Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Journal of technology management & innovation]]> http://www.scielo.cl/rss.php?pid=0718-272420120001&lang=en vol. 7 num. 1 lang. en <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.cl/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.cl <![CDATA[<strong>Unique Organizational Competencies of Brazilian Technological Innovation Centers</strong>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-27242012000100001&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The general objective of this research was to identify the unique organizational competences of Brazilian Technological Innovation Centers (TICs). We developed a theoretical framework that deals with technological innovation centers and unique organizational competences. Empirical research consisted of two sequential phases, the first qualitative and the second quantitative. The qualitative phase consisted of semi-structured interviews that were chosen through non- probabilistic selection criteria. The quantitative phase made use of a survey questionnaire that was mailed to individuals responsible for the TICs participating in the National Forum of Managers of Innovation and Technology Transfer and the Intellectual Property Network of the State of Minas Gerais. The unique organizational competences encountered were: intellectual property; national patenting; consulting services rendered by individual professors or researchers; identification of the areas of excellence in research of scientific and technological institutions via the number of registered patents, the number of scientific publications, declared lines of research, and the presence of related research groups. <![CDATA[<strong>Electronic Ticketing System As a Process of Innovation</strong>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-27242012000100002&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Considering the increased complexity in the competitive landscape, innovation is the keyword of the post-industrial era, and in order to be attained by the enterprises, it requires new strategies, capabilities and competencies. Considering this scenario this study included analysis of improvements achieved with the implementation of the e-ticketing system in a case of public transport in major cities of southern Brazil categorized as cases ß and ?. Furthermore, it aimed to ascertain whether the improvements in information management provided by electronic ticketing qualify it as an innovation. The research was based on the theoretical model of innovation described in Tables 1, 2, 3, 4 in order to guide the research activities described. Qualitative data was collected through interviews and document analysis. The collected information was analyzed using content analysis and the amount of vehicles and passengers in the cities covered by the survey were used as secondary data. The characteristic effects of innovation were found to be in line with the results of e-ticketing in the cases analyzed, making this system a way to attain innovation. In accordance with the guidelines set for this study, it is worth emphasizing that the impacts of the e-ticketing system were considered innovative, not the system itself, because electronic billing was a means to achieve innovation and not an innovation per se. <![CDATA[<strong>New Product Development in Traditional Industries</strong>: <strong>Decision-Making Revised</strong>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-27242012000100003&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en This paper investigates whether decisions considered as common in new product development literature are also valid in a region characterized by traditional industries. The research is grounded on innovative companies in the Valencian Region (Spain). Using the statistical tool of factor analysis, we test if the groups of decisions identified by the literature can be confirmed in our empirical sample. Therewith, we aim to link the theoretical and empirical fields in the context of new product development and product innovation management. <![CDATA[<strong>Integration in New Product Development</strong>: <strong>Case Study in a Large Brazilian High-Technology Company</strong>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-27242012000100004&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Proficiency in management activities undertaken in product development processes is regarded as a key competitive advantage for companies, particularly for high-tech industrial firms, which benefit from the important competitiveness factor of launching products with a differentiated technological content. This paper’s objective was to identify, through case study, practices for integration between the roles of R & D with others involved in product development in a large Brazilian company of industrial automation. The results suggest some management practices to improve the integration in new products development, such as the use of employees from marketing with knowledge and experience previously gained from R & D activities and uses the heavyweight product manager to solve synchronization problems between product and technology development. <![CDATA[<strong>Assessing the influence of Environmental and CEO Characteristics for Adoption of Information Technology in Organizations</strong>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-27242012000100005&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Information System literature has identified several factors that impact the adoption and implementation of IT. This study presents a meta-analysis of the findings of past literature on IT adoption to verify the significance of competitive pressure, government support, external pressure, CEO attitude, manager’s tenure, CEO innovativeness and CEO IT knowledge in the adoption of IT in organizations. The study found that except for manager’s tenure, all attributes had considerable influence on the adoption of IT. Amongst the factors considered, external pressure or the demands from the trading partners and potential customers were found to be most influential in the adoption process. The study also examined the effect of two moderating conditions for the relationship between the attributes and IT adoption. <![CDATA[<strong>Scientific Knowledge Networks in Peripheral Regions and Local Innovation Systems</strong>: <strong>The Case of Chemistry in the State of Bahia</strong>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-27242012000100006&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Scientific