Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Journal of technology management & innovation]]> http://www.scielo.cl/rss.php?pid=0718-272420120002&lang=es vol. 7 num. 2 lang. es <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.cl/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.cl <![CDATA[Business Incubation in Chile: Development, Financing and Financial Services]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-27242012000200001&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Business incubation in Chile is still in its nascent stages, with approximately 27 incubators supported primarily by a coalition of government and universities. Chilean business incubators tend to capitalize on regional resource strengths and have a strategic focus on high growth, high innovation, high impact businesses as a result of a government mandate to focus on developing business with high potential for economic development and job creation. The government’s efforts to create the framework conditions for entrepreneurship by investing in business incubators, organizing risk capital for early stage ventures to fill capital market gaps and support for angel networks as well as incubator funding are discussed. Policy implications for the continued growth of the incubation industry are provided. <![CDATA[<strong>Innovation Capability</strong>: <strong>From Technology Development to Transaction Capability</strong>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-27242012000200002&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es The firm’s role, besides producing goods and services, is to promote technological change and innovation. While academic research on technological capabilities has led to a better understanding of the process of technical change itself, there is no consensus on the ultimate definition of innovation capability. The purpose of this paper is to present a framework for innovation capability. This is formed by four key capabilities (technology development, operations, management and transaction) that enable firms to reach Schumpeterian profits. Given that the study is characterized as a theoretical paper, methodologically is supported on an extensive literature review. Our main findings can be summed up in three aspects: (1) every firm has all four capabilities; none of them are null; (2) to be innovative, at least one of the firm’s capabilities must be predominant; (3) any firm, when established, is primarily technological or transactional, in a second stage, operational or managerial. <![CDATA[<strong>A Framework for the Application of Eco-efficiency to the Technology Development Process</strong>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-27242012000200003&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es The use of technology development process (TDP) models by the enterprises can contribute to the usage control of natural resources of technologies before or after its integration on products, services or processes. Although the choice of a technology can consider the use of some performance metrics to identify their eco-efficiency, the literature about technology development models neglects this element. Based on a qualitative analysis of existing models, this paper proposes a conceptual model for the adoption of eco-efficiency indicators in the TDP by the innovation managers, distributed in three different stages: the initial stage, during the planning of a technology, the intermediate stage, at the technology development, and the final stage, at the technology transfer. Future research, such as prioritizing the indicators and the extent of the present analysis to other sustainability dimensions are suggested for structuring a sustainable model of TDP. <![CDATA[<strong>Technological Capabilities of Brazilian Shipbuilding Suppliers</strong>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-27242012000200004&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Technological capabilities (TC) play a key role in the competitiveness of firms in industrial sectors. Suppliers in emerging economies often acquire technological capabilities by operating and mastering technologies developed by others and then leveraging this learning to develop indigenous technologies. By reviewing research on firm specific technological capabilities, the development of global value chains and industrial clusters in emerging markets we discuss local suppliers’ insertion and upgrading in the supply chains of new large industrial enterprises. Using the Brazilian shipbuilding industry as context, we investigate and develop propositions related to the ability of local suppliers to develop technological capabilities that permit eventual insertion into the local supply chain. This research has applications for managers and policy makers from other emerging market countries seeking to increase local sourcing through development of local suppliers. <![CDATA[<strong>Strategic Information Systems Planning</strong>: <strong>An Empirical Evaluation of Its Dimensions</strong>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-27242012000200005&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Strategic management of Information Technology (IT) has long been regarded as a critical component of business performance. This study addresses two objectives. Firstly we investigate the practice and effectiveness of Strategic Information Systems Planning (SISP) as a function of strategic management in 29 large Australian organizations. Secondly we review these results through a theoretical lens established by Segars et al. (1998) who identified six dimensions that provide a structured approach to reviewing the SISP process. Our results show that SISP was widely used in these 29 organizations in aspects such as planning associated with strategic IS investment and application, and whilst the theoretical review generally supported the literature, some amendments are required to the participation and focus dimensions suggested by Segars et al. (1998). Such results have implications for both practitioners and researchers. <![CDATA[<strong>Infrastructure Development</strong>: <strong>Public Private Partnership Path for Developing Rural Telecommunications in Africa</strong>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-27242012000200006&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es It is the quest of every government to achieve universal Access and service of telecommunication services and ICTs. Unfortunately due to the high cost of deploying infrastructure in rural areas of developing countries due to non-significant or no economic activity, this dream of achieving Universal access and service of telecommunications/ICTs have been stalled. This paper throws light on a possible Public Private Partnership framework as a development path that will enable affordable network technologies to be deployed in rural areas at a cost that will translate to what the rural dweller in a developing country in Africa can afford. The paper is a conceptual paper. <![CDATA[<strong>Science,Technology and Innovation Management</strong>: <strong>Contributions to a Methodological Framework</strong>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-27242012000200007&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es