Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Journal of technology management & innovation]]> vol. 10 num. 3 lang. es <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> <![CDATA[<strong>Entrepreneurship and Academic Employment-More Alike than You'd Think</strong>]]> Recognising the increasing value of knowledge and technology transfer, the scientific and political communities in Germany have recently devoted much attention to academic entrepreneurship. Seeking to explore similarities and differences between academic employment and entrepreneurship, we interviewed 112 postdoctoral students from the four major German research organisations and 16 senior transfer managers whose responsibilities included spin-off facilitation. Our findings indicate that those involved in such occupations often believe that academic employment and entrepreneurship differ substantially on many levels. Both interviewed senior managers and postdoctoral students considered engaging in commercialisation activities to be a risky and serious undertaking and a significant career change. Simultaneously, the opinions and observations of postdoctoral students helped us identify a wide range of similarities between academic employment and entrepreneurship. Our findings can help make entrepreneurship more accessible to researchers, re-define the boundaries between scientific and commercial activities, and, ultimately, foster knowledge and technology transfer. <![CDATA[<strong>Wheat Industry</strong>: <strong>Which Factors Influence Innovation?</strong>]]> A change in the profile of food consumption is occurring because of the new context of demographic growth, the increase of income in developing economies, and urbanization. In Brazil, consumption patterns have trended from fresh to processed food and internal and external growth in demand has led to opportunities that require new and higher levels of technological innovation and associated managerial skill. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of innovation on a key Brazilian food industry: wheat product markets. Results showed that while most firms did not innovate in the past year, new investments in R & D were important for innovation to occur compared to other factors such as the size of the company, the integration in supply chain, and the age of the company. These results demonstrate that innovation is not a random or unpredictable process, but a complex and diverse process that may be specific to each industry. <![CDATA[<strong>Perceptual Factors Affecting the Tendency to Collaboration in SMEs</strong>: <strong>Perceived Importance of Collaboration Modes and Partners</strong>]]> This research aims to explore key factors of SMEs' external collaboration and to identify the factors that are perceived to affect their propensity for collaboration. In particular, we focus on two factors-internal strategic activities geared toward open innovation and external collaboration partners, both of which are essential to establishing an external collaboration. We conducted a survey of Korean SMEs regarding their collaboration project experiences, and we used logistic regression analysis to analyze the survey data. The research findings are expected to aid understanding of SMEs' complex open innovation mechanism and to have meaningful implications for the development of their collaboration models. <![CDATA[<strong>Brazilian Incubators and Science Parks' Resources and R & D Collaboration</strong>]]> One initiative largely stimulated through public policy to strengthen firms' innovation capacity is the creation and consolidation of Incubators and Science & Technology Parks (ISTPs). These habitats aim to foster innovation through, among other methods, the promotion of resource complementarity and action interdependence. Empirical studies, however, have not been conclusive about this. This article analyse the relations between resources provided by ISTPs and the elements of collaborative R & D. We conducted a survey with Brazilian ISTPs and analysed the results using a quantitative multilevel approach. Our study suggests that these innovative environments do affect collaborative R & D, but not by through the services and infrastructure they provide. We indicate possible alternatives to support future studies that analyse ISTPs in emerging countries. <![CDATA[<strong>Sources of Innovation</strong>: <strong>The Case of Portuguese Consultancy Sector</strong>]]> This study addresses the effects of external environments on types of innovation introduced by Portuguese consultancy firms (PCs) in computer, technical, and management areas. It distinguishes the most determinant factors for innovation regarding product, process, organization, and marketing. The assessment framework followed three steps: 1) evaluation of propensity to use external sources of information and cooperation with agents, 2) identification of factors used most often during innovation, and 3) derivation of profiles of firms under study. The method generated tree-based classification models that segmented the sample into innovative and non-innovative firms, and distinct profiles that emphasized specificities concerning use of external sources and agents for innovation. <![CDATA[<strong>Socio-Technological Characterization of Goat Industry at Tamarugal Province in Atacama Desert</strong>]]> The following article displays a study carried over the goat producers in the northern Tamarugal province in Chile, including the analysis of a survey that characterizes the technical capability of the industry mainly constituted by altiplanean natives communities, exposing the needs that the innovation system requires to be improved in order to boost the generation of added value products useful for project sustainability of these communities. As well, sensitization of the main social breakthroughs is made in order to develop an effective technology transfer to the communities to accomplish this aimed sustainability, through innovative use of the resources. <![CDATA[<strong>Gestión de una Cultura de Innovación Basada en las Personas</strong>]]> La cultura de innovación tiene un papel central en la capacidad de innovación de las organizaciones. Así como un destacable efecto sobre la competitividad. Ante su relevancia es indispensable determinar una serie de herramientas para adaptarla a las necesidades e idiosincrasia de cada empresa a lo largo de diferentes periodos de tiempo. En este trabajo se aborda la gestión de la cultura de innovación desde la dirección del personal y de los equipos de trabajo, fruto de reconocer el papel central de las personas en la cultura y la innovación. Inevitablemente, las personas deben ser el punto central en cualquier cultura corporativa, especialmente en su enfoque hacia la innovación. De hecho, una instrumentación efectiva en la creación y mantenimiento de un lugar de encuentro y expresión de las personas es un requerimiento ineludible.