Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Journal of technology management & innovation]]> vol. 11 num. 4 lang. pt <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> <![CDATA[<b>Innovación de Base Científica-Tecnológica desde las Universidades de Iberoamérica</b>]]> <![CDATA[<b>Relation Analysis of Knowledge Management, Research, and Innovation in University Research Groups</b>]]> Knowledge is a competitive advantage for companies. Knowledge Management helps to keep this competitiveness. Universities face with challenges in research, innovation and international competitiveness. The purpose of this paper includes studying Knowledge Management Models, and Innovation Models apply to Research Groups of Universities, through an analysis of relation in inter-organizational level. Some researchers and leaders of research groups participated in a survey about knowledge management and innovation. Here we show the relationship between knowledge management, innovation and research, including processes and operations performed by universities around these. We organize the results in three dimensions: Knowledge Management perception, the relationship between Knowledge Management and Innovation, and Strategic Knowledge organization. Too, we identify a generality of good practices, challenges, and limitations on Research Groups for Knowledge Management. <![CDATA[<b>Mechanisms and Functions within a National Innovation System</b>]]> In modern society, the competitive success of countries is increasingly dependent on the effective management of their national innovation system (NIS). Therefore, understanding the mechanisms behind NISs has become essential. After reviewing the current understanding of the NIS concept and the existing measurement models, this study proposes to consider the NIS as an intangible (underlying) asset of a specific kind and identifies its seven fundamental components, which are extracted with a new measurement model, the Global Innovation Index (GII). This study employs the Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) techniques to analyze the relationships among the components of an NIS. Our results support the existence of a causal link between the constituents of an NIS and provide several perspectives regarding NIS management opportunities. In particular, we find that the efficient management of institutional capital is a key determinant of innovation success for non-high-income countries. <![CDATA[<b>Digital Technologies for Social Innovation</b>: <b>An Empirical Recognition on the New Enablers</b>]]> Even though scholars' attention has been placed on Social Innovation (SI), little evidence has been provided with regards to which tools are actually used to address social needs and foster Social Innovation initiatives. The purpose of the article is twofold. Firstly, the article offers empirical recognition to SI by investigating, on a large-scale, social and innovative activities conducted by start-ups and small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) across the world between 2001 and 2014. Secondly, the article intends to capture SI core businesses and underlying complementarities between products, markets, and technologies and show in which way digital media and IT are essentially tracing innovation trajectories over a multitude of industries, leading the current industrial patterns of SI, and continually fostering its cross-industry nature. <![CDATA[<b>Beyond 'Innocents Abroad'</b>: <b>Reflecting on Sustainability Issues During International Study Trips+</b>]]> With ecosystems and populations in many regions threatened by rapid development, sustainability is a critical component for businesses in mature markets and emerging economies alike. The International Association of Jesuit Business Schools notes that global sustainability involves a broad set of interconnected issues ranging from environmental preservation to social justice to desirable production and consumption patterns. Jesuit business schools are uniquely positioned to address sustainability issues with their focus on teaching managerial content in tandem with corporate social responsibility. Further, the Ignatian Pedagogy Paradigm of experience, reflection, and action would suggest that business students may benefit from reflective observation in support of learning about sustainability. In this paper, we examine the international study trip as an opportunity for students to learn about sustainability, with results suggesting that student understanding about the broad sustainability domain may be enhanced through the study abroad experience. We discuss how two classes of primarily American MBA students traveling to emerging markets (one class to Santiago, Chile and one class to Johannesburg, South Africa) were able to connect local business practices with economic and social as well as environmental sustainability issues, enhancing both student engagement and learning outcomes. Further, these students' sustainability experiences while in an unfamiliar environment provided the opportunity to apply the potentially transformative experience, reflection, and action components of the Ignatian Pedagogy Paradigm. Compared to similar graduate business students enrolled in regular classes, we argue that these students discerned deeper connections with the economic, social, and environmental issues of sustainability. <![CDATA[<b>Tax Incentives for Innovation in Brazil</b>: <b>Obstacles for Use of the Good Law (Law 11.196/2005)</b>]]> Brazil has a mix of instruments to support research and development activities, including grants and tax incentives. Among these policies, it is referred to the Law 11.196/05. According as the historical series, since the implementation of the law, the number of companies using the benefits has grown exponentially, but the number of beneficiaries is still very low. This article presents the results of the study with a group of 100 companies. The objective was to verify the innovation management practices used by these companies, as well as the main obstacles encountered by them to make use of tax incentives of the Good Law. The results showed that the biggest obstacle for use of the Good Law is the profile of the innovation projects. Companies need to actually differentiate improvement projects of the innovation projects. The minority of companies develop projects that exceed scientific or technological boundaries or having aspects out of the company's development scope. <![CDATA[<b>Country Competitiveness Relationship with Higher Education Indicators</b>]]> This paper reports the performance of global competitiveness and higher education competitiveness between two groups of countries. The first group is formed by four Asian countries; the second one by four Latin American countries. Indicators from the World