Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Journal of technology management & innovation]]> http://www.scielo.cl/rss.php?pid=0718-272420110004&lang=es vol. 6 num. 4 lang. es <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.cl/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.cl <![CDATA[<strong>Knowledge Transfer and Innovation in Brazilian Multinational Companies</strong>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-27242011000400001&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es The article analyzes how innovation generation occurs in subsidiaries of Brazilian multinational corporations acting in Portugal, specifically the role of customers in the process and the knowledge dynamics. A multiple case study approach was conducted in four subsidiaries operating in the Portuguese market for at least one year. Firms came from different activity sectors and sizes. Results identify permanent knowledge exchange flows between subsidiaries and headquarters, while the largest pour is from the later ones (in Brazil) to their wings in Portugal. There are frequent innovations taking place in Portuguese subsidiaries. Such innovation processes are typically incremental in nature and occur predominantly in only some areas of the organization, where greater specialization and expertise are located. The most relevant results regard the existing strong interaction between subsidiaries and markets, especially with the larger customers that con- tribute with suggestions and are able to influence the new products creation in the subsidiaries. <![CDATA[<strong>Learning Networks in Innovation Systems at Sector / Regional Level in Argentina</strong>: <strong>Winery and Dairy Industries</strong>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-27242011000400002&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es This work studies how the set of relationships that gives place to the learning processes is established in the food indus- try in Argentina. A theoretical ad hoc approach is adopted, conjugating the concepts of innovation systems at sector / regional level with some context considerations like the innovative behaviour of the global and local food industry and a description of the public and private S&T in Argentina. The study is focused in two cases: the wine industry, at the Mendoza province, and the dairy products industry at the centre of the Santa Fe province, both in Argentina. While the winery industry at the province of Mendoza exports differentiated products the dairy industry, at the central basin of the province of Santa Fe, exports commodities leaving differentiated (functional) products for the domestic market. These facts determine different dynamics between them, despite of what the established set of relationships is very complex and knowledge intensive in both cases. Also, in both cases the preponderant contribution of the public institutions of science and technology as knowledge and technology source is flagged. <![CDATA[<strong>Radical and Incremental Innovation Preferences in Information Technology</strong>: <strong>An Empirical Study in an Emerging Economy</strong>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-27242011000400003&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Innovation in information technology is a primary driver for growth in developed economies. Research indicates that countries go through three stages in the adoption of innovation strategies: buying innovation through global trade, incre- mental innovation from other countries by enhancing efficiency, and, at the most developed stage, radically innovating independently for competitive advantage. The first two stages of innovation maturity depend more on cross-border trade than the third stage. In this paper, we find that IT professionals in in an emerging economy such as India believe in radical innovation over incremental innovation (adaptation) as a growth strategy, even though competitive advantage may rest in adaptation. The results of the study report the preference for innovation strategies among IT professionals in India and its implications for other rapidly growing emerging economies. <![CDATA[<strong>How Attractive are Innovation Systems for Knowledge Intensive Services’ FDI? </strong>: <strong>A Regional Perspective for Spain</strong>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-27242011000400004&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Following an increasing body of literature that has been generated regarding the role played by Knowledge Intensive Services in economic systems, our approach focuses on KIS international orientation (FDI) according to the attractiveness we expect Regional Innovation Systems might have in these flows. Results suggest that technological variables participate rather marginally in the process of FDI attraction. As this situation unfolds more relevantly in the case of Outward investment than Inward, we can therefore expect that Spanish investment abroad is more oriented towards asset and knowledge seeking than the inflow of investments in services and in KIS in Spanish regions. <![CDATA[<strong>Technological and Productive Density in Sectoral Innovation Systems</strong>: <strong>The Case of the Brazilian Aeronautics Industry</strong>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-27242011000400005&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es This article discusses whether a globally competitive high-tech firm is sustainable without being associated with a sufficiently dense sectoral innovation system. It focuses on Embraer and hence on the Brazilian aeronautics industry. Despite not benefiting