Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Journal of technology management & innovation]]> vol. 9 num. 1 lang. es <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> <![CDATA[<strong>Accelerated Internationalization in Emerging Markets</strong>: <strong>Empirical Evidence</strong> <strong>from Brazilian Technology-Based Firms</strong>]]> This article investigates the external factors driving the accelerated internationalization of technology-based firms (TBFs) in the context of an emerging market, Brazil. This type of firm is typically called born global and has been reported mainly in the high-technology sectors and from the developed countries. Our research is survey-based, and a questionnaire was applied to the small and medium Brazilian TBFs. Logistic regression was used to test the research hypotheses. The results suggest that the new and small Brazilian technology-based firms, which followed an accelerated internationalization process, are most likely to be integrated into a global production chain. The results also indicate that the TBFs that take more than 5 years to enter the international market benefit more from the location in an innovation habitat, the partnerships in the home country, and the pro-internationalization government policies. Therefore, this research contributes to a better understanding of the phenomenon and points to new perspectives for future studies on TBFs from emerging markets. <![CDATA[<strong>High Income Inequality as a Structural Factor in Entrepreneurial Activity</strong>]]> Statistical tests on a panel of data from 54 countries over the 2004-2009 period support the proposition that high income inequality and entrepreneurial activity share a positive linear relationship. In a novel approach, the dependent variable is defined from two independent and uncorrelated perspectives: (1) the World Bank Group Entrepreneurship Snapshot, which measures new business entry density based on secondary official sources; and (2) the Total Early Stage Entrepreneurial Activity of the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor project, which is a survey-based measure of formal and informal entrepreneurial participation rates. The empirical strategy is based on the logic that economies with increasing concentrations of wealth tend to encourage entrepreneurial activity because entrepreneurs accumulate more income than workers. Following the disequalizing model, once this inequality appears, it is reinforced in successive generations. The intuition behind this outcome is that a certain level of initial capital is required to establish a new enterprise, which implies that the probability of becoming an entrepreneur increases if an individual has inherited wealth. <![CDATA[<strong>Mapping Sustainable Structural Dimensions for Managing the Brazilian</strong> <strong>Biodiesel Supply Chain</strong>]]> It has been widely discussed in Brazil that the production of biodiesel should look for ways for increasing competitiveness considering the balance among economic growth, environmental quality and social well-being through the rational use of resources. The main purpose of this paper is to identify structural dimensions influencing sustainability and competitiveness of the Brazilian biodiesel production chain and, thereby, contribute to the current debate as well as to the process of formulating policy and strategies regarding this important supply chain. As starting point, a number of publications were reviewed allowing the identification of main issues and its combination into relevant factors. Eventually, the factors were put together, resulting in a set of structural dimensions: biodiesel supply chain environment, institutional framework, market conditions, monitoring systems and technological innovation. Then, the structural dimensions were summarized in a conceptual model showing the relationship between them. The structural dimensions may be seen as critical points in which stakeholders would pay attention to ensure successful performance and sustainable competitiveness of the biodiesel production chain. The objective of the entire system is to deliver biodiesel as a clean energy with focus on social inclusion, mitigation of environmental impacts and viability. <![CDATA[<b>R&D and Innovation Management in the Brazilian Electricity Sector</b>: <b>The Regulatory Constraint</b>]]> In 2000 it became mandatory to the Brazilian electricity companies to invest in research, development and innovation (RDI). These investments are performed by firms and regulated by the Brazilian Electricity Regulatory Agency (ANEEL). Since then companies have sought ways to cope with this obligation creating internal structures and managerial processes. This article presents the evolution of RDI management routines and organizational models based on a multiple-case study conducted between 2011 and 2012 with seven companies that represent about 27% of the total RDI investment performed in the period of 2008 to 2013. The research showed that firms created minimalist management and organizational structures to handle with the RDI enforcement. Companies have been much more concerned with the regulatory risk (the risk