Economic Forum 2007-2015 are compared. The indicators with the nearest proximity were found in the management quality of the universities, where there was only a five-point difference in favor of the Asian group. The indicator with the widest gap came from the quality of math and sciences education where we found a difference of 104 points. This is congruent with the results of PISA 2012, which showed a difference of 152 points in math. <![CDATA[<b>Innovación Tecnológica en Empresas Chilenas</b>: <b>Un Estudio Empírico Basado en Patentes</b>]]> La literatura ha centrado sus esfuerzos en estudiar las patentes en determinadas industrias, subsectores o empresas, principalmente en países desarrollados. Por otra parte, el nivel o cantidad de patentes en Chile durante el periodo 2007-2012 en promedio alcanzó las 12 familias triádicas, países como Argentina y México presentaron medias de 12 y 15 familias triádicas respectivamente. La media total para el mismo periodo en la OCDE asciende a 48.242 familias de patentes triádicas. Lo anterior muestra, por una parte el interés de la comunidad científica por estudiar el fenómeno de la creación de patentes, y por otra, la gran brecha tecnológica entre países desarrollados y en vías de desarrollo. Proponemos estudiar los determinantes de la creación de patentes en las empresas chilenas, como un caso de país en vías de desarrollo. Utilizamos un modelo probit en donde la variable dependiente toma valor uno si la empresa tiene o está en proceso de obtener una patente de invención (tecnológica) y cero en caso contrario. Nuestra base tiene datos de 4.338 empresas chilenas, es de corte transversal y corresponde a un extracto de la Octava Encuesta de Innovación en Empresas 2011-2012. Los resultados muestran que la antigüedad de la empresa, la base de conocimiento existente y la utilización de instrumentos gubernamentales de apoyo a la I+D tienen un efecto positivo en la creación de patentes.<hr/>Technological Innovation in Chilean Firms: An Empirical Study Based on Patents. Literature has focused on studying patents in particular industries, subsectors or firms, mainly in developed countries. The level or quantity of patents in Chile during the period 2007-2012 on average reached 12 triadic families, while in countries like Argentina and Mexico presented averages of 12 and 15 respectively. The overall average for the same period amounted to 48,242 OECD triadic patent families. This shows the interest of the scientific community to study the phenomenon of patent creation, and, on the other hand, the large technological gap between developed and developing countries. We propose to study the determinants of patenting in Chilean firms, as a case of a developing country. We use a probit model where the dependent variable takes value one if the firm has or is in the process of obtaining an invention patent (technological) and zero if not. Our database has 4,338 Chilean firms, is cross-sectional and corresponds to an extract of the Eighth Survey of Innovation in Firms 2011-2012. The results show that the age of the firm, the base of existing knowledge, and the use of governmental instruments to support R & D have a positive effect on creation of patents. <![CDATA[<b>Características del Gerente General Relacionadas con Investigación y Desarrollo en Empresas de Chile</b>]]> El CEO o gerente general tiene incidencia en las principales decisiones estratégicas y de inversión en las empresas. Investigaciones previas han reconocido condiciones en el gerente general como edad, experiencia, género, participación en la propiedad de la empresa y rango de estudios alcanzados, relacionadas con participación de su organización en investigación y desarrollo. En la presente investigación, se ha utilizado la metodología regresión logística para reconocer si estos patrones son extrapolables a empresas chilenas incluidas en la Encuesta Longitudinal de empresas 2015 del Ministerio de Economía de Chile. Los resultados muestran que la edad, la experiencia, y la condición de único dueño del gerente, se relacionan negativamente con I+D, y que el rango educacional y el género masculino tienen impacto positivo. Los hallazgos obtenidos son relevantes, pues se reconocen-condiciones que se vinculan con la investigación y desarrollo en empresas en Chile, país que integra el grupo de economías emergentes.<hr/>CEO's features related to Research and Development in Chilean companies. The CEO or general manager has an impact on the major strategic and investment decisions in business. Previous research recognized features of general manager as age, experience, gender, ownership of the company and level of studies achieved, related with R & D. In the present investigation, we used logistic regression to recognize whether these patterns are valid in the Chilean companies using as a tool the Business Longitudinal Survey 2015 the Ministry of Economy of Chile. The results show that age, experience, and the manager status as sole owner, impact negatively on R & D, also, that the educational status and male gender have a positive impact. The findings are relevant because conditions are linked to research and development in companies in Chile, which is part of the group of emerging economies are recognized. <![CDATA[<b>Factors Hampering Innovation Activities</b>: <b>Case Study from the Czech Republic</b>]]> The article looks at the importance of innovation in company strategy. It presents paths to a formulating strategy focused on innovation and approaches to value. It also introduces the main barriers to an enterprise's innovative activities and their types. It gives the key results of research undertaken in the Czech Republic by the Czech Statistical Office on the topic of innovation <![CDATA[<b>A Framework for the Strategic Management of Science & Technology Parks</b>]]> Science and technology parks (STPs) have been playing an increasingly influential role in the stimulation and growth of the knowledge economy. However, the spread of STPs faces relevant challenges, such as the development of robust performance management systems, able to demonstrate results and indicate improvement opportunities. Thereby, this paper proposes a theoretical model of performance management, which combines premises of the Service-Dominant Logic (S-D Logic), the Balanced Scorecard (BSC) and the General Hierarchical Model (GHM). Based on a multiple-case exploratory and qualitative study, relevant information about the strategic planning and management of these projects were extracted and paved the way for the construction of a performance hierarchical model composed of five perspectives, according to the BSC. Considering the outcomes, it is expected that the proposed model provide useful insights for the consolidation of a framework for the strategic management of science and technology parks.