The article discusses the specificities of science and technology development and innovation processes in organizational arena and their implications for planning and management. It proposes that ST&I processes must be planned and managed as evolutionary processes defined by targeted attitudes to search routines and an understanding of the selective instances in which organizations are embedded, taking into consideration the distinct institutional elements that mediate such relations. To deal with this framework, the article proposes a methodological framework comprising a set of building blocks to help managers deal with the challenge of innovation. The building blocks are: (1) indeterminacy; (2) the profile of the professionals involved and the organizational culture; (3) the collective logic associated with the complexity of non- linear, dynamic and adaptive systems; and (4) the logic of the scope economies associated with knowledge production. The methodology is applied in a case study of the Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation, Embrapa. <![CDATA[<strong>Analysing Changes in Electricity Industries Against Actors and Technologies</strong>: <strong>Utility to Business Transformations in Denmark, Germany, Finland and Spain</strong>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-27242012000200008&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Liberalization of electricity markets, governmental policies for renewable electricity and technology development are transforming national electricity industries. However, there are considerable national differences in how these industries have changed and which businesses have been developed. We propose a typology for comparing changes in electricity industry based on the changes in the actors and technologies. Wind power and solar photovoltaic are used here as technology examples. A qualitative analysis of the changes in electricity industries in four EU member states is presented. Based on the preliminary findings, we conclude that if the industry consists of many, small firms with relatively loose ties with the government the industry is more likely to change than if it consists of few large firms with strong relations with the government. <![CDATA[<strong>Small Companies Innovations in Emerging Countries</strong>: <strong>E-Business Adoption and its Business Model</strong>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-27242012000200009&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Organizations have been taking advantage of e-business as an innovative opportunity to improve business results, but small companies have not been adopting this tool as quickly as large corporations. There are several studies on the adoption of e-business in developed countries, but there are fewer studies in emerging Latin American countries. Thus, the goal of this study was to describe the business model of small companies that have adopted e-business (an innovation to this segment) in an emerging Latin American country. For that, we used a quantitative approach trough a survey data. Main results: the owners/shareholders play a central role in making decisions about the adoption of e-business; the main value delivered from using the internet was improved brand and/or product awareness. The companies using e-business achieved increase in business and an expanded geographic scope of sales. The main difficulties encountered were training personnel to work on the internet and defining which web activities can lead to achieve strategic objectives. <![CDATA[<strong>Internationalization Process and Technological Capability Trajectory of Iguaçu</strong>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-27242012000200010&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es This article focuses on the influence of the internationalization process in the evolution of technological capability. This implication was studied in Iguaçu between 1967 and 2009. To achieve the proposed goal it was used the Internationalization of Brazilian Export Producer Companies Model, built by Kraus (2006) and the Model of Technological Capabilities in Companies of Emerging Economies, built by Figueiredo (2004). The study found that different stages of internationalization require different functions and different levels of technology. The discussion proposed by this paper found a close association between the process of internationalization and the development of technological capability in the company studied. It can be concluded that for companies of Soluble Coffee to conquer, reach and remain competitive in international markets it should engage efforts to build diverse organizational skills, alliances and technological capabilities. <![CDATA[<strong>Challenges and Outcome of Innovative Behavior</strong>: <strong>A Qualitative Study of Tourism Related Entrepreneurs</strong>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-27242012000200011&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es The tourism industry is currently Malaysia’s third most important industry in terms of foreign exchange earnings after the manufacturing and palm oil sectors. Its contribution to GDP growth is about 7.2%, suggesting that the industry is still in its infancy and therefore offers much scope for future growth. Furthermore tourism industry has been recognized as important economic activities especially during the current economic crisis. Malaysian government announced as part of the Mini Budget tabled in parliament on 10th March 2009 that RM200 million will be allocated to various tourism related programs. However, tourism industry is in a downward spiral due to various reasons such as global economic crisis and strong competition from other countries. Innovative efforts are necessary to further promote this industry so as to reap the full benefits and potential of this sector, besides giving it a competitive edge against its competitors like Thailand, Hong Kong and Singapore. Emphasis should be given to the development of competitive tourism products or services to enhance foreign exchange earnings and savings. Innovative approach such as creativity is the key element for success. This paper attempts to synthesize the scope and role of innovation in the determination of effectiveness of tourism related entrepreneurs. Furthermore, this paper proposed that strategic innovativeness and behavioral innovativeness enhance performance of entrepreneurs. This paper presents the findings of the first phase of a larger research project on innovativeness of tourism related entrepreneurs. This initial phase involves an exploratory study into the innovative behavior of 23 tourism related entrepreneurs based in the island of Langkawi. Based on in depth semi-structured interview, the participant discussed their business challenges and innovative behavior that they adopted in responding to those challenges. This research contributes to the understanding of innovative behavior of tourism entrepreneurs. Participants in this research have provided some practical benefits by exploring their innovative behaviors as responses to their business challenges. However, given that the sample for this study is small, further research into this area is highly recommended. <![CDATA[<strong>Innovation