Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Journal of technology management & innovation]]> vol. 11 num. 1 lang. es <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> <![CDATA[<b>Liderazgo e Innovación para un Mundo más Sostenible</b>]]> <![CDATA[<b>Lessons Jesuit Business Programs Can Learn from Chinese MBA Programs</b>]]> North American Schools of Business have been "going global" by transplanting pedagogy and content to Asia and Africa for several centuries. From a teaching perspective, our western schools look to these regions as contexts to provide richness to our students' educational experience, to prepare Americans for dealings in the global business marketplace, and often to increase our own enrollments and revenues. To date we have served as "exporters" of our own Western brand of MBA education. Using an ethnographic approach of participant observation gained through two years of teaching and living in China supplemented with interviews with Chinese students studying in the U.S., this paper suggests an alternative view. China in particular and Asia in general present a different viewpoint of leadership, motivation, team-work and MBA education in general. The paper suggests an alternative viewpoint to higher education and a series of concepts and ideas that can be "imported" into western business education from the Middle Kingdom. <![CDATA[<b>Jesuit Business Education Model</b>: <b>In Search of a New Role for the Firm Based on Sustainability and Dignity</b>]]> Jesuit Universities have been training responsible professionals since the 16th century. Given this educational tradition, and in the face of the new challenges posed by the present-day social and economic situation, the Society of Jesus has started to implement the "Ledesma-Kol-venbach" educational paradigm in its higher education institutions. Instead of short-term profit maximization, the Ledesma-Kolvenbach model considers sustainability, human dignity and social well-being as key elements in business strategies. The objective of this paper is to propose a method capable of measuring the economic and social value generated by a firm managed in accordance with the four dimensions of the Ledes-ma-Kolvenbach model. The methodology is developed in three steps. In the first place, the authors explore the existing literature on the Ledes-ma-Kolvenbach model and its roots in Jesuit education. Secondly, they analyze the literature that studies the role of the firm from a neoclassical perspective, as well as other complementary or alternative approaches. In the third place, they present an empirical model that has already been tested in different organizations, designed to measure the social and economic value generated by firms. The main result of the paper is a method that can be used to measure the social and the economic value generated by firms, such that society, managers and public administrations have an operational tool to present and evaluate the economic and social performance of firms. <![CDATA[<b>¿Cuáles son los Rasgos que Han de Caracterizar el Perfil de los Egresados de las Escuelas de Negocios Jesuitas Según sus Directivos?</b>]]> This article aims to detect a central element in the mission of Spain Jesuit Universities Business Schools (UNIJES). In particular, it focuses on the analysis of the features that have to characterize the profile of alumni from these schools. To achieve this goal, we use the Concept Mapping methodology to identify ideas and opinions from a group of experts (raw data from focus group) and to transform them into classified data displayed in conceptual maps. The results show how the universities governments value the traits in the alumni. The four most important detected aspects are (i) professional skills, (ii) intrapersonal skills, (iii) interpersonal skills and (iv) social responsibility. These aspects are analyzed from the perspective of the education paradigm within Jesuit Universities.<hr/>El objetivo de este artículo es estudiar un elemento central de la misión de las escuelas de negocios de UNIJES (Universidades Jesuitas en España), concretamente: cuáles son los rasgos que han de caracterizar el perfil de los egresados de dichas escuelas a juicio de las personas con responsabilidades de gobierno (rectores y directores). Para ello, se utilizará la metodología del Concept Mapping, técnica que permite transformar las ideas/opiniones de un grupo de expertos (datos primarios de un focus group) en datos que pueden ser ponderados, agrupados y representados mediante mapas conceptuales. Los resultados revelan cómo se valoran y ponderan los rasgos del perfil de los egresados por parte de los citados directivos, y cómo se agrupan en cuatro clústeres: competencias profesionales (1), competencias intrapersonales (2), competencias interpersonales (3) y responsabilidad social /sentido de trascendencia (4), que son analizados e interpretados y que, además, permiten una visión comparativa con el paradigma educativo de las universidades jesuitas (Ledesma-Kolvenbach). Los resultados de esta investigación pueden considerarse como una aportación original y novedosa acerca del pensamiento y valoración de autoridades académicas de este nivel sobre un aspecto esencial para las escuelas de negocios jesuitas, dado su carácter de instituciones mission-driven. La metodología utilizada también es una novedad en el sector de la educación universitaria y de las escuelas de negocios. <![CDATA[<b>Collaborative Online International Learning Experience in Practice Opportunities and Challenges</b>]]> Academic institutions of higher education, and especially Jesuit institutions, face the challenge of educating students who often face unique financial challenges. These challenges can have an impact on access to quality education and experience. Given our globalized environment, among these challenges is the opportunity for students to participate in a study-abroad experience while at the university. Today, through the use of technology it is possible for institutions of higher education to offer these collaborative learning experiences to those students who may not be able to travel. This paper will detail a pedagogical approach which emphasizes using collaborative online international engagement. <![CDATA[<b>¿Es Compatible la Educación a Distancia con la Pedagogía Ignaciana?</b>]]> A partir de la difusión de la escritura y la aparición revolucionaria de la imprenta, a lo largo del tiempo, los educadores han ido incorporando distintas herramientas, para agregar valor al proceso educativo, pero sin duda la de mayor impacto, ha sido internet y el desarrollo de innumerables aplicaciones educativas. Bajo ese punto de vista, analizaremos el modelo pedagógico en el cual se centra la educación a distancia y cómo se interrelacionan los tres polos de la tríada didáctica: docente/estudiante/conocimiento o saber, mediante los procesos que están implícitos en el acto educativo Por otro lado, la Pedagogía Ignaciana es un concepto amplio que ofrece una visión cristiana del mundo y del ser humano, una dirección humanista para el proceso educativo y un método personalizado, crítico y participativo, cuyo comienzo podemos situarlo en el siglo XVI con la Ratio Studio-rum. La meta es ayudar a formar el ser humano a través del proceso educativo formal y no formal. En el presente paper se estudia si son compatibles las nuevas tendencias de la educación virtual o a distancia, que se podrían sintetizar en masifica-ción, diversidad y combinación de estudio-trabajo y la Pedagogía Ignaciana de tradición centenaria, pero que siempre ha incorporado los nuevos desarrollos de las ciencias y las tecnologías.<hr/>From the spread of writing and the revolutionary advent of printing, over time, educators have incorporated various tools to add value to the educational process, but certainly the greatest impact has been the internet development of many educational applications. Under that view, we analyze the pedagogical model in which distance education centers and how the three poles of the Triad are interrelated teaching: teacher / student / knowledge or know, through the processes that are implicit in the educational act Moreover, the Ignatian Pedagogy is a broad concept that offers a Christian vision of the world and of man, a humanist direction to the educational process and personal, critical and participatory approach, whose beginning can place it in the sixteenth century with the Ratio Studiorum. The goal is to help shape the human being through formal and informal education. In this paper we study if they support the new trends in virtual or distance education, which could be summarized as overcrowding, diversity and combination work-study and Ignatian Pedagogy old tradition, but it has always incorporated new developments science and technology. <![CDATA[<b>Unpacking 'Give Back Box:'</b>: <b>A Social Enterprise at the Intersection of Leadership, Innovation, and Sustainability</b>]]> Once the domain of government agencies and non-profit organizations, a social enterprise integrates social benefits such as employment and sustainability into a for-profit firm's mission. The social enterprise (SE) bottom line includes both economic and social value, reflecting an intersection of the Jesuit leadership tradition with commercial business enterprise. This case study describes the start-up of Give Back Box (GBB), a Chicago-based social enterprise that supports recycling and repurposing. GBB's business model involves providing a convenient, no-cost opportunity to follow up an online purchase by recycling the shipping box to forward unneeded items to charities. GBB was founded in 2012 by two entrepreneurs with expertise in global business as well as online retailing. Thus, this case also addresses the entrepreneurial dimension of SE by illustrating the close link between social enterprise and social entrepreneurship. Following its initial pilot phase, GBB has grown steadily, receiving impressive media coverage that has included articles in Forbes, Fast Company, and a feature on NBC's 'Today' show. In 2013 another partner joined GBB: a Colombian engineer with an MBA from a U.S. Jesuit business school who has sought to apply business principles and Jesuit values in his work as a GBB partner. This case study describes the start-up's inception, its mission and business plan, and its achievements to date, together with recommendations for other SE start-ups. <![CDATA[<b>Sustentabilidad</b>: <b>Liderar Organizaciones Migrantes en el Uruguay-Aspectos Asociados al Alto Desempeño Empresarial</b>]]> Las empresas son organizaciones cuya actividad principal son los negocios y se suele confundir ambos aspectos: el negocio y la organización. La experiencia muestra que las empresas que permanecen en el tiempo se caracterizan por gestionar y evolucionar la relación organización-negocio en principalmente tres modalidades: mejorando su modelo de negocio, integrando nuevos negocios y migrando a otros negocios. Es cada vez más necesario para la supervivencia de una organización, el fortalecer dicha competencia específica de "migrar": capacidad de desvincularse de un (modelo de) negocio y asumir otro (modelo de) negocio. Esta realidad impacta diferente a cada stakeholder. Los propietarios pueden migrar con mayor facilidad si deciden retirar su capital, vender el negocio, etc. El costo para los trabajadores es superior, afecta su fuente de trabajo y las condiciones de vida familiar, hasta su inclusión o exclusión social. Para la comunidad, la caída o reconversión de una organización puede implicar un costo colectivo enorme. El pensamiento económico y administrativo ha tendido a focalizar el problema en la sustentabilidad del negocio, pero desde la mirada ética y pasando por la Doctrina Social de la Iglesia, la sustentabilidad de la organización resulta más importante que la sustentabilidad del negocio. Se entrevistaron 55 empresas uruguayas que han perdurado más de 30 años, soportando radicales cambios del entorno, manteniendo posiciones de primera línea en sus áreas de acción. Un análisis cuantitativo de sus respuestas ilustra los factores de alto desempeño de su gestión, y un análisis cualitativo identifica características asociadas a su sustentabilidad organizacional, las cuales se presentan mediante el concepto de organizaciones migrantes. Los resultados muestran que además de las competencias de gestión, importan los valores y las actitudes de la dirección, confirmando la relevancia que tiene para las escuelas de negocios la formación de líderes conscientes de sus decisiones.<hr/>Companies are organizations whose main activities are businesses and both aspects are often confused: the business and the organization. Evidence shows that long-lasting companies are characterized by their capability of managing and evolving the relationship between the organization and its business in three main ways: improving its business model, integrating new businesses and migrating to other businesses. It is increasingly necessary for the survival of an organization, to strengthen that specific competence of "migration": the ability to opt out of a business (model) and incorporate another business (model). This fact implies different impacts among each stakeholder. Owners can migrate more easily if they decide to withdraw their money, sell the business, etc. The cost is higher for workers, affecting their jobs incomes, family life conditions, and even its inclusion or social exclusion. For the community, the collapse or conversion of an organization can cause a huge collective cost. Economic and management thinking have tended to focus the problem on business sustainability, but considering and ethics and The Catholic's Social Doctrine approaches, the sustainability of the organization is more important than business sustainability. 55 Uruguayan companies that have lasted over 30 years were interviewed, supporting radical changes of their environment, keeping front-line positions in their areas of action. A quantitative analysis of responses illustrated the high performance factors of their management, and a qualitative analysis identified characteristics associated to its organizational sustainability, which are presented through the concept of migrant organizations. Results showed that in addition to management skills, values and attitudes of leaders where also determinant, confirming the relevance for Business Schools to train leaders aware of their decisions. <![CDATA[<b>The Role of the Jesuit University in the Evolving "Innovation Triangle" of Business, Government, and Academia</b>]]> The purpose of this paper is to suggest a role for Jesuit universities to play in the evolving collaboration among business, government, and academia. Specifically, this paper will identify an "innovation triangle" whose aim is the creation of innovative ways to meet the challenges of a global economy. For purposes of the International Association of Jesuit Business Schools 2015 Conference in Montevideo, Uruguay, the subject area is "Jesuit inspiration at the university level: business challenges." Our methodology consists of evaluating the role of Jesuit universities through the case study of a conference organized by the presenters of this paper. Although not actually held, the conference was scheduled to take place at Unisinos Business School in São Leopoldo, Brazil. Entitled "Doing Brazil in Brazil," it involved a new structure in which participants were to work alongside government officials, university faculty, and students while exploring the ethical dimensions of foreign investment and business in Brazil. This was to have been done in conjunction with a techpark adjacent to the university. <![CDATA[<b>Retos y Aprendizajes de Institutos de Investigación Transformadora</b>]]> El objetivo de este artículo es reflexionar sobre el papel que desempeñan las instituciones de investigación académica como agentes de cambio en los territorios. Los institutos de investigación que es posible catalogar como de investigación transformadora tienen como objetivo generar nuevos conocimientos diferentes de los centros de investigación tradicionales, porque su finalidad es ayudar al desarrollo de los territorios. En este documento se analizan dos casos de estudio a partir de la experiencia de los cuatro co-autores, que orientan activamente su investigación hacia acciones transformadoras, en dos universidades jesuitas, una en el País Vasco, España, y la otra en Uruguay. Desde este análisis se identifican los cambios que habría que abordar en las universidades para tener un rol más activo y estratégico en el desarrollo territorial.<hr/>The aim of this paper is to reflect on the role our academic institutions play as agents of change in our territories. Transformative research institutes aim to generate new knowledge different from traditional research centres because the objective is helping the development of their territories. The paper analyse two case studies based on the experience of the four co-authors, who actively orient their research towards transformative actions, in two Jesuit universities, one in the Basque Country, Spain, and the other in Uruguay. From this analysis the article identifies the changes that universities that want to have a more active and strategic role in the territorial development. <![CDATA[<b>Ignatian Pedagogy for Social Entrepreneurship</b>: <b>Twelve Years Helping 500 Social and Environmental Entrepreneurs Validates the GSBI Methodology</b>]]> In frontier economies, social entrepreneurship has emerged as a successful strategy to pursue sustainable development goals. By creatively blending business strategy, technology innovation and a deep understanding of customer need, social enterprises provide a pathway out of poverty, an alternative to private charity and government aid. Social entrepreneurs are developing strategies to make available distributed energy products, clean cooking and clean water technologies, and sustainable livelihoods. Social entrepreneurship is a pro-poor economic development strategy that promotes the common good. Many social entrepreneurs describe their work with terms like "calling" or "moral purpose" or "vocation," harkening the emphasis in the Ignatian spiritual exercises on "making an election." Launched in 2003, the Global Social Benefit Institute (GSBI*), at Santa Clara University was and is a pioneer in the field of social enterprise capacity development. Originally conceived as a social enterprise incubator, GSBI now offers a diversified portfolio of programs. The GSBI has worked with more than 340 social enterprises. These operate in more than 60 countries, and have raised US$96 million in funding. The GSBI does not deploy explicit religious language, however, its educational philosophy is shaped by Jesuit educational values. It recruits and selects social entrepreneurs who serve the poor, and places them in stage-appropriate programs to help them grow and serve more people. The GSBI provides a structured curriculum combined with customized mentoring by experienced Silicon Valley executives. This follows very closely the notion of cura personalis, the personalized spiritual accompaniment provided by Jesuit spiritual directors, and is consistent with classic Jesuit educational philosophy. This pedagogy of accompaniment provides optimal support for people to make progress toward their divinely gifted potential. Perhaps most important of all, Ignatian spirituality and the social entrepreneurship movement share an inspiring moral imagination. Both are unreasonable in their insistence that more can be done to alleviate the unjust suffering of the poor. The GSBI bridges these two realms, exchanging the inspiration and practical can-do of both social entrepreneurs and Ignatian pedagogy. The social entrepreneurship movement benefits from GSBI's pedagogical approach, and Jesuit Catholic higher education benefits from collaborating with this practical social justice movement. <![CDATA[<b>Economía Social + Innovación Tecnológica</b>: <b>Experiencias de Éxito en Entornos de Precariedad</b>]]> Los modelos asociativos basados en los principios de la Economía Social, han mostrado que favorecen al reparto equitativo del ingreso, además que promueven la autogestión, la democracia interna, la solidaridad y el desarrollo local. El Proyecto Economía Social Idit Ibero tiene como objetivo es incubar, impulsar, y/o consolidar empresas de economía social, preferente ubicadas en zonas pobres o vulnerables, incorporando un "componente significativo" de desarrollo tecnológico e innovación. La innovación social, empresarial y tecnológica alineadas a los principios de la Economía Social, propician la formación y subsistencia de empresas y colectivos que resuelven sus necesidades individuales y de grupo.<hr/>Associative models based on principles of social economy, have shown that they promote fair distribution of income, besides self-management, democracy, solidarity and local development. The Project Social Economy Idit Ibero aims to incubate, promote, or strengthen social enterprises, mainly located in poor or vulnerable areas, incorporating a "significant component" of technological development and innovation. The social, business and technological innovation aligned to the principles of the social economy, promote the formation and survival of companies and groups that solve their individual and groupal needs. <![CDATA[<b>La Cohesión Regional en los Procesos de Integración en América Latina y el Caribe</b>]]> El artículo explora la situación actual de tres procesos de integración latinoamericana: el ALBA, la Alianza del Pacífico y el MERCOSUR, a través de un relevamiento cualitativo de los logros obtenidos en relación a los objetivos fijados inicialmente por cada uno de ellos. El trabajo se enmarca en analizar el liderazgo y la innovación de los mencionados procesos, ya que todas las relaciones entre los Estados miembros de los distintos esquemas de integración analizados, como la de estos entre sí, necesitarán de un fuerte liderazgo e innovación, para enfrentar de forma satisfactoria los importantes desafíos futuros que impone el nuevo contexto internacional para alcanzar un mundo sustentable.<hr/>Through a quantitative survey of the current status of all the integration processes in the region, the study explore the founding objectives and aims finally achieved by three integration models in the region: ALBA, Pacific Alliance and MERCOSUR. This article focuses on leadership and innovation for a sustainable world because the relation between the Members of the different integration processes will need a strong leadership and innovation policy to face successfully the important future challenges posed by the new international environment to achieve a sustainable world. <![CDATA[<b>Inversión Reciente en Uruguay</b>: <b>¿Hacia un Desarrollo Sostenible?</b>]]> Este trabajo pretende aportar una primera aproximación sectorial al impacto de la inversión promovida en Uruguay entre 2010 y 2014 sobre el patrón de innovación y el mercado de trabajo. Desde una perspectiva de desarrollo sostenible e inclusivo, se concluye que la inversión promovida no se asocia con ningún patrón de innovación de las empresas a nivel sectorial, ni con variables que hacen al mercado laboral. Se identifican resultados primarios que muestran una asociación de los sectores con mayor inversión promovida en el período, con origen del capital, tamaño de las empresas, mayor productividad y promedio salarial del sector.<hr/>This study intends to be a first sectorial approach to evaluate the impact of investment promotion in Uruguay between 2010 and 2014, on firm innovation patterns and labor market variables. From a sustainable development perspective, no association is found between investments promoted by specific policies and labor market variables or firm innovation patterns at a sectorial level. The study finds some evidence of association between those industries with more promoted investment and the origin of capital, firm size, productivity and average wage at a sectorial level. <![CDATA[<b>Las Vinculaciones Establecidas por las Empresas Industriales Uruguayas y su Influencia sobre Sus Actividades de Innovación</b>: <b>el Caso de la Universidad y de Otros Agentes</b>]]> En la actual economía globalizada a la innovación se la considera como un elemento clave de la competitividad de las firmas. La literatura económica ha puesto de manifiesto que la productividad está fuertemente influenciada por la capacidad de innovación que tienen las empresas u organizaciones de una región o nación. Pero la innovación es impredecible tanto en términos de procesos como de resultados, lo que hace muy difícil definir y seleccionar políticas activas de incentivo. Es por eso que, tratar de comprender cómo innovan las empresas en una realidad concreta puede ayudar a mejorar no solo la comprensión del fenómeno, sino que también puede contribuir a generar conocimientos útiles para poder diseñar políticas de incentivos más adecuadas y eficientes. En el presente paper se estudian las relaciones que las empresas establecen con los diferentes agentes del Sistema Nacional de Innovación (S.N.I.) y cómo éstas afectan las actividades de innovación que realizan. El fundamento de este enfoque se basa en la idea de que la innovación es un proceso abierto e interactivo y que parece estar circunscrito a determinadas situaciones. En este sentido, las políticas de innovación han reconocido que las relaciones que se establecen con las universidades y los centros tecnológicos y/o de investigación son claves para el fomento de la innovación industrial.<hr/>Today’s in the global economy, innovation is seen as a key element in the competitiveness of firms. The economic literature has shown that productivity is strongly influenced by the innovation capability of companies and organizations in a region or nation. But innovation is unpredictable, both in terms of processes and outcomes which makes it very difficult to define and select active incentive policies. That’s why, trying to understand how companies innovate in a concrete reality not only will help improve the understanding of the phenomenon, but also will help to generate knowledge to design appropriate and more efficient policies and incentives. In this paper we study the relationships that companies establish with the different agents of the National Innovation System (NIS) and how they affect their innovation activities. The rationale for this approach is based on the idea that learning and innovation are open and interactive processes that appear to be confined to certain situations. In this sense, innovation policies have recognized that the relationships established with universities, technological and / or research centers are fundamental to the promotion of industrial innovation.