Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Journal of technology management & innovation]]> vol. 8 num. 4 lang. pt <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> <![CDATA[<strong>CALL FOR PAPERS</strong>: <strong>Innovation and Entrepreneurship for Sustainability in</strong><b> <strong>Natural Resourse-Intensive Economies</strong></b>]]> <![CDATA[<b>Evaluation of the Determinants of Technological and Managerial Results of Cooperability in Brazilian Multinationals</b>]]> The objective of this article was to evaluate the technological and managerial elements that determine the results of the cooperability in Brazilian multinationals (BMN).We conducted a survey among the universe of BMN and the data analysis was supported by Cronbach's Alpha testing, factorial analysis, correlation analysis, principal component analysis and multiple regression analysis. As a conclusion of the study on the elements of the technological trajectory, we found that the greater the experience in R & D in the headquarters, the more effective will be the technological results of cooperability and the greater the accumulated experience in R & D in foreign subsidiaries and international cooperation the more effective will be the managerial results of cooperability. We also found that the greater the degree of relevance of strategies for technological capacity building the more effective will be the results of cooperability, both technological and managerial. The aggregated analysis of technological inputs showed that the higher the investments in R & D and the number of internal and cooperative projects the more effective will be the technological results. However, as the company expands its project portfolio, grow the difficulties regarding alignment and management of the BMN, which may adversely affect the managerial results of cooperability. <![CDATA[<strong>A Conceptual Model of Technology Transfer for Public Universities in Mexico</strong>]]> Technology transfer from academic and scientific institutions has been transformed into a strategic variable for companies and nations who wish to cope with the challenges of a global economy. Since the early 1970s, many technology transfer models have tried to introduce key factors in the process. Previous studies have shown that technology transfer is influenced by various elements. This study is based on a review of two recent technology transfer models that we have used as basic concepts for developing our own conceptual model. Researcher-firm networks have been considered as key elements in the technology transfer process between public universities and firms. The conceptual model proposed could be useful to improve the efficiency of existing technology transfer mechanisms. <![CDATA[<strong>PII- Potential Innovation Index</strong>: <strong>a Tool to Benchmark Innovation Capabilities</strong> <strong>in International Context</strong>]]> Benchmarking has become a useful tool for companies, enabling better decision-making and improvement of internal practices towards world-class performance. Nevertheless, concerning SMEs' innovation capabilities from traditional sectors, benchmarking applications have been scarce. This article uses a predefined metric named the "Potential Innovation Index (PII)", based on internal practices of the firms to compare innovation capabilities of two groups of similar SMEs from 2 different geographical, cultural and social contexts. Results were used to analyze similarities and differences, strengths and weaknesses of the groups. Obtained results confirm the difficulties to innovate of this type firms, no matters the sector or country, as over 55% of the companies studied were evaluated as having a low innovative performance. However, regarding the index's constitutive practices, significant differences were found. Which leads to infer that innovation support strategies to enhance innovation must be adapted to the local context and culture. <![CDATA[<strong>Marketing Approach of Brazilian Wind Energy Sector</strong>]]> Prospects for the wind energy market have proposed changes of focus to managerial issues. The objective of this article is to map the specific market factors from Brazilian wind energy industry, in order to develop reflections and considerations on the subject, towards to the managerial, strategic and commercial development of the sector. Through an exploratory methodology in empirical format, and by a SWOT analysis of Telescopic Observations Strategic Framework, were found results that show funding and grants determined by Brazilian government, as the big question of the wind energy industry marketing, allowing the economic viability of wind energy projects. Further, it appears that the wind energy industry is eager to investments and has great potential for new business, but there are problems within the producing companies which that have to be assessed, such as the competitiveness capability, the high equipment costs, the installation locations limitations and lack of specialized employees with specific skills and capacities. <![CDATA[Implementing Automotive Telematics for Insurance Covers of Fleets]]> The advantages of Usage-Based Insurance for automotive covers over conventional rating methods have been discussed in literature for over four decades. Notwithstanding their adoption in insurance markets has been slow. This paper seeks to establish the viability of introducing fleet Telematics-Based Insurance by investigating the perceptions of insurance operators, tracking service providers and corporate fleet owners. At its core, the study involves a SWOT-analysis to appraise Telematics-Based Insurance against conventional premium rating systems. Twenty five key stakeholders in Malta, a country with an insurance industry that represents others in microcosm, were interviewed to develop our analysis. We assert that local insurers have interests in such insurance schemes as enhanced fleet management and monitoring translate into an improved insurance risk. The findings presented here have implications for all stakeholders as we argue that telematics enhance fleet management, TBI improves risk management for insurers and adoption of this technology is dependent on telematics providers increasing the perceived control by insurers over managing this technology. <![CDATA[Proposal of an Observatory of Trends for Nanotechnology in the Context of Technology Management in an Oil and Gas R&D Center - Case: <strong>Nanotechnology</strong>]]> The paper presents basic concepts on nanotechnology and the use of this in an oil and gas research and development (R&D) center, the Research and Development Center Leopoldo Américo Miguez de Mello of Petrobras (CENPES). The aim of this paper is to present a proposal of an observatory of trends in the area of nanotechnology at CENPES, to generate information, such as the state of the art technologies, technological trajectories, movements of competitors and partners, and aspects relating to regulations and incentives for decision making in the technology management process. The model consists of five steps that should occur in a continuous cycle: literature review, expert consultation, analysis of opportunities and threats, timelines or roadmaps, and monitoring. In conclusion, the proposed observatory includes a set of topics (variables), sources, techniques of competitive technical intelligence and technological foresight, systematized in order to support decision making in technology management. <![CDATA[What Motivates Brazilian Academic Researchers to Transfer Technology?]]> This study investigated what motivates Brazilian academic researchers to get involved in University-Industry Technology Transfer (UITT) and deterrents to contributing to this process. The research relied on interviews with experienced academic scientists and managers from four universities in Brazil. Determination, persistence and entrepreneurship, related to motivational types Self-direction and Stimulation, were prominent. Hedonism, Achievement and Power - highlighting a shift in their professional identity - were also observed. Universalism type involved opening career opportunities, awakening and maintaining the interest of students. The major motivational goals were: generate resources, solve problems, professional challenge, personal gains, personal gratification, academic prestige, competition, and solving problems of society. Factors that discouraged researchers were: time required for UITT, lack of incentive, innovation environment, and fear of contravening university rules, among others. Knowledge of motivational profiles of academic scientists favors the development of incentive policies and programs for UITT, helping to attract and retain qualified researchers at Brazilian universities. <![CDATA[Patent Applications on Representative Sectors of Biotechnology in Brazil: <strong>an</strong> <strong>Analysis of the Last Decade </strong>]]> The present article aims to assess the innovative activity in the Brazilian most representative sector in biotechnology field. The search was conducted through patent applications of residents at the National Institute of Industrial Property (INPI - Brazil), from 2000 to 2010. This article will also examine the patent applicants' profile and the partnerships among academic institutions and private firms in Brazil. The website of European Patent Office (EPO) patent database - Espacenet was used to conduct the survey, and the search strategy fields selected for the patent applications were: (i) Priority Number: BR (Brazil), and (ii) the International Patent Classification (IPC) - C12N, C07K14, and C07H21/04. The patent applications by Brazilian residents, from 2000 to 2010 in the Espacenet for the classifications adopted indicates a total of 396 patent applications in the most representative sectors in biotechnology over the past 10 years. After the Brazilian Innovation Law there is a growth trend line particularly in the years 2007 and 2008. The universities hold 48% of the patent applications in biotechnology, following by Individuals/ Researchers with 20%, Public Research Centers and Private Firms with 15%, and 11% of the total, respectively. <![CDATA[Análisis de los Mecanismos de Transferencia Tecnológica entre los Sectores Científico-tecnológico y Productivo de Argentina]]> El objetivo de este artículo es analizar el comportamiento de las estructuras de gestión que, en la Argentina, actúan como interfaz en la relación entre los sectores científico-tecnológicos y los productivos. Estas estructuras son denominadas "Oficinas de Vinculación Tecnológica y Transferencia". En ese sentido, se presentan los resultados obtenidos a partir del análisis cuantitativo de los distintos mecanismos de gestión de la interacción entre ambos sectores. A partir del procesamiento estadístico de información de base, se obtuvieron resultados que permitieron definir y categorizar distintas variables relacionadas con las características de estas oficinas y de los sectores de la demanda. El análisis de la relación entre estas variables, permitió obtener información de base a partir de la cual se realizan inferencias acerca del comportamiento general sobre la generación y gestión de los mecanismos que regulan su relación con los sectores científico-tecnológicos y los productivos en la República Argentina.<hr/>This paper addresses the behavior of technology transfer offices in Argentina, which are defined as interface structures between the productive sector and the scientific, technological and educational areas. In that sense, results from a quantitative analysis of the different interaction mechanisms displayed by these organizations in order to facilitate this interaction are provided. By means of a depth statistical framework it was possible to define and rank different variables related to both the characteristics of these offices and the productive sector. The analysis of the relationship among those variables allowed making inferences about the way technological transferring units behave as facilitators of processes that foster the partnership between those who produce knowledge and those who benefit from its use. <![CDATA[El Conocimiento, Propulsor de los Ciclos Largos de Kondratieff y sus Efectos <strong>en la Configuración Mundial</strong>]]> El objetivo de este trabajo es desarrollar un medio sencillo para visualizar la evolución del sistema mundial, a partir del avance del conocimiento. Para lo cual, planteamos que el conocimiento ha sido el precursor de la tecnología y por lo tanto de la evolución social y de la conformación del sistema mundial a lo largo de la mayor parte de la historia. La metodología empleada fue la revisión de los grandes fenómenos globales representativos de la situación de la política internacional, tomando como eje la teoría de ciclos largos de Kondratieff, y siguiendo el planteamiento de Modelski & Thompson (1996) de la aparente existencia de al menos veinte ondas Kondratieff (K-1 a K-20) rastreables. Usando estos elementos teóricos en el contexto global, en conjunto con un modelo propuesto para las relaciones causales entre las variables más representativas del fenómeno, obtuvimos una primera versión de gráficos condensados que permiten visualizar la evolución del sistema mundial fácilmente.<hr/>This work objective is to develop a simple media to visualize the world system evolution based in the knowledge advance. To achieve this, we pose that knowledge has been precursor of technology and therefore of the social evolution and the conformation of the world system during the major part of history. The employed methodology was the revision of the great global representative phenomena of the international politics through the use of the Kondratieff theory of long cycles and following the Modelski & Thompson (1996) proposal of the existence of at least twenty. Kondratieff waves (K-1 to K20) traceable. Using these theoretical elements in the global context, in conjunction with a model proposed for the causal relationships of the most representative variables of the phenomena, we obtained condensed graphics that allow the easy visualization of the evolution of the world system. <![CDATA[<strong>Strategic Orientation Towards Sustainable Innovation</strong>: <strong>a Case Study in</strong> <strong>a Brazilian University</strong>]]> This article discusses Organizational Capabilities as the basic components of business models that emerged under the New Product Development Process and Technological Management. In the context of the new Technology Based Companies Development, it adopts a qualitative research in order to identify, analyze and underpin the organizational capability deployment in a process of technology conversion into product and service. The analysis was carried out considering concepts from literature review, in a technology based enterprise started by an academic spin-off company. The analysis enabled the elicitation of a Business Model and the discussion of their components, and correspondent evolution hypothesis. The paper provides an example of capability deployment accordingly the established theory illustrated by a case study. The study not just enumerate the needed partners, resources, customer channels, it enabled the description of their connection, representing the logic behind the decision made to develop the conceptual model. This detailed representation of the model allows better addressed discussions. <![CDATA[Technology Roadmapping for Renewable Fuels: Case of Biobutanol in Brazil]]> Technology roadmapping has been used to define long term strategies and research agenda for the development of biofuels. The present work proposes the use of technology roadmapping as a technique for long term strategic planning of the