from a highly subsidized process for technological and financial modernization, Embraer has become the world’s third-ranking producer of commercial jets thanks to institutional innovations, especially in producing and managing contracts with suppliers and risk-sharing partners. The conclusion drawn is that the competitiveness of the Brazilian aircraft industry depends on the continuing supply of technology in international markets. Technological restrictions imposed for geopolitical reasons, or even for market constraints, could fatally undermine the strategy adopted by the company. <![CDATA[<strong>The Winner Curse and Social Inefficiency</strong>: <strong>Double Whammy of R&D Tournament</strong>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-27242011000400006&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es In a R&D tournament setting with free entry and knowledge spillover, we show that the society would suffer from ex- cessive entry and the patent holder would endure lower profits than non-patent holders because it bears the cost of commercializing and further technology development, while the other firms are beneficiaries of the spillover effects. This result is instructive to R&D and competition policy. <![CDATA[<strong>Comparative Advantages of Spinoff Firms</strong>: <strong>An Evolutionary Perspective</strong>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-27242011000400007&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es As predicted by evolutionary economics, historical antecedents matter when it comes to the relationship between survival of entrants and organizational capabilities. Spinoff firms provide an exemplary case of such relationship where the founders’ pre-entry capabilities that are inherited from the parent firm increases their survival chances. Looking closer and deeper to the evolutionary spinoff success mechanisms, I examine three specific genetic features which make spinoff firms more advantageous compared to other entrants; namely 1) Genotype: Transfer of blueprint, 2) Phenotype: Organizational learning, and 3) Memes: Informal relations and social capital. A detailed theoretical analysis of each mechanism prevails how they function and provide sustainable competitive advantage to spinoff firms. Testable hypotheses are provided about each mechanism. <![CDATA[<strong>The Impact of Moral Awareness on the Entrepreneurial Orientation</strong>: <strong>Performance Relationship in New Technology Based Firms</strong>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-27242011000400008&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es As predicted by evolutionary economics, historical antecedents matter when it comes to the relationship between survival of entrants and organizational capabilities. Spinoff firms provide an exemplary case of such relationship where the founders’ pre-entry capabilities that are inherited from the parent firm increases their survival chances. Looking closer and deeper to the evolutionary spinoff success mechanisms, I examine three specific genetic features which make spinoff firms more advantageous compared to other entrants; namely 1) Genotype: Transfer of blueprint, 2) Phenotype: Organizational learning, and 3) Memes: Informal relations and social capital. A detailed theoretical analysis of each mechanism prevails how they function and provide sustainable competitive advantage to spinoff firms. Testable hypotheses are provided about each mechanism. <![CDATA[<strong>FACEBOOK for CoP of Researchers</strong>: <strong>Identifying the Needs and Evaluating the Compatibility</strong>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-27242011000400009&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Communities of practice (CoPs) are increasingly capturing the interest of many fields such as business companies, education and organizations. Many CoPs were developed for people who have common interest in healthcare, agriculture and environment, and teaching. However, there is lack of COPs dedicated for researchers. This research aims to explore the appropriateness of Facebook (FB) as a platform for serving a CoP of researchers. To achieve this goal, first we identify the needs of CoPs for researchers within UAE context. Consequently, we adopted qualitative research approach to elicit the needs. We applied the grounded theory method to analyze the data. The results of the analysis showed seven main needs: collaboration, debating, awareness/ notification, reference management, cross search, customization, tracking, and user orientation. Secondly, we evaluated the compatibility of FB features to the identified needs. Although we found that FB covers most of CoPs needs, there are few needs which are not met successfully so this raised some technical and practical issues, which have been highlighted in the paper. <![CDATA[<strong>A Bibliometric Study of Innovation Based on Schumpeter</strong>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-27242011000400010&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es The aim of this paper is to analyze the production of the scientific innovation theme, based on the Economical Development Theory. The bibliometric study started from the seven categories derived from Schumpeter’s seminal text in articles from the following journals IJIM, JOTMI, RAI and RBI, published in the 2000 decade. Results have shown an increase in eleven new categories in the innovation realm, and the predominant categories are the ones that mention ‘organizational resources, capabilities and competencies, knowledge and learning’. The topic ‘new product’, from Schumpeter’s original text, was the third most