Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Journal of technology management & innovation]]> vol. 11 num. 3 lang. pt <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> <![CDATA[<strong>Market Orientation and Sources of Knowledge to Innovate in SMEs</strong>: <strong>A Firm Level Study</strong>]]> This work examines the relationship between the three market orientation (MO) components, i.e. customer orientation, competitor orientation and inter-functional coordination, and the extension to which small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) use different sources of knowledge to innovate. Based on a sample of 181 Chilean SMEs, a confirmatory factorial analysis (CFA) was performed to analyze the relationship among constructs. The results show that the extension to which SMEs use different sources of knowledge to innovate depends on the interactions between MO components. This study addresses a gap in the literature, by linking and interrelating market orientation components to the innovation perspective in SMEs. Therefore, we provide insights into the role of each MO component in influencing the extension to which firms seek for and use different sources of knowledge to innovate and attempt to explain some literature inconsistencies on the theme. <![CDATA[<strong>Corporate Brand Value Shifting from Identity to Innovation Capability</strong>: <strong>from Coca-Cola to Apple</strong>]]> Corporate brand value, a key corporate asset, has traditionally relied on stakeholder interactions, heritage, and corporate identity. In dynamic fast clock-speed industries (information technology and consumer electronics), we note that brand values change dramatically within a few years based on their innovativeness. Using grounded theory approach and multi-case study method we examine how Apple, Samsung, Toyota, and Coca-Cola sustained their most valuable global brands while Kodak and General Motors eroded the same. Certain key dynamic innovative capabilities are identified as best practices. We conclude with implications for managers and future researchers, along with some limitations. <![CDATA[<strong>Absorptive Capacity, Alliance Portfolios and Innovation Performance</strong>: <strong>An Analytical Model Based on Bibliographic Research</strong>]]> The objective of this article is to present a model for analysing the role of absorptive capacity in the relationship between strategic alliance portfolios and innovation performance based on the results of bibliographic research on the subject published between 2000 and 2015. The research was carried out in three stages, involving both quantitative - bibliometric and bibliographic coupling - and qualitative content analyses. AP management capabilities were found to have a fundamental moderating role in the AP-IP relationship, and amongst these capabilities AC was highlighted by several authors. However, its role was found to vary according to AP characteristics, notably AP diversity - functional, geographic and institutional, but also centrality, size, stability and volume of resources, alliance and partner types as well as country type: emerging versus developed economies. This research formed the basis for the development of the model and the formulation of some propositions that focused on emerging countries. <![CDATA[<strong>Board Composition and Innovation in University Spin-offs</strong>: <strong>Evidence from the Italian Context</strong>]]> Corporate governance issues are critical in university spin-offs because, since their substantially knowledge and technology-driven nature, investments are characterized by rapid growth and real investment opportunities, affecting innovative activity too. In this view, the paper investigate the role of the board of directors' composition on innovation performance of university spin-offs. Based on a panel sample of478 Italian university spin-offs, the results show that board size has an inverted-U-shaped relationship with innovation, remarking that not too large boards are more efficient and work better, influencing in a positive way the innovation activity of the spin-off. Regarding the impact of the outside directors, the results seems to invalidate its positive and significant effect on innovation performance. Also the CEO-duality seems to have no influence on the innovative activity. These findings may represent potential indicators of the optimal configuration for board in university spin-offs in order to improve innovation. <![CDATA[<strong>Associations for Disruptiveness</strong>: <strong>The Pirate Bay vs. Spotify</strong>]]> Most studies on disruptive innovations adopt technology-centric assumptions when explaining how industries are affected by a technology's creative destruction. This paper argues that the power of a technology lies in how it performatively associates with the cultural and social norms of the wider society. Hence, a technology is not disruptive or sustaining in itself but is potentially a productive outcome of network linkages with other social and material elements. To illustrate this claim, two digital music services will be analyzed, respectively a misfit and a maverick both challenging mainstream providers of music - The Pirate Bay and Spotify - in relation to each other and how they are positioned toward the transformation of the music industry as a