biobutanol development, aligning long term goals with the resources, funding, and priorities to fulfill the needs in the development process in Brazil. Interviews have been used in the roadmapping process as an alternative to the workshops on market, product and technology. It allows the participation of companies in a highly competitive environment. The use of interviews allows the information to be collected individually, contributing to the elaboration of a roadmap. The results show that sugar cane has the potential to be used as a feedstock in the biobutanol production process, enabling Brazil to become a key exporter to supply other countries. For the short future, biobutanol has the potential to be produced in Brazil to replace petro-butanol as a solvent in industrial applications and to build the export platform for the fuels market . <![CDATA[<strong>A Contribution to Guide the Use of Support Tools for Technology Roadmapping</strong>: <strong>a Case Study in the Clothing industry</strong>]]> This article presents guidelines regarding the use of tools to support technology roadmapping based on a case study of an exploratory and descriptive nature in a small company in the clothing sector. After introducing a systematic approach to technology roadmapping with their support tools, an empirical analysis is then presented of the application of the tools of the market layer - a questionnaire for consultation with the consumers and bibliographical research - and the business layer - SWOT matrix, through illustrative examples. Each tool was analyzed in relation to the complexity, time, cost of implementation, relevance and quality of the resulting information, the most common problems associated with their use. Here we show that the tools of the market layer proved to be easiest to use when compared with the tools of business layer, varying the time required, but involving, in general, a low cost in its application to obtain relevant and quality results for the development of the roadmap. Based on the results, general guidelines for the use of these tools to assist in the process of technology roadmapping were established as well as a comparison between the tools. <![CDATA[The Role of Reflection in Facilitating and Assessing Innovativeness]]> The aim of the research is to study the features that should be taken into account when facilitating innovations through reflection, and focusing on the impacts of reflection on innovation. A single case study approach was used in the study. The data was gathered with semi-structured interviews and also innovation measurement data were gathered from the company. To achieve an overall view of the studied organization with regard to the research questions, representatives from different organizational levels were interviewed. In total, six interviews were conducted, including the director, two managers and three employees. The studies of different innovation measurement and management have mainly been theoretical considerations. Further, the role of reflection in facilitating innovation in organizations has been neglected in current literature. The current study presents the features of reflective procedure of facilitating and assessing innovations. The results can be utilized by managers working with innovation management. <![CDATA[Supply Networks and Value Creation in High Innovation and Strong Network <strong>Externalities Industry</strong>]]> The rapid developing product and service markets and developments in information technologies have accelerated growth in outsourcing of peripheral activities and critical business as well, enhancing the importance of network supply chain management. This paper analyzes the dynamics of supply chain management and the creation of value in an industry with strong network effects and constantly introduction of disruptive technologies, the videogame industry. This industry evolves at a high velocity, with a lifecycle of five to six years for consoles, which features a new generation of consoles, where new companies and technologies appear and disappear at each generation. <![CDATA[Technology Transfer from Academia to Rural Communitiesi: <strong>The Case of Caprines in vitro Fecundation and Local Livestock Market in Tamarugal</strong> <strong>Province in Chile</strong>]]> The following article shows a case study of the caprine industry in the Tamarugal province (Chile) and includes a comparison with the data previously retrieved by governmental agencies and a local survey performed in this work. It aims to identify the objectives of the Center for Animal Reproduction of Universidad de los Lagos (CRAULA) to fulfill the needs of the local goat producers, in order to switch the economic basis of the region to more sustainable sources than the used nowadays. The center develops in vitro fecundation process to manage genetic improvement in goats. The technology transfer strategy includes a close monitoring of the production in a climatic extreme condition such as the north of Chile. Our results retrieve an updated snapshot of the goat production in the province, the economic projections and the producer's demands for assessment and technology support, where a stronger interaction between University and industry is suggested.