Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Journal of technology management & innovation]]> vol. 9 num. 3 lang. es <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> <![CDATA[<strong>Will Governmental Incentives in Developing Countries Support Companies to Innovate More?</strong>: <strong>Evidences from Skin Care Patent Applications in Brazil</strong>]]> Recent Brazilian Governments have provided incentives to support domestic innovation; however, some claim that the country has set conflicting policies towards innovation, industrial property and biodiversity exploitation. After an analysis of patent applications filled in the Brazilian National Institute of Industrial Property, we observed that current governmental measures have not performed as expected, at least in the skin care industry. Throughout the paper we discuss plausible reasons why this sector has not managed to innovate more, reasons that may affect other businesses as well. This case is exemplary to developing economies that have implemented or are in the process of renewing their innovation policies. <![CDATA[<strong>A Study of Culture Dimensions, Organizational Ambidexterity, and Perceived Innovation in Teams</strong>]]> The impetus to innovate has emphasized the importance of organization's ability to both explore and explot new ideas or what is referred to as ambidexterity. This study examined ambidexterity as a predictor of teams' perception of their innovation. It also examined the impact of culture-power distance, uncertainty avoidance, collectivism, masculinity, and short-term orientation IT teams' explorative and exploitative behaviors. The results also show that team ambidexterity is a predictor of innovation. Power distance is negatively related to explorative behavior. Collectivist characteristics are positively associated with both explorative and exploitative behaviors. Masculine behavior likewise predict more explorative behavior. The results can guide human resource development efforts geared to foster greater innovation within teams in organizations. <![CDATA[<strong>Knowledge Integration and Open Innovation in the Brazilian Cosmetics Industry</strong>]]> This article is based on a thesis that examined open innovation in the Brazilian cosmetics sector and its relationship with knowledge integration, comparing less open and more open firms. The ability to integrate knowledge is related to competitive advantage, and this study sheds light onto OI at each different firm. The main findings show that, different levels of openness in innovation, demand firm-specific mechanism for KI. Also, openness increases complexity in management. The understanding of how firms select their knowledge for appropriation and differentiation is also considered. The Brazilian cosmetics market was chosen because it occupies the 3rd position in the world's ranking and this industry is under researched. A cross-case comparison is used. <![CDATA[<strong>Competitive Priorities and Innovation in SMEs</strong>: <strong>A Brazil Multi-Case Study</strong>]]> This study uses the qualitative approach and the multi-case study method to analyze the influence that the competitive advantages exerts in the innovation given the specific context of the research. Among the main results are the mains factors that generate innovative practices in the researched companies are quality, flexibility, delivery and cost, in this order of importance, as generators of innovation practices in the surveyed companies. The quality and flexibility were related to technological product and process innovations. In the non-technological innovations, quality influenced the marketing and organizational innovations. Flexibility generated marketing innovations and cost and delivery generated organizational innovation. The results of this research can make it easy to redirect future public innovation policies in small businesses. We discovered that innovation does not occur only through the acquisitions and heavy investments in technology. The strategic reorganization of the decision-taking processes can contribute to innovation. <![CDATA[<strong>Inbound and Outbound Open Innovation</strong>: <strong>Organization and Performances</strong>]]> The aim of the paper is to analyse the relationships between the openness degree of companies and their I) context features, 2) R & D organization and 3) financial performances. The openness degree is defined after a pecuniary approach, involving all the transactions in the innovation market. Hypotheses are formulated and, then, tested on a sample of I26 world top R & D spending bio-pharmaceutical companies for the period 2008-20I2. Open innovation is more pervasive among small and young companies, for most of which it represents the very core business. Inbound and outbound practices have a similar diffusion in terms of number of companies adopting them, but the cumulative values of inbound flows are higher, whereas outbound flows are more relevant when compared to the total business of the firms. Inbound practices are substitutive to internal R & D activities, while outbound ones are complementary to internal development. The performances of companies have an inverted-U shape trend versus inbound practices and a fundamentally decreasing trend versus outbound ones. <![CDATA[Evaluating R&D Program of the Brazilian Electricity Sector through Industrial Property Indicators]]> The Law 9,991/2000 can be considered a milestone in the history of the ANEEL R & D Program, which was created to stimulate the technological development of the Brazilian Electricity Sector. Around R$ 4.5 billion were already invested in the program, covering more than 6,000 projects. Considering the amount of resources involved, the present study aimed to evaluate the results of this program, after the Law 9,221/2000, using industrial property indicators as a measure of performance. The research was based on a survey of the applications for patents and industrial designs, filed in the Brazilian Patent Office (INPI), by the 117 companies operating in the electricity generation segment. The findings showed: the companies that had at least one patent or industrial design application filed in the INPI after the Law 9,991/2000; the type of protection requested; and if the content of the application was related to the goals of the program. <![CDATA[<strong>Design Driven Innovation Practices in Design-preneur led Creative Industry</strong>]]> Design driven innovation has emerged to be an alternative way to generate sustainable competitive products or services. Previous research has recently revealed succesful practices of design driven innovation in various industries. However, little has been known about the creative companies that practice design driven innovation, especially in developing countries. This research investigates the existence and practices of design-driven innovation in the Indonesian creative industry. Based on interviews with the design-preneurs of the creative industry, one of the results of this study reveals how the Indonesian creative industry creates new meanings that are embedded into new products. Based on the identification, a framework to create new meanings is resulted which consists of a set of key processes, such as sensing, sensemaking, specifying, setting up, and storytelling. The practical contribution of this research is that this identified framework can be adopted by any creative companies interested in improving their innovation capability. <![CDATA[<strong>How to Justify Purchase of an iPad</strong>: <strong>Users of the Latest Launch</strong>]]> Contemporary technology innovation is increasingly based on convergence and the multiple uses of products. This change is detailed in the literature about new product development, as well as that on systems integration. This article focuses on the factors that determine the justification for using advanced technology products in which the perceived value of the product is not based on its functionality, as much as on its hedonistic or social value as an "all-in-one" product. In this study, consumer behaviors toward the Apple iPad are analyzed using netnographic evidence taken from internet postings by the consumers themselves. Since Apple initially marketed the iPad as a revolutionary product, with integrated services and features, our analysis concentrates on how consumers perceived these new, innovative features, in an effort to justify their purchase of the product. Our findings indicate that consumers' justifications are based not only on the iPad's functionality, but also its hedonic traits, and its similarity to the previously released innovative product, the iPhone. <![CDATA[<strong>Determinants of International Technology Transfer</strong>: <strong>an Empirical Analysis of the Enterprise Europe Network</strong>]]> This paper explores the key factors that foster technology transfer within the triad university-industry-government in an international context, i.e., the Enterprise Europe Network (EEN). Based on 71 technological Partnership Agreements (PAs), estimation results indicate that PAs associated to partners that provide their collaborators with the appropriate training in technology transfer-related issues, present substantial past experience in international or technological projects, and participate in extensive networks, are those that achieve better performances in terms of international technology transfer. High levels of formal schooling per se are not a key determinant of international technology transfer; the critical factor is highly educated human resources who receive complementary training in technology transfer issues. <![CDATA[<strong>Innovación y Productividad Manufacturera</strong>]]> Analizamos el efecto de la innovación sobre la productividad en la empresa manufacturera española. Así identificamos y justificamos los siguientes factores de innovación que determinan la productividad: actividades de investigación y desarrollo (I+D), gastos I+D, patentes, innovaciones de producto, innovaciones de proceso, organización interna de la innovación, externalización de las actividades de I+D, financiación pública de los gastos de I+D y colaboración exterior de la innovación. Las conclusiones de este trabajo basado en un análisis de regresión múltiple para el año 2010 a nivel de empresa, demuestran que las innovaciones de proceso y las actividades de I+D (especialmente en actividades internalizadas) están en mejores condiciones de favorecer la productividad de la empresa manufacturera española.<hr/>We analyze the effect of innovation on productivity in Spanish manufacturing firm. So, we identify and explain this effect of the following innovation factors on productivity: research and development (R & D) activities and expenditures, patents, innovations in products and in process, internal organization of innovation, outsourcing R & D activities, public funding in R & D expenditures and external relationships of innovation. Our results are based on a multiple regression analysis in 2010 at the firm level. So, we show that innovations in process and R & D activities (specially internal R & D activities) are in a better condition to favor the productivity of Spanish manufacturing firms. <![CDATA[<strong>Comunicar Conocimientos vs. Organizar el Conocimiento</strong>: <strong>la Gestión del Gen-preneur en el Aula</strong>]]> Se han hecho innumerables pruebas para constatar que la creatividad es una habilidad crítica para los emprendedores y su formación emprendedora (Schmidt, J. et al. 2012), incluso se ha detectado que la práctica sobre el pensamiento divergente incrementa las habilidades emprendedoras de los estudiantes para generar un mayor número y rango de ideas, pero NO así, sus enfoques para la resolución creativa de problemas. Nuestro objetivo será mostrar que el emprendimiento es una faceta de la creatividad y que, el emprendedor "oculto" en el discente, necesitará observar y confirmar la existencia de condicionantes externos suficientes, para liberar su actitud emprendedora retenida, asimismo, será imprescindible la adopción, por parte del docente de una actitud innovadora que facilite un contexto propicio para que el alumno muestre comportamientos asociados con actitudes emprendedoras. Tras nuestro estudio, constatamos que la implementación de una actitud innovadora docente contribuye a facilitar la transmisión del espíritu emprendedor y a mejorar la gestión del gen-preneur en el aula.<hr/>There have been countless tests made to confirm that creativity is a critical skill for entrepreneurs and their entrepreneurial training (Schmidt, J. et al. 2012), even more, practices on divergent thinking increases the entrepreneurial skills of students to generate a greater number and range of ideas, but not, their approaches to solve problems in a creative way. Our goal is to show that entrepreneurship is a facet of creativity and that the "hidden" entrepreneur in the learner, will need to observe and confirm the existence of sufficient external constraints -context and social network- to release its entrepreneurial attitude, furthermore it will be essential, that teachers adopt an innovative approach that enables a suitable context, in this way almost intuitively, and vocational - show student behaviors associated with entrepreneurial attitudes. In our study, we found out that the implementation of an innovative teaching contributes to facilitate the transmission of the entrepreneurial spirit and improves the use of gen-preneur in class. <![CDATA[<strong>Catching the Runaway Train Innovation Management in Russian Railways</strong>]]> This paper studies the innovation strategy of Russian Railways, the biggest transport company in the world. Russian Railways has chosen a strategy of international science, technology and innovation (STI) cooperation outside their own network. This strategy is a novel approach for Russian State-owned enterprises (SOE). Based on the analysis of innovation development program and interviews with managers, the paper studies the company's experience with the chosen strategy. Thereby, the paper enhances the understanding of innovation processes in major public service companies which are crucial for the socio-economic processes inside and outside national boundaries. <![CDATA[<strong>Internationalization of a Software Firm in Colombia</strong>: <strong>Case Study-Sophos Banking Solutions</strong>]]> The internationalization phenomenon can be described as the set of processes which helps identifying, entering, establishing and expanding to international markets. Depending on the company and its industry, different internationalization processes might be entertained. This study analyzes the entry modes and market selection strategies followed by Sophos Banking Solutions, a Colombian software company, and also identifies the influencing factors determining their internationalization process. By exploring the existing theories on internationalization and comparing them with the firm's strategy for internationalization, the study identifies whether the firm used the same or different strategy to enter different international markets. The paper also identifies how variables such as managerial influence and network relationships determine the firm's internationalization process. The results illustrate that multiple internationalization theories can be related to the different strategies being followed, but after analyzing the different strategies, we concluded that the firm's internationalization process could be better understood using LLL model. <![CDATA[<strong>Controversies about the Process of Technology Transfer from Public Research Institutions in Brazil</strong>: <strong>The Case of the Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation - Embrapa</strong>]]> This article investigates the process of technology transfer in the Embrapa - Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation, one of the most important center for tropical agricultural technology in the world. Our research is survey-based, and a questionnaire was applied to the employees working at strategic and operational level of a research unit of Embrapa. The results demonstrate that the technology transfer from Embrapa needs instruments, standards and standardized strategies. The lack of standardization of the can lead to disjointed actions among professionals and researchers, and may to make the Embrapa is seen in a fragmented form. Is important to explore new alternatives to treat simultaneously the issues of planning, research and development, transfer and communication in order to reset the current model, such as the use of Dual - use of technology transfer, characterized by a strong interaction between the chain production and potential users of the technology. <![CDATA[<strong>Análisis de los Procesos de Comercialización de Tecnología en Dos Instituciones de Educación Superior Mexicanas</strong>]]> La sociedad del conocimiento reserva un lugar especial a las instituciones de educación superior, particularmente aquellas capaces de dinamizar los procesos de generación de beneficios para la sociedad. Esta propuesta busca identificar las características que les permiten lograr la comercialización de tecnologías que generan, para ello, además de realizar una revisión de la literatura sobre el tema, se analiza información directa e indirecta de las dos principales instituciones de educación superior en México. Entre los resultados se pueden mencionar el creciente reconocimiento de buenas prácticas y procesos medulares para la comercialización, así como una creciente cultura entre sus comunidades respecto a la protección y comercialización de tecnología y sus implicaciones e impacto en el desarrollo institucional.<hr/>The knowledge society has a special place for institutions of higher education, particularly those with the ability to stimulate the generation of benefits to society. This proposal seeks to identify the characteristics that allow them to achieve the commercialization of their technologies, in addition to a literature review, direct and indirect evidence of the two major institutions of higher education in Mexico is analyzed. Some findings were the increasing recognition of best practices and core processes for marketing, and a growing culture among communities regarding the protection and commercialization of technology and its implications and impact on institutional development. <![CDATA[<strong>The Balanced Scorecard</strong>: <strong>Innovative Performance Measurement and Management Control System</strong>]]> The paper presents an overview of studies that have described the emergence of innovative performance measurement systems. It is dedicated to the issue of potential implementation of Balanced Scorecard as a strategic management control system in Czech small and medium-sized enterprises. The framework is based on literature review and analysis about traditional management control systems, their pros and cons, and modern methods of performance measurement, such as Balanced Scorecard. Numerous publications discuss its potential advantages and recommend its implementation. On the other hand, there exist huge limitations for small and medium-sized enterprises, such as time, organization and money. Benefits resulting from successful Balanced Scorecard implementation must overweigh the costs of designing, implementing, and using it. Therefore, the paper is supposed to motivate researchers to conduct more large scale studies in the area of innovative performance measurement systems implementation in different business sector and areas.