of non-accomplishment with the obligations) than to any strategic use of RDI effort since the legal framework is based on punishment rather than in stimulus. <![CDATA[<strong>Strategic Implications of Water Usage</strong>: <strong>an Analysis in Brazilian Mining</strong><strong> </strong><strong>Industries</strong>]]> This study aims at identifying the practices of water use management and the business performance in industries in the Brazilian mineral sector. To this end, a descriptive and quantitative study was developed, using the survey method, in industries associated with the Brazilian Mining Institute - IBRAM. The water use management practices were identified based in a model addressing the following aspects: water accounting, risk assessment, direct operations, supply chain, and stakeholders engagement. The business performance was measured from a model involving the following dimensions: economic, environmental and social. Among the results, the risks assessment involved and the direct operations practices stand out, in order to reduce the amount of water used and waste discharges. The need for greater engagement of industries with the stakeholders and the supply chain, through a more integrated and collaborative management, was also evident. <![CDATA[<strong>Characterization of the Relationship Between Firms and Universities and Innovation Performance</strong>: <strong>The Case of Colombian Firms</strong>]]> Within the National Innovation System, universities play a key role as the main source of knowledge that supports national productivity and as a system that seeks to improve the competitiveness of firms competitiveness and to find answers concerning market needs in today's fast-changing and globalized economy. Innovation, as a source of competitiveness, is normally supported by a firm's technological capabilities: internal R & D, external collaborative agreements, and relationships with universities. This study uses a cluster analysis to identify three clusters that represent respectively those firms that interact closely with universities for technology development (which include R & D projects) and technological learning activities, those firms that interact with universities for technological learning only, and those that do not have any kind of relationship with universities. We also analyze the innovation performance of each cluster. Data here come from the Second Colombian Innovation Survey, which was applied in 2005 to a sample of 6,222 firms. Among the main results, this study shows a higher innovation performance for those firms with relevant linkages for technology learning activities. <![CDATA[<strong>Procedural Priorities of the Pork Loin Supply Chain</strong>]]> The pork meat production industry is facing new challenges as a consequence of consumers' expectations regarding the quality and safety of food products. For the present study, experts and consumers in Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil were interviewed to identify the attributes of pork loin that need to be improved. Consumers have particular concerns about the juiciness, fibrousness, and portion size of the meat, the diversity of cuts and safety and animal welfare. The supply chain was also analyzed in order to verify the procedural priorities that need to be improved in order to meet the demands of consumers. Experts were interviewed using the quality function deployment methodology. The findings of the study indicate that, improvements must be made in the production sector in terms of animal handling and transportation. In the processing sector, improvements are required regarding slaughter control of PSE and DFD, the development of new packaging, and product fractionation. The requirements in the distribution sector relate to information campaigns for consumers to diffuse the nutritional characteristics of pork loin and in the product safety through sanitary inspection. <![CDATA[<strong>Performance Evaluations of Technology Transfer Offices of Major US</strong><strong> </strong><strong>Research Universities</strong>]]> By analyzing the highlights of the major activities reported by the technology transfer offices (TTOs) of twenty US major universities, the performances of TTO activities are quantitatively assessed and the associated scores are compared with each other. The key performance indicators, which govern the success of the university technology transfer, are specifically selected and examined. Two normalized metrics, overall performance metric (OPM) and patenting control ratio (PCR), which are the representing combined indicators for the TTO performance, are developed and demonstrated. The two metrics are evaluated for each university selected and compared to specifically provide a comprehensive overview of how good is the TTO of a university as compare to those of its peers. Finally, the factors for a successful TTO are described and the major unsolved issues are also discussed. <![CDATA[<strong>Assessing Centralized Governance in a Software Cluster</strong>]]> Increasing attention has been paid to the creation of spatially concentrated environments (industrial agglomerations or clusters) that aim at