whole. <![CDATA[<strong>World-First Innovations in an Open Innovation Context</strong>]]> This study contributes to the current literature on open innovation by analysing the effects of open innovation activities on the introduction of new-to-the-world innovations versus imitation. We base our analysis on data provided by the Eurostat Community Innovation Survey (CIS) carried out in Germany in 2012, which for the first time made a distinction between world-first innovation and imitation. We use both logit models and CHAID trees. The results of both analyses show that traditional in-house innovation and patents continue to make the largest contribution to world-first innovation in the so-called open-innovation era, while some specific open innovation activities contribute to a lesser extent: cooperation with customers, information from universities, cooperation with suppliers, and acquisition of machinery. Thus, promoting open innovation can be advantageous not only for imitative innovation but also for introducing world-first innovations. The European Commission should continue to include open innovation policies in its agenda. <![CDATA[<strong>Human Capital as Source of Innovativeness in Subsistence Small Businesses</strong>]]> Subsistence small businesses (SSB) are very important in developing countries for reducing poverty. Companies in developing countries need innovation in order to compete, and innovation is particularly significant for SSBs, as they are usually less well-prepared for competition. Human capital is the key to improving the situation of poor countries as such human capital improves innovativeness in companies. Nevertheless, human capital is scarce in SSBs and these businesses possibly need the alignment of human capital with strategy to improve their performances. This alignment is achieved by exploiting the dynamic capabilities of human capital management. The aim of this paper is to analyse human capital management and innovativeness in SSBs in the timber industry in a region of Latin America using PLS techniques. The findings suggest that SSBs build human capital management and innovativeness as dynamic capabilities and use human capital management to improve innovativeness. <![CDATA[<strong>Gender and Social Legitimacy of Entrepreneurship</strong>: <strong>Contribution to Entrepreneurial Intention in University Students from Chile and Colombia</strong>]]> The research extends the application of TBP model including gender and SLE as moderator and mediator, respectively, and see if the prior resuIts in developing countries are coincident with those of this research. In sum, the resuIts couId strength the contribution of TBP model including SLE as mediator and gender as moderator through EI. The research is a bi-country study based on 351 University students of business management in Chile and Colombia (245 students corresponds to Chile and 106 corresponds to Colombia). The data were subjected first to a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) using Lisrel package. A structural equation model (SEM) analysis by the method of partial least squares (PLS) was used to test hypotheses. The results show that the Ajzen's model explains the EI in Chile; while in the case of Colombia, only two of the variables suite the model. The social legitimacy of entrepreneurship is a factor that mediates attitude toward entrepreneurship and entrepreneurial intention for both countries. Finally, gender moderates perceived control behavior for the less male culture, Chile, according to Hofstede dimension. <![CDATA[<strong>Technological Entrepreneurship</strong>: <strong>A Multilevel Study</strong>]]> New technology-based firms play an important role in the business world, as they accelerate innovation processes and increase competitiveness. In the study of these businesses, it is necessary to involve variables of different levels of analysis. With the responses of 103 new technology-based firms, the relationship between variables at the individual, organizational, and contextual level was analyzed. The results show no clear and convincing relationship between entrepreneurial passion and creativity but there is between creativity and innovation. Also, the environmental dynamism showed no moderating influence on the passion-creative relationship but there was in the creativity-innovation relationship. The document presents a discussion of the main findings and conclusion of this work. <![CDATA[<strong>Does the Size Matter for Dynamics Capabilities?</strong>: <strong>A Study on Absorptive Capacity</strong>]]> The objective of this study is to understand how organizational size influences dynamic capabilities in Brazil. To arrive at this unders-tanding, structural equation modeling analysis was performed using the Brazilian Innovation Survey (PINTEC) database to test for differences between SMEs and large companies in respect to the relationship between absorptive capacity (AC) dimensions and innovation performance. The results show that in large companies, Potential AC and Realized AC impact innovation performance, whereas in small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), only Realized AC has an influence. In addition, SMEs are, in fact, better at converting Realized AC into innovation performance than large companies, probably due to their flexibility and agility. These findings reveal that organizational sizes influence the impact of dynamic capabilities on performance. <![CDATA[<strong>Evaluation of Open Innovation in B2B from a Company Culture Perspective</strong>]]> This article is written for innovation managers, business developers or employees in similar positions in a company selling in a B2B environment. Decision criteria are presented which will help to find the right open innovation tool for the desired goals and also for the given company culture. Aiming to increase business successfully by involving externals cannot be seen independently of the attitude and openness of an organization as a whole to this approach. <![CDATA[<strong>Sustainable Transport in Upper Austria</strong>: <strong>Case Study for Setting up a Living Lab Concept to Accelerate Innovations</strong>]]> The research team is currently working on defining a suitable path towards the design and implementation of a Living Lab for developing, testing and demonstrating innovations in sustainable transport operations. There are several examples that focus on transport and mobility, either addressing individual or freight transport. The combination of both topics is seen as a unique chance to find new ways for a sustainable transport system and mobility behavior. The region of Upper Austria is used as a research case in order to demonstrate results and findings of an applied research project, called "Mobility Lab Upper Austria." <![CDATA[<strong>Open Innovation in Agrifood Chain</strong>: <strong>A Systematic Review</strong>]]> Despite the practice of open innovation being consolidated, scientific publications are still limited, particularly when related to agribusiness. Through bibliometric technique and content analysis, this study aimed to analyze the state of the art on the subject, explaining the development of open innovation in agribusiness and highlight future research opportunities. The risk of sharing valuable knowledge is the main barrier to adoption. For mitigate it, there is a need for internal organizational changes, the support of communication tools and an intellectual property model that encourage knowledge sharing. Open innovation is a field that needs to be explored in different links in the chain, locations and con-texts, in order to help ensure that organizations can benefit from this strategy. <![CDATA[<strong>Tensions between Teams and Their Leaders</strong>]]> The intersection of teamwork and leadership results in tensions, dilemmas, and paradoxes for both individuals and for institutions such as simultaneously empowering individuals at the same time it frustrates them when our naive, cultural understanding of leadership centralizes power and values leaders who can impose their will and vision on others. Perhaps the fundamental paradox of teamwork and leadership is that the more leadership is focused on an individual the less likely a teams potential will be realized. Six specific domains where tensions arise are: at team boundaries; culture; who is in charge, rationality/cognition; diversity; and collaborations. Three approaches - clarifying different levels of analysis, temporal factors, and overarching concepts - to resolving tensions are discussed. New conceptions of leadership and the importance of the larger cultural frame within which they are embedded are needed for the management of technology and innovation. <![CDATA[<strong>Academic Spin-off as Triple Helix Element</strong>: <strong>Case-Study of Russian Regions</strong>]]> The innovation process is becoming more open. According to the concept of the Triple Helix, this requires the creation of institutions capable of mediating the interaction of agents, primarily related to the different elements of the innovation system. The academic spin-off is not only a form of technology transfer, set up at the university but also the institution that provides the interaction of scientists and entrepreneurs. This article gives an analysis of the implementation of the program of creating academic spin-offs in Russia. The main focus of the study is to analyze the affiliation of university spin-off with other companies, including personal links of founders. Research reveals that linkages are substantially personal: University staff member at the same time could be an entrepreneur. This finding allows not only clarifying the concept of the Triple Helix but also increasing the effectiveness of innovation policy, focusing on employees who can combine science and entrepreneurship. <![CDATA[<strong>An Up-to-date Survey in Barriers to Open Innovation</strong>]]> Open Innovation (OI) is recently recognized as a key factor in the competitiveness of companies. Firms that are not engaged in OI practice risk of becoming uncompetitive. However, innovating firms are likely to face several challenges often illustrated by barriers. Many researchers studied OI barriers without giving importance to their category. The main objective of this survey is to identify and categorize some barriers to OI practice by analysing how the literature on this topic has evolved for the last seven years (2009-2015). Our understanding of OI barriers can be insightful for future research on OI and it can assist managers, in fostering an innovative culture by supporting new ideas and avoiding an attitude that creates resistance towards these ideas.