investigated. We have come to the conclusion that the discussion of the subject innovation is far beyond the cases of innovation shown by his seminal author in the early twentieth century and, even though this may not be a theory of resources, this approach and other ones derived from it - such as the dynamic capabilities approach, the skills approach and the organizational knowledge approach - have now attracted the interest of the academy in recent years. <![CDATA[<strong>Research and Patent of Phytotherapeutic and Phytocosmetic Products in the Brazilian Amazon</strong>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-27242011000400011&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es The aim of this study is to analyze the research and the patent of phytotherapeutic and phytocosmetic products in the Brazilian Amazonia, in order to identify the current landscape of these markets and propose actions to leverage the development of these industrial sectors. The data analyzed proceed from research groups of the National Council of Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq) and patents applications from the National Institute of Industrial Pro- perty (INPI). Our results showed the existence of 86 regional research groups and 35 patent applications and none can be related to Amazonian companies. Legal impediments of the Provisional Measure 2.186-16/2001, in relation to applica- tions for inventions by individuals, may result in refusal of the patent, representing a significant loss of Amazon innovative effort and reduction in the development of these sectors in the Brazilian Amazonia. <![CDATA[<strong>A Diagnosis of Brazilian Shipbuilding Industry on the Basis of Methodology for an Analysis of Sectorial Systems of Innovation</strong>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-27242011000400012&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es A recent resumption of Brazilian shipbuilding industry, driven by the purchasing power of the state, has presented controversial opinions concerning its effective contribution to, in the first instance, the innovation and competitiveness in the sector and secondly, for Brazilian development. The present study, conducted between November 2009 and May 2011, analyses the said industry from a methodology based on an approach of system sectors of innovation, seeking to highlight the existence and intensity of relationships between the main organizations and institutions, which are members of the industry, in addition to verifying the individual contributions of each of the stakeholders to the industrial competitiveness. As a result of the study, an accurate diagnosis is presented concerning the main aspects to be prioritized through the Brazilian shipbuilding industry, in addition to reviews of proposals of scientific and industrial policies directed towards the said industry, specifically as regards the granting of public funds for research and development demands be revised, as should be aligned to the real needs of the country and the productive sector. <![CDATA[Maximizing Product Innovation through Adaptive Application of User-Centered Methods for Defining Customer Value]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-27242011000400013&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Establishing deep understanding of customers is a prerequisite to improve success rates of innovations under today’s transient business conditions. This paper summarizes methods and tools to increase customer understanding in new product development. A case study of developing an office chair was conducted, utilizing four such methods (web based survey, interview, observation and workshops) to provide directions for later application. Results indicate that methods revealing emotionally-related customer information (workshops and observation) are resource-intensive and provide less amount of information directly applicable to the product development team. The opposite is the case for methods providing more functionally-related information (web based survey and interview). The overall conclusion is that the latter methods are more suitable for product improvements, while the former may provide valuable information for creating more differentiated products. <![CDATA[<strong>The Challenges of Innovation in American Companies</strong>: <strong>An Executive Ethnographic Investigation</strong>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-27242011000400014&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Effective, sustained innovation remains one of the great challenges facing almost every company in America. But research shows that the average firm is failing at innovation most of the time. Using an ethnographic research approach, including field research and depth interviewing, the authors of the paper report what executives revealed as the principal reasons why their companies are struggling with innovation. <![CDATA[<strong>Alignment of E-Business with SMEs’ Strategies in Northeast of Mexico</strong>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-27242011000400015&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es The alignment of e-business with business strategy is a theme that has gained interest among managers and researchers in the area. In this sense, the objectives of the present study are: (i) to identify the existing perspective of the strategic alignment in the SMEs; (ii) to find out the perception that the SMEs’ managers have about the criteria that determine the maturity level of the e-business alignment with the business strategy; and (iii) to identify the existing relationship between the perspective of the e-business alignment with the criteria that promotes its alignment with the business strategy. This study adopted the models developed by Henderson and Venkatraman (1993, 1999), Luftman (2000) and Sledgianowski, Luftman and Reilly (2006). Methodologically, a 52 item questionnaire was administered to a sample of 82 managers of enterprises located in the northeast of Mexico. The results present relevant implications for the strategic management of private organizations. <![CDATA[<strong>El Nivel de la Inversión en Tecnología de Información No Afecta el Rendimiento Empresarial</strong>: <strong>Evidencia Empírica de las Industrias Manufactureras Chilenas</strong>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-27242011000400016&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es With the overall purpose of assessing the impact of information technology (IT) on industrial performance within the context of a developing country, and based on a sample of 212 large manufacturing firms from Chile, this study aims to measure the influence of IT investment in the relative efficiency of organizations. In order to achieve this goal, we have constructed a multidimensional measure of relative efficiency based on data envelopment analysis (DEA). After ANOVA test were applied to evaluate the one hand, if investment in computers, and second, whether the existence of enterprise systems, significantly differentiate the relative efficiency of these organizations. The study results indicate no statistically significant differences between the relative efficiency of these manufacturing companies in the sample and its level of investment in IT.<hr/>Con el propósito general de evaluar el impacto de la tecnologías de información (TI) en el rendimiento industrial dentro del contexto de un país en desarrollo, y basado en una muestra de 212 grandes empresas manufactureras chilenas, este estudio tiene por objetivo medir la influencia de la inversión en TI sobre la eficiencia relativa de las organizaciones. Para lograr este objetivo, se ha construido una medida multidimensional de eficiencia relativa basada en el análisis envolvente de datos (AED). Luego se han aplicado test ANOVA para evaluar, por una parte, si la inversión en computadores, y por otra, si la existencia de software empresarial, diferencian significativamente la eficiencia relativa de estas organizaciones. Los resultados del estudio indican que no existen diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre la eficiencia relativa de estas empresas manufactureras de la muestra y su nivel de inversión en TI. <![CDATA[<strong>Technological Effort and Innovative Performance in Brazilian Bio Companies</strong>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-27242011000400017&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es This work had the objective to analyze technological efforts and to evaluate the innovative performance of biotechnology and biosciences companies in Belo Horizonte, (MG, Brazil). In order to reach these objectives, a survey was undertaken in eight companies. Data collection was undertaken with an existent questionnaire found in the literature of science- based companies, therefore a replication process was carried out The analyses of collected information have indicated that the companies have expended substantial technological efforts oriented towards internal R&D in their majority. A minority of companies have expended less expressive technological efforts related to technology acquisition through external sources. The internal R&D activities observed are more directed to product than to process innovation. As for innovative performance, the results have evidenced that it is concentrated in the minority of companies and the number of substantially new products is superior to the number of technologically improved products launched in the market. <![CDATA[<strong>Una Plataforma Web para Gestionar los Derechos de Propiedad Intelectual Resultantes de la Investigación Universitaria</strong>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-27242011000400018&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es The paper show the development of a business process model and a web site for manage the industrial property rights linked to results of programs and projects executed in Talca´s University (Chile). The work begin with an exploratory research followed by the construction of a business process model using BPMN Business Process Modeling Notation). Finally was developed a web site using XP (eXtreme Programming) methodology of rapid project development. Results obtained -business process model and web site-, make possible formalize process, rules definition, and the con- trol of applications associated to industrial property rights.<hr/>Se presenta el desarrollo de un modelo de procesos y una plataforma web para gestionar los derechos de propiedad industrial asociados a los resultados de los programas y proyectos de investigación que se ejecutan en la Universidad de Talca (Chile). El trabajo se inició con una investigación exploratoria seguida de la construcción de un modelo de procesos haciendo uso de la notación BPMN (Business Process Modeling Notation). Finalmente se procedió a desarrollar la plataforma web aplicando la metodología de desarrollo ágil de proyectos XP (eXtreme Programming). El resultado alcanzado -el modelo de procesos y la plataforma web-, han posibilitado la formalización de procesos, la definición de reglas, la identificación de roles por parte de los distintos actores involucrados, y están facilitando el monitoreo de las solicitudes de protección de los derechos de propiedad industrial en la Universidad.