production and technological innovation growth in Brazil are not homogeneous in its different regions despite its public policies. The same phenomenon can be observed within the states of the Brazilian Federation. This article examines the diffusion of scientific expertise in six public institutions of science and technology in the state of Bahia between 2004 and 2008. The state is the largest in the north-east of Brazil, an area marked by a semi-arid climate and a low human development index; however, it has a large chemical and petrochemical complex. This article, focusing on the scientific field of chemistry, is based on foundations of innovation and knowledge management, as well as social network analysis, aiming to examine relations between scientific production and institutional, structural and relational characteristics of inter- and intra-institutional scientific knowledge networks. The results show that public policies on science, technology and innovation regarding the peripheral regions need to be rethought. <![CDATA[<strong>Organizational Factors that Affect the University-Industry Technology Transfer Processes of a Private University</strong>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-27242012000100007&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en This case study researched organizational factors that affect the university-industry technology transfer (UITT) processes of a private university, chosen by its success and uniqueness in the Brazilian context. Stood out as factors: innovation among pillars of management; valuing of research and intellectual property; qualified students, teachers and managers; multidisciplinary research groups; stability of governing body; performance of the TTO, Technology Management Agency and Technology Park. Difficulties highlighted were: reconciliation of time between activities of professors-researchers, bureaucracy and centralization of administrative and legal support; valuation of research results; approach and negotiation with companies. Among suggestions are: granting greater independence to the structures in charge of UITT and making them self-sustainable; training agents in technology marketing, sale, and negotiation skills. <![CDATA[<strong>A New Method of Creating Technology/Function Matrix for Systematic Innovation without Expert</strong>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-27242012000100008&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The technology/function matrix is comprised by specific technologies and functions, and through the technology/function matrix we can known what the technologies with functions have opportunities for innovation of product or technology. However, the technology/function matrix is very difficult to create, because the patents need to be read, analyzed and categorized into the technology/function matrix always more than hundreds or thousands. In this research, I propose a method to create a technology/function matrix just need to execute patent search without reading and analyzing patents. Through the proposed method anyone can create a technology/function matrix in a short time without experts’ help even if there are thousands of thousands of patents need to be read and analyzed. <![CDATA[<strong>Absorptive Capacities of Local Enterprises From the Electric-Electronics Sector In the State of Tamaulipas, Mexico</strong>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-27242012000100009&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The paper analyzes the absorptive capacities of a group of enterprises from the electric-electronics sector in the state of Tamaulipas Mexico. First, the literature on absorptive capabilities is reviewed, adopting an evolutionist approach. Then, an analysis of the sector is carried out in order to verify the recent changes made in various indicators - value of the total products by the selected states, job generation and productivity rates - based on data from the last three economic censuses. Finally, an analysis of the three selected enterprises’ absorptive capacities is addressed from a case study perspective, making our own interpretation of the construct based on the integration of the different analyzed proposals. <![CDATA[<strong>Knowledge Management and Analysis of Scientific Biotechnology Trends in Venezuela</strong>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-27242012000100010&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en This paper presents a study on knowledge management and analysis of scientific Biotechnology trends in Venezuela, providing an overview of the science profile as well as regional development and its relation to issues of topics covered by Biotechnology based on the analysis of scientific publications for the period of 1995 to 2010. The survey was accomplished in database ISI/Web of Science using 60 terms selected by experts in Biotechnology and 803 register has been organized. Scientific indicators were produced using data/ text mining tools. It was possible to find a greater number of scientific publications in areas such as Ecology and Health, showing a greater frequency in these terms: DNA, PCR and Biodiversity. Results pointed out The United States of America as the main foreign partner-country of scientific publications followed by Spain and France. It was possible to verify cooperation network with others Latin American countries: Brazil, Colombia and Chile. <![CDATA[<strong>Transaction Costs and Organizational Competences</strong>: <strong>Explaining the Governance Structure for Manufacturing Stage</strong>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-27242012000100011&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en This article deals with the influence of transaction costs and organizational competences on the choice of governance structure for manufacturing stage in a productive system. The objective is to develop a conceptual model that explains the choice of supplier for manufacturing through transaction costs and organizational competences. Following earlier studies, the model proposes competences of the product´s owner influence the vertical scope in a relation moderated by transaction costs. The constructs in the model are: “governance structure”, the dependent variable categorized as internal or external supplier, “transaction costs”, measured by asset specificity of the product and bargain power of the firm in the manufacturing stage, and “competences on operations”, measured by experience and diversification of the