fostering firm-level competitiveness. However, while much has been said about clusters in general, less attention has been paid to structural governance within these agglomerations. This paper discusses the economic dynamics of clusters in the presence of centralized formal body of governance regarding internal and external relationships. We have carried out a case study of the key players in the software industry of Ribeirão Preto, which relies on an institutional arrangement called PISO. PISO arises as an economic institution in the context of Ribeirão Preto's software cluster that structures collective action within the system, interfering in the regional policymaking processes and fostering an environment that improves overall capabilities that allow firms to take full advantage of the externalities in order to create and consolidate competitive local advantages. <![CDATA[<strong>Collaborative Innovation in Agrometeorology</strong>: <strong>Coordination Strategies to Develop a Monitoring IT System for Brazil</strong>]]> This case-study article presents the results from a morphology analysis of a knowledge and information network, focusing on the coordination mechanisms employed to generate a convergent arrangement. Agritempo was the first information system to offer (in 2003) free access to a broad range of agrometeorological data comprising all the Brazilian territory, representing an important technological innovation to the agricultural sector. To study this phenomenon an analytical framework of the Techno-Economic Network (TEN) and concepts from the Innovation Sociology field was employed. Results indicate that the durability of this arrangement - from 2003 to 2014 - can be explained by the effectiveness of the coordination strategies established in the network such as: trust based relationships; institutional and individual leadership actions; contracting; software applications and shared common working procedures. <![CDATA[<strong>Knowledge Management</strong>: <strong>an Analysis From the Organizational Development</strong>]]> This research develops a theoretical framework on the implications of the organizational characteristics on the knowledge management (KM). The organizational characteristics are handled in this work as constructs, as they are complex concepts. This paper is based on a theoretical research, considering original and classic articles on KM. From a broad theoretical-conceptual research, the paper presents as a result five organizational constructs that support the KM process: human resources, team work, organizational culture, organizational structure and development and absorption of knowledge. The article presents the implications of these constructs in relation to the four phases of the KM process (acquisition, storage, distribution and use of knowledge). <![CDATA[<strong>Cognición de la Innovación Industrial en América Latina</strong>: <strong>Avances y Desafíos</strong>]]> El presente artículo, hace un estudio comparativo y relacional de los niveles y avances tecnológicos que llevan a la sociedad a un uso más eficaz de los recursos productivos y a transformar ideas nuevas en soluciones viables a través de productos y servicios, paradigmas y procesos que con el desarrollo de la nueva revolución tecnológica, la innovación entendida en este trabajo como una nueva idea o enfoque que se aplica en nuevas formas de crear valor para la organización y otras partes interesadas en el bien de la humanidad. El valor de la innovación requiere que las organizaciones desarrollen capacidades tecnológicas internas y capacidad de conocimiento. Este artículo describe el proceso de cómo es que no siempre se pueden ver los resultados de trabajos empíricos y que son consistentes, de hecho la falta de significancia de la innovación hacia la productividad no es exclusiva de las economías de América Latina. Se plantea la discusión de cómo puede deberse a diferentes circunstancias que rodean a la innovación y sus efectos en el largo plazo, como el hecho de que las empresas están muy lejos de la frontera tecnológica y por los débiles o inexistentes incentivos para invertir en innovación.<hr/>This paper makes a comparative study and relational levels and technological advances that lead society to a more efficient use of productive resources and transform new ideas into viable solutions through products and services, paradigms and processes with development of the new technological revolution, innovation understood in this work as a new idea or approach applied in new ways to create value for the organization and other stakeholders in the good of humanity. The value of innovation requires organizations to develop internal technological capabilities and knowledge capacity. This article describes the process of how you can't always see the results of empirical studies are consistent and in fact the lack of significance of innovation to productivity is not exclusive to Latin American economies. Discussion of how it can be due to different circumstances surrounding innovation and its effects in the long run , the fact that companies are far from the technological frontier and weak or no incentives to invest in innovation arises.