<hr/>The innovation culture has a central role in the innovation capabilities of organizations, as well as a remarkable effect on competitiveness. Given its relevance, it is essential establishing a set of tools to suit the needs and idiosyncrasies of each company over different periods of time. In this paper, the management of innovation culture is approached from the direction of staff and work teams, as result of recognizing the central role of people in culture and innovation. Inevitably, people should be the central point in any corporate culture, especially in its approach toward innovation. In fact, an effective implementation in creating and maintaining a meeting point and expression of people is an indispensable requirement. <![CDATA[<strong>Fuentes de Conocimiento en Empresas Biotecnológicas</strong>]]> Los resultados empíricos respecto a cómo las empresas obtienen el conocimiento externo, sobre todo en sectores intensivos en conocimiento, no han sido concluyentes. Mientras que la mayoría de los estudios previos considera para el análisis un mecanismo de acceso al conocimiento, el presente estudio considera tres mecanismos: relaciones formales e informales y movilidad laboral. El estudio es cualitativo, exploratorio, e intenta identificar cuáles son las fuentes de conocimiento externo de las empresas biotecnológicas localizadas en la región occidente de México. Los resultados muestran que más de la mitad de los vínculos para obtener el conocimiento se establecen a nivel regional, predominando las relaciones formales. Sin embargo, los resultados sugieren que es el conocimiento adquirido a nivel internacional el que confiere a la empresa una competitividad de clase mundial.<hr/>Empirical results regarding how the firms obtain external knowledge, mainly firms belonging to intensive-knowledge sectors, have been inconclusive. While the majority of early studies considered only one mechanism of knowledge access, in the current study three mechanisms are considered: formal and informal relationships, and laboral mobility. This study is qualitative, exploratory and attempts to identify external knowledge sources in the biotechnology firms located in the occidental region of Mexico. The results show that more than half of the links for getting the knowledge are at the regional level. However, the results suggest that the knowledge acquired at the international level confers on a world-class competitiveness to the firm. <![CDATA[<strong>La Imagen de un Producto Turístico Rural a través del Acceso al Contenido Generado por otros Usuarios en Internet</strong>: <strong>Diferencias por Género</strong>]]> Los contenidos generados por los usuarios sobre un producto turístico en Internet son utilizados de forma recurrente por otros turistas como una importante fuente de información. Sin embargo, se desconoce la influencia que tienen estos contenidos en la formación de la imagen de un producto turístico, así como si existen o no diferencias de género en cuanto a la percepción de esa imagen. En la investigación actual, se ha utilizado como producto turístico un alojamiento rural y como estímulo la propia web del alojamiento. Los resultados de este estudio demuestran que los contenidos generados por otros usuarios en la web afectan a la imagen percibida del producto turístico. También se observa que las mujeres generan una imagen afectiva y cognitiva más favorable sobre el producto turístico que los hombres. La novedad de esta investigación reside en aportar conocimiento nuevo sobre la relación del contenido generado por otros usuarios y las dimensiones de la imagen de un producto turístico, en un entorno poco estudiado como el turismo rural.<hr/>The image of a rural tourism product through user-generated content on the Internet: gender differences: Tourists usually consult usergenerated content on the Internet to plan a trip. However, its influence on image formation of a tourism product is not yet fully understood. The effect of user-generated content on tourism product image could vary depending on the gender of the consumer. In the present study, a rural accommodation has been selected as tourism product and its website as stimulus to be analyzed. Our results show how user-generated content affects the image of a tourism product. Results also confirm that this effect is more favorable for women than for men. The originality of this research is to provide new knowledge about the relationship of user-generated content and the image of a tourism product in an environment that has not been studied yet, that is, rural tourism. <![CDATA[<strong>Regulation and Technology Innovation</strong>: <strong>A Comparison of Stated and Formal Regulatory Barriers throughout the Technology Innovation Process</strong>]]> Regulation is often mentioned as a barrier to technology innovation in various industries. Delayed market entry, stifled creativity, added activities and resource requirements are some frequently mentioned barriers. The study presented here explored various claims of regulation acting as a barrier to technology innovation. The findings suggest that formal statutory requirements only partly explain why regulation is perceived as a technology innovation barrier. Findings further indicate several discrepancies between stated and formal regulatory barriers and suggest that the majority of the stated barriers emerge within the organization during operationalization and the technology innovation process. <![CDATA[<strong>Multidimensional Balanced Efficiency Decision Model</strong>]]> In this paper a multicriteria methodological approach, based on Balanced Scorecard (BSC) and Analytic Network Process (ANP), is proposed to evaluate competitiveness performance in luxury sector. A set of specific key performance indicators (KPIs) have been proposed. The contribution of our paper is to present the integration of two methodologies, BSC - a multiple perspective framework for performance assessment - and ANP - a decision-making tool to prioritize multiple performance perspectives and indicators and to generate a unified metric that incorporates diversified issues for conducting supply chain improvements. The BSC/ANP model is used to prioritize all performances within a luxury industry. A real case study is presented. <![CDATA[<strong>Evaluation of Technological Trends and Demands of the Manufacturing Industry to a Center of R & D & I</strong>]]> The manufacturing industry is fairly representative in the Brazilian economy. The research activities in technology, development and innovation promoted by technology centers are of great importance to boost the competitiveness of this segment. In this context, this work aims presenting the development of the strategic planning for a Center of R & D & I (Research & Development & Innovation), looking 20 years ahead, on a macro level, creating a master plan which summarizes the future focus areas of competence for technology research, development and innovation, coping with manufacturing trends, using a participative workshop approach. Thus, it is expected that this center offer integrated technological solutions with high added value that promote the development and competitiveness of the manufacturing industry, in the prospects for medium and long term. In order to achieve the project objectives taking the principle of strategic planning was followed. On the one hand, focus was placed on the internal perspective analyzing the current status of the Center. On the other hand, the environment of the Center (external perspective) was analyzed. Matching the analysis results regarding both perspectives future competence areas were derived, according to global technological trends as well as national and local industrial demand. Thus, the competencies required to be developed by a technology center to meet the manufacturing industry over the next twenty years would be derived. <![CDATA[<strong>Application of Lean Manufacturing Tools in the Food and Beverage Industries</strong>]]> Recent years have shown an increasing use of lean manufacturing (LM) principles and tools in several industrial sectors. Already a well-established management philosophy, it has shown numerous successful applications even outside production environments. This work presents the application of some LM tools, and the corresponding shift in philosophy, in two Portuguese companies of the food and beverage industries. Main implementation issues are presented and discussed; followed by the results obtained from the application of LM tools in the production system of these companies. Significant gains are obtained in both companies and, more importantly, it instills a continuous improvement culture and increases production flexibility while reducing lead times. <![CDATA[<strong>Corporate Social Responsibility</strong>: <strong>A Case Study in Subsidiaries from Brazil and China</strong>]]> Corporate Social Responsibility refers to the business' role in providing Sustainable Development through fair and appropriate relationships with its stakeholders. This study aimed to describe and analyze the CSR evolution in two subsidiaries within the same group, one located in Brazil and other in China. In general, observed similarities in CSR evolution. In both companies, the order in which the dimensions received incentives was the same, first the economic, then the environmental and lastly the social dimension. However, some differences were noted, such as the initial situation of dimensions and the time to consolidate the pillars. In Chinese company, the inicial situation about environmental and social dimension was worst. Other point refers to time toward CSR. In Brazilian' subsidiary, the CSR evolution occurredrslower. The last point refers to requirements of second order, given the non-observance of these in both subsidiaries. <![CDATA[<strong>Emprendimiento en la Tercera Edad</strong>: <strong>Una Revisión de la Situación Actual</strong>]]> A medida que la población envejece, los países han empezado a comprender la importancia del emprendimiento de la tercera edad como un mecanismo para extender la vida laboral, aumentar los ingresos y generar nuevas oportunidades, a fin de mantener a los adultos mayores activos, situación que significa, a su vez, un menor peso para la carga fiscal del país. Este trabajo tiene como objetivo hacer una revisión de la literatura sobre el emprendimiento en la tercera edad, analizar las oportunidades y los obstáculos que enfrenta este creciente sector de la población. Asimismo, se exploran las razones y condiciones que determinan las causas por las que este fenómeno llegará, con el paso del tiempo, a tener una mayor importancia en la sociedad chilena.<hr/>As the population ages and the retirement age increases, countries have begun to realize the importance of senior entrepreneurship, as a means to extend the working age, increase income for the elder, especially those with low pensions and to generate opportunities to keep this people economically active. This paper aims to review the literature of elderly entrepreneurship, analyzing the opportunities and obstacles being faced by this sector of the population. The reasons and conditions that have made this phenomenon increasingly important to our society in Chile are also explored.