firm. The study presents some methodological implications for applying the model in Brazilian pharmaceutical industry, through searching for secondary data on drugs and firms in a public database of the federal regulatory agency. <![CDATA[<strong>A Proposal of Logistic Services Innovation Strategy for a Mining Company</strong>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-27242012000100012&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en A logistic service innovation strategy for a mining company and their key suppliers is presented, using the win-win concept with the objective of improve its position, policies, strategic objectives and relationships between companies. The strategy allows increasing the business profitability, to diminish the operational costs and the times of negotiation and learning. The chain value of the productive process is analyzed and also the business strategies of each company in order to identify the key factors involved in the strategic alliance. Contracts negotiation between the company and its suppliers is examined by SWOT analysis, Pareto´s ABC tool and expert knowledge of the process. The strategy is applied to a mining company and its key suppliers working in the modality of strategic long term alliances. <![CDATA[<strong>SMEs’ Degree of Openness</strong>: <strong>The Case of Manufacturing Industries</strong>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-27242012000100013&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en This paper clusters SMEs based on their degree of openness. In addition, it explores both the internal and external determinants of the different clusters obtained. Based on a survey of 1214 firms in manufacturing industries and using both the dimensions of openness, breadth and depth, we find that SMEs could be clustered in four classes, depending on their degree of openness. We find that SMEs could adopt a closed, an open, an interactive or a user approach to innovation. With respect to the determinants of different classes of SMEs, the results of the logistic regression model, developed in this study, show variables such as national and regional proximities that account for explaining the likelihood that SMEs will be in a more open cluster rather than in a low open cluster. Also, this quantitative study shows that external obstacles to innovation may lead these SMEs from a closed approach to innovation to an interactive, user, or open approach to innovation. Finally, we find that the age of the firm is important in explaining the likelihood that SMEs will be in an open cluster rather than in a closed cluster. <![CDATA[<strong>Comparative Analysis for Science,Technology and Innovation Policy; Lessons Learned from Some Selected Countries (Brazil, India, China, South Korea and South Africa) for Other LdCs Like Iran</strong>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-27242012000100014&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Having recognized the importance of designing Science, Technology and Innovation policies (STIP), many Less Developed Countries (LDCs) such as Iran have nowadays attempt to reshape their STI policies. The policy makers of LDCs like Iran can adopt and design suitable strategies learning from the successful experiences of prosperous nations. This paper performs a comparative analysis of STI policies of some successful countries in managing their technological change. This is mostly due to the fact that the other LDCs can draw valuable lessons from these success stories which in turn can also contribute to success in their own short and long term development. Firstly, the empirical experiences of some successful nations namely (Brazil, India, China, South Africa and South Korea) will be studied. The empirical experience in STI policymaking will be surveyed. The most critical success factors contributed mostly to their management of STI policies will also be compared. Finally, a general framework of STI policymaking drawing from the experiences of these countries will be proposed for other LDCs like Iran. <![CDATA[<strong>E-Mentoring</strong>: <strong>An Innovative Twist to Traditional Mentoring</strong>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-27242012000100015&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Many organizations have established and implemented traditional mentoring programs. Both qualitative and quantitative research studies have found that successful mentoring programs enhance productivity, job satisfaction and may ultimately lead to protégé advancement. Traditional methods of mentoring are created through the means of one on one relationships established between the mentor and the protégé. E-mentoring through the use of synchronous and asynchronous computer-mediated communication is a new means for establishing mentor protégé relationships by creating virtual teams. This paper seeks to compare and contrast traditional mentoring with e-mentoring and propose new innovative ways to use e-mentoring in an organizational setting. <![CDATA[<strong>La Curva</strong><strong> en S como Herramienta para la Medición de los Ciclos de Vida de Productos</strong>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-27242012000100016&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The aim of this article was to carry out a study of the life cycles of three products of Colombian companies; based on a logistic model of population growth as a life cycles measurement tool. We found that the products life cycles have a similar behavior to the population growth, according to an S curve. The inflection points of the curves were obtained by a nonlinear regression. These points might be used as a tool for strategic decision making in products, in terms of identifying key instants for launching technological innovations, investments and execute marketing strategies.<hr/>En este artículo se realizó el estudio de los ciclos vida de tres productos de empresas colombianas basados en un modelo logístico de crecimiento demográfico como herramienta de medición de ciclos de vida. Se comprobó que los ciclos de vida de los productos tienen un comportamiento análogo al del crecimiento de la población, formando una curva en S. Adicionalmente se obtuvo por medio de una regresión no lineal los puntos de inflexión de las curvas. Estos podrán ser usados como herramienta para la toma de decisiones estratégicas en los productos, en cuanto a: determinar momentos claves en el lanzamiento de innovaciones tecnológicas, realizar inversiones y ejecutar estrategias de mercadotecnia.