and Sustainability in the Supply Chain of a Cosmetics Company</strong>: <strong>a Case Study</strong>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-27242012000200012&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es The article analyses the induction process of technological innovations that consider economic, social and environmental concerns throughout the supply chain, in accordance with the proposals of sustainable development. Specifically, it examines the role of focal companies as innovation inductors for their supply chains. The article presents a debate with regards to innovation, sustainability and supply chain management and analyses the concept of sustainable innovation, as well as management models that bridge the gap between these themes. A case study conducted with a cosmetics company of Brazilian origin and presence in Latin America, is presented. This case study demonstrates that sustainable innovation driven by the focal company requires the engagement of its suppliers in order to reduce the negative social and environmental impacts throughout the product’s life cycle. Moreover, it illustrates that is possible to implement innovations that generate net social and environmental benefits for all members of the supply chain. <![CDATA[<strong>Orientación Emprendedora, Capacidad de Aprendizaje Organizativo y Desempeño Innovador</strong>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-27242012000200013&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es This paper explores the relationship between entrepreneurial orientation and innovation performance taken organizational learning capability as a mediating variable. This research question is important because allows us to better understand why entrepreneurial orientation don’t always increase organizational performance. We consider innovation performance as a measure very related to business performance. Using structural equations modeling in a sample of 182 ceramic tile industry firms, the results show that organizational learning capability plays a significant role in determining the effects of entrepreneurial orientation on innovation performance.<hr/>Este artículo examina la relación entre la orientación emprendedora y el desempeño innovador tomando como variable mediadora la capacidad de aprendizaje organizativo. Esta cuestión de investigación es importante porque nos permite comprender mejor por qué la orientación emprendedora no afecta siempre de forma positiva a la cuenta de resultados. Consideramos que el desempeño innovador es una medida muy próxima al resultado general. Utilizando un modelo de ecuaciones estructurales en una muestra de 182 empresas de la industria cerámica, los resultados muestran que la capacidad de aprendizaje organizativo juega un rol fundamental en determinar los efectos de la orientación emprendedora en el desempeño innovador. <![CDATA[<strong>Definición de las Brechas en el Uso de las Tic’s para la Innovación Productiva en Pymes del Sector Pecuario Chileno</strong>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-27242012000200014&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es The main objective of this article is to define the gaps which make more difficult the access and the appropriate use of ICT in Chilean SME’s in livestock sector. In order to reach this objective, it were surveyed 151 managers of SME’s in dairy sector, located in the Región de los Ríos and Región de los Lagos, Chile (provinces of Valdivia, Osorno and Llanquihue). The data compiled were processed using descriptive statistics and multivariate analysis. They yielded the following results: a) the lack of training was the main gap registered to access to ICT within the companies analyzed, b) poor access to specific software is another of the gaps most important, and c) half of the managers surveyed had an unfavorable attitude to the constant updating of ICT in their companies. Finally, we recommend a policy that aims, in addition to the basic and specific equipment access, ICT training within the different occupational levels of the SME’s.<hr/>El presente artículo tiene por objetivo general definir las brechas que dificultan el acceso y el uso adecuado de las TIC’s en las Pymes dedicadas a la producción pecuaria en Chile. Con el fin de concretar dicho objetivo se realizó una encuesta a una muestra compuesta por 151 directivos de Pymes lecheras ubicadas en la Región de los Ríos y la Región de los Lagos en Chile (provincias de Valdivia, Osorno y Llanquihue). Los datos obtenidos fueron tratados mediante análisis estadístico descriptivo y multivariante. A partir del estudio realizado se obtuvieron los siguientes resultados: a) la falta de capacitación fue la principal brecha registrada para el acceso a las TIC’s en las empresas analizadas, b) el deficiente acceso a software específico es otra de las brechas más relevantes y c) la mitad de los directivos encuestados presentaban una actitud desfavorable a la actualización constante de las TIC’s en sus empresas. Finalmente, se recomienda una política pública que tenga por objetivo además del acceso a equipamiento básico y específico, la capacitación profesional en los distintos niveles jerárquicos de las Pymes. <![CDATA[<strong>Blind Technology Transfer or Technological Knowledge Leakage</strong>: <strong>a Case Study from the South</strong>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-27242012000200015&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Blurring boundaries between science and technology is a new phenomenon especially in fields such as biotechnology. The present work shows the fate of biotech research papers on foreign patents produced during the last decade in Quilmes National University. It aims at recognizing the flow of scientific knowledge developed at a public university towards foreign companies and organizations as well as reflecting on its technological value, the role of technology transfer management, the institutional significance of technology transfer processes and the need to develop innovative public policies for solving structural failures caused by industrial underdevelopment. <![CDATA[<strong>Strategic Orientation Towards Sustainable Innovation</strong>: <strong>A Case Study in a Brazilian University</strong>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-27242012000200016&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es The technological development that results from innovation can lead to considerable environmental impact. Yet, companies and other stakeholders have not done enough to develop strategies for minimizing waste management. The present study contributes to research in this area, by empirically examining the link between the management of technological innovation and sustainability. A case study was carried out to examine the extent to which there is strategic orientation towards both technological innovation and sustainability in a large public university in Brazil. The results show the importance of integrating sustainability activities within the organisation’s corporate strategy: although the researched organisation had sufficient theoretical knowledge about waste management, the lack of an integrated strategy led to uncoordinated attempts at recycling within the university.