 880 mm), narrow-leafed lupine DM production was slightly higher than in Pan de Azúcar, but white lupine was approximately three times higher. Total plant Cd concentrations in white and narrow-leafed lupine increased as Cd rates increased in the three environments, but they were much higher in narrow-leafed lupine than white lupine; 150%, 58%, and 344% higher in Pan de Azúcar, Santa Rosa, and Carillanca, respectively. Cadmium uptake (g Cd ha-1) and apparent recovery were also higher (P < 0.05) in narrow-leafed lupine in two environments (Pan de Azúcar and Carillanca). These results suggest that narrow-leafed lupine present higher potential as phytoremediation species than white lupine. <![CDATA[<b>Papaya seedlings irrigation with saline water in soil with bovine biofertilizer</b>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-58392016000200014&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Water used for irrigation in semiarid regions of the world is not always of good quality, and may contain salts levels that inhibit plants growth. This study was conducted to evaluate the growth of papaya (Carica papaya L.) 'Golden’ seedlings irrigated with saline water in soil with and without bovine biofertilizer produced by anaerobic fermentation of a mixture of fresh bovine manure and water. The experiment was carried out in Areia County, Paraiba State, Brazil. Treatments were distributed in randomized blocks using a factorial design 5 × 2 relative to five salinity levels in irrigation water of 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 3.0 and 4.0 dS m-1 in soil with and without bovine biofertilizer, corresponding to 10% of the substrate volume. At 90 d after emergence (DAE), both the electrical conductivity (EC) in soil saturation extract, biometric growth and DM production of papaya seedlings were evaluated. Increased salinity from 0.5 to 4.0 dS m-1 raised, within 90 DAE, soil EC of saturation extract (ECse) from 1.19 to 3.95 dS m-1 and from 1.23 to 3.63 dS m-1 in treatments with and without bovine biofertilizer, respectively. Also, the increase in water salinity from 0.5 dS m-1 to the estimated maximum values ranging from 1.46 to 2.13 dS m-1 stimulated seedling height to 11.42 and 18.72 cm in soil with and without bovine biofertilizer, respectively. Higher salinity levels in irrigation water increased soil salinity levels to values that inhibited both growth and quality of papaya seedlings, but with less severity when treated with bovine biofertilizer. <![CDATA[<b>Competitive ability of cultivated rice against weedy rice biotypes </b>: <b>A review</b>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-58392016000200015&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Weedy rice has been identified as a threat to rice production worldwide. Its phenotypic and genotypic diversity and its potential to compete against rice in all development stages from germination to maturity have resulted in a loss of rice yield and grain quality, which is remarkably high in direct- seeded rice cultivation. Weedy rice dormancy varies, it has a higher germination rate, and tolerates deeper germination depth compared to rice cultivars. Interactions of weedy rice with cultivars often reflect early vigor, more tillering, nutrient utilization ability for shoot development with respect to rice cultivars even though the latter also show an improvement in shoot development under competition. An exponential relationship has been reported between cultivated rice loss and weedy rice density: this is true for all rice cultivars. The degree of loss is dependent on the competitive ability of the rice cultivar being studied, and each weedy rice biotype also interacts differently. Hence, the need for a comprehensive study of the biology of various weedy rice variants. Difficulties arise in the management of weedy rice due to its physiological, anatomical, and morphological similarities to cultivated rice. The manipulation of the environment to improve cultivated rice production and suppress the emergence of weedy rice variants is important in the management of weedy rice, as well as other cultural practices and use of pesticides. The development of herbicide-resistant rice cultivars is necessary to totally eliminate the weedy rice variants. This review provides information on the competitive ability of weedy rice against rice cultivars; this information is essential to create management options to control weedy rice.