Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Journal of technology management & innovation]]> http://www.scielo.cl/rss.php?pid=0718-272420140002&lang=es vol. 9 num. 2 lang. es <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.cl/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.cl <![CDATA[<strong>Developing and Managing Cross-Functional Teams</strong>: <strong>A Multi-Case Study of Brazilian Manufacturing Companies</strong>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-27242014000200001&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es The growth of industries and the strong economic base in Brazil require improvements and adaptations in business processes. Cross-functional teams (CFT) may help to companies achieve these improvements. This research looks at characterizing CFT according to application processes, structures, objectives and impacts, considering the context of demand planning and related processes. In-depth interviews with 22 managers were performed in three Brazilian manufacturing companies. A framework to characterize CFT and respective impacts is proposed, including elements such as: procedures, context and goals, power distribution, impacts on cross-functional integration, impacts on teams' performance and on organization's performance. One significant managerial finding is that effective and efficient CFTs need balanced distribution of power among members by effectively establishing and structuring the team. By doing this, managers may observe positive impacts on inter-functional integration and in firm's results. Moreover, teams should permanently perform joint planning to predict unfavorable situations, improve communication and mutual understanding. <![CDATA[<strong>What Types of Start-ups Receive Funding from the Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Program?</strong>: <strong>Evidence from the Kauffman Firm Survey</strong>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-27242014000200002&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es This paper integrates the Kauffman Firm Survey with the Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) recipient dataset to examine in more depth the characteristics of small business start-ups that received R & D subsidy from SBIR. Our selection analysis first shows that SBIR program funds are distributed disproportionately to start-ups whose owner has a post-graduate education. The odds of being granted SBIR R & D subsidies are also higher for those who had prior R & D experience and owned patents at the start of their business operations. Start-ups that are operating in the high-technology sector are also more likely to receive SBIR funds than start-ups in traditional sectors. Surprisingly, start-ups that did not sell goods and services are more likely to receive SBIR grants. Interestingly, location matters but at a different direction: start-ups located in states that are not known for their R & D performance are more likely to receive SBIR funding. <![CDATA[<strong>Incorporating UTAUT Predictors for Understanding Home Care Patients' and Clinician's Acceptance of Healthcare Telemedicine Equipment</strong>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-27242014000200003&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Telemedicine programs within health care are experiencing significant growth as healthcare organizations seek to reduce expenditures and improve efficiency. The high costs of treating chronic diseases, compounded by an aging population, has given focus to creating technology-enabled alternatives to support, enhance, or expand patient services. As investments in telemedicine products and services grow at a rapid pace, user technology acceptance has become a key issue in successful implementation. Drawing from the Unified Theory of Acceptance in Technology (UTAUT), this study investigated the predictors of behavioral intention to use Telehealth equipment by patients, clinicians, and agency personnel at Henry Ford e-Home Health Care. Survey data were provided by 126 participants recruited from an eligible population who were either currently using the Telehealth equipment or were familiar with it. Structural equation modeling was used to study the overall fit of the UTAUT model in predicting behavioral intention. Participant type, self-efficacy, anxiety and attitude were tested as moderators. Implications for increasing adoption of Telehealth technology are discussed. <![CDATA[<strong>Does Service Innovation Matter in High-Tech Industry?</strong>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-27242014000200004&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Service innovation has been found to be a major driver of innovation performance in service contexts. But this issue raises questions concerning the extent to which the relationship between market orientation and innovation performance holds in the high-tech industry. Relatively little research has examined how market orientation contributes to innovation performance through service innovation. We here report an empirical study of 235 Taiwanese high-tech firms to examine the influence of market orientation on service innovation and innovation performance. A noteworthy finding is that the impacts of customer orientation and competitor orientation on innovation performance are fully mediated by service innovation. However, service innovation does only partially mediate the relationship between inter-functional orientation and innovation performance. The findings of this study should help managers consider appropriate service innovation in high-tech industry. <![CDATA[<strong>Generation and Diffusion of Innovations in a District Innovation System</strong>: <strong>The Case of Ink-Jet Printing</strong>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-27242014000200005&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es This paper provides an in-depth case study of the ink-jet printing (IJP) technology that emerged from the ceramic industry in a Spanish region (Castellon) in the first decade of 2000. We propose an analytical framework that combines the theoretical perspectives of Industrial Districts and Innovation Systems, and exploit a qualitative methodology that includes information from patent and scientific article databases and 21 in-depth interviews. Our results show that IJP is a major innovation that breaks with the tradition of machinery innovations in this industry in Spain. Micro-level evidences show the complex external and internal relationships in the sharing of knowledge and innovation process, being the role of internal ties, trust, secrecy and strong in-house R & D strategies determinants of the IJP innovation. <![CDATA[<strong>Towards a Theory for Strategic Posture in New Technology Based Firms</strong>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-27242014000200006&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es This paper elaborates a theory from the existing literature on subjects about entrepreneurship, strategy and innovation. Dubin's methodology approach is used in order to develop a theory that helps better understand the strategic posture adopted by a New Technology Based Firm in its competitive environment. The theory proposes the competitive context conditions as precedents of the dominant logic and the technology strategy, which, in turn, influence in the competitive behavior adopted by the new firm. An Entrepreneurial Orientation by the new firm, combined with very particular dynamic capabilities, improve the firm's performance. From the achieved performance, a feedback process to the strategic stance initiates. In addition to the theory, interaction laws, a set of propositions, as well as suggestions for future research projects are presented. <![CDATA[<strong>Humanitarian Logistics</strong>: <strong>A Clustering Methodology for Assisting Humanitarian Operations</strong>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-27242014000200007&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es In this paper, we propose a methodology to identify and classify regions by the type and frequency of disasters. The data on the clusters allow you to extract information that can be used in the preparedness phase as well as to identify the relief items needed to meet each cluster. Using this approach, the clusters are formed by using a computing tool that uses as the input the history data of the disasters in the Brazilian state of Santa Catarina, with a specific focus on: windstorms, hail, floods, droughts, landslides, and flash floods. The results show that the knowledge provided by the clustering analysis contributes to the decision making process in the response phase of Humanitarian Logistics (HL). <![CDATA[<strong>Service-Oriented Factors Affecting the Adoption of Smartphones</strong>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-27242014000200008&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es This research investigates the adoption factors of smartphones focusing on the differences of smartphone and feature phone users. We used Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) which incorporates service-oriented and device-oriented functional attributes as exogenous variables for a product-service system such as smartphones. In addition, Decision Tree (DT) and customer surveys were conducted. As a study results, we found that the service-oriented functional attributes - 'wireless internet' and 'mobile applications' - affect the adoption of smartphones regardless of users. However, the DT results revealed that the more important factor is 'mobile applications' to smartphone users but 'wireless internet' for feature phone users. In conclusion, we discovered that a strategy emphasis on the service-oriented attributes is needed for the adoption of smartphones. <![CDATA[<strong>Is R&D Enough to Take Advantage From External Knowledge?</strong>: <strong>Focusing on Coordination Mechanisms</strong>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-27242014000200009&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es The purpose of this paper is to analyze the role of research and development (R & D) and coordination mechanisms (such as decentralization in decision-making and formalization of organizational processes) in the transformation of external knowledge into innovation results. We use survey data for performing standard ordinary least squares regressions in a representative sample of firms from the Spanish Ceramic Tile Industry. The results suggest that R & D is an important moderator influencing the relationship between acquiring external knowledge and innovation outcomes. Second, formalization tends to have a detrimental effect in the transformation of external knowledge into innovation outputs. Third, there are differences if it is discriminated between exploratory and exploitative innovations. This study contributes to external knowledge sourcing research that insofar has only taken account of R & D, neglecting the role of coordination mechanisms, in the exploitation of this knowledge. Moreover, this study is relevant to organization theory. To date, this literature has focused on the direct effect of coordination mechanisms on innovation. We show that the latter can be contingent on external knowledge processes. Lastly, we add to both literature streams by showing the different nature of the results when considering exploratory or exploitative innovations. <![CDATA[<strong>Relación entre el Dinamismo Percibido, la Postura Tecnológica y los Resultados de Innovación</strong>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-27242014000200010&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Una de las principales elecciones estratégicas de la empresa es su postura tecnológica, entendida como su propensión innovadora y el momento de introducción de cambios tecnológicos en el mercado. Este trabajo, centrado en el sector de las energías renovables en España, plantea que en entornos en los que el dinamismo percibido por los directivos es alto y la apreciación del cambio mayor, las empresas tienen una mayor tendencia hacia el liderazgo tecnológico (entrada pionera) en detrimento de posturas más conservadoras o de seguimiento tecnológico (entrada tardía). Los resultados del análisis, que se ha llevado a cabo mediante un modelo de ecuaciones estructurales basado en la técnica de mínimos cuadrados parciales (PLS), muestran que, efectivamente, el dinamismo percibido está positivamente relacionado con el liderazgo tecnológico, y que esta relación provoca un fuerte efecto sobre los resultados de innovación en términos de generación de nuevas tecnologías tanto en productos como en procesos.<hr/>A main strategic election for a firm is its technological posture, which can be understood as its propensity to innovate and the moment for the introduction of technological changes into the market. This paper, which focuses on the renewable energy industry in Spain, establishes that in environments in which dynamism is understood by managers as high, and the appreciation of change is greater, firms develop a greater tendency towards technological leadership postures (pioneer or first-mover strategy) rather than conservative or follower postures (last-mover strategy). The results of the analysis, carried out through a structural equation model based on the partial least squares (PLS) technique, show that, as anticipated, perceived dynamism is positively related to technological leadership (first-mover strategy), and that this relationship has a strong effect on innovation performance, in terms of generation of new technologies both in products and processes. <![CDATA[<strong>Open Services Innovation</strong>: <strong>The Case of BT in the UK</strong>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-27242014000200011&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Open innovation was conceptualised by Chesbrough (2003, p. 34) using cases from the ICT (Information and Communications Technologies) sector, more specifically equipment and component suppliers such as Lucent, IBM and Intel. Subsequently, the vast majority of the case studies in open innovation emphasised innovation processes in goods-based firms, not in service firms. Open systems innovation was well known in the telecommunications industry well before Chesbrough's conceptualisation of open innovation. However, subsequent research has not paid much attention on its adoption by incumbent telecommunications operators. This paper investigates how open innovation was adopted by the incumbent telecommunications operator BT in the UK, using the case study as the research method. BT used open innovation as a management injunction to systematise innovation under a common framework to leverage and integrate technology and knowledge in order to address customer needs, and to change the way of thinking about innovation within BT. <![CDATA[<strong>The Implementation of TQM in R & D Environments</strong>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-27242014000200012&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Research & development has been identified as a key element to achieve competitive advantage, particularly in contexts of change and especially for technology-based companies. Nowadays, organizations are aware that quality, and quality management as a consequence, represents an important strategic stimulus, thus assuming a fundamental role in the business strategies implementation. This article, aiming at outlining the practices that managers believe are critical for achieving quality management in applied research and development, examines the adoption of total quality management within R & D based organizations, and its impact in terms of performance. This is a qualitative research from a multicase study on eleven companies. Data were collected through open interviews, using a semi-structured script, with R & D managers and employees from each company. Our study supports the hypothesis that TQM practices positively impact the performance of an organization. Implications for managers and for academics can be derived from the study. <![CDATA[<strong>Social Networks and Knowledge Transfer in Technological Park Companies in Brazil</strong>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-27242014000200013&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es This paper aims to propose a framework for a digital social network designed to support the knowledge transfer for innovation among companies located in a Technology Park of Florianópolis, in the Brazilian state of Santa Catarina. From a methodological point of view, the study is characterized by a qualitative approach and it was developed in three phases: (1) definition of the assumptions, requirements, functionalities and strategies for use of the social network; (2) development of the prototype for the social network and; (3) focus group sessions. The research data were analyzed using content analysis techniques. As for the results, this paper identifies four main pillars for the conception of digital social networks in the context of the technology park: types of knowledge; transmitters and receivers of knowledge, context for knowledge transfer and the nature of the knowledge transfer. <![CDATA[<strong>Technological Interfaces of the Brazilian Naval and Offshore Industry</strong>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-27242014000200014&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es The recent challenges of the Brazilian naval and offshore industry have generated a unique opportunity for studies on technological innovation and economic development. This paper presents the recent developments and future prospects of this industry under the theoretical framework of 'technological interfaces'. Technological interfaces are defined as the thread of knowledge and technology necessary for establishing a transaction between two or more agents. It is both a theoretical construct and a tool for better understanding industrial coherence and dynamics. The development project of ship and platform construction in Brazil, unveils a potential dynamic similar to large national projects, such as the U.S. space project in the 50s. By establishing scientific parameters of analysis for the study, it is possible to generate a broader diagnosis of the technological interface matrix of the industry, but mainly it is possible to map the framework of operational gaps and the needs for technical-scientific development.