Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Journal of technology management & innovation]]> vol. 11 num. 2 lang. en <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> <![CDATA[<strong>Shared Leadership and Team Creativity: A Social Network Analysis in Engineering Design Teams</strong>]]> This research explores the relationship between shared leadership and creativity in engineering design teams. To do this, a social network perspective was adopted using four measures to assess key elements of shared leadership networks. These are (a) network density, (b) centralization, (c) efficiency and (d) strength. Data was collected from a sample of 22 engineering design teams who adopt a shared leadership approach. Our results support previous findings that the density of a shared leadership network is positively related to team creativity. In contrast, we learned that centralization exerts a negative influence on it. Moreover, while we found that there is no evidence to support a positive correlation between efficiency and team creativity, we demonstrate an inverted U-shaped relationship between strength and team creativity in a shared leadership network. These findings are important because they add to the academic debate in the shared leadership area and provide valuable insights for managers. <![CDATA[<strong>Improving Innovation in University Spin-Offs</strong>: <strong>The Fostering Role of University and Region</strong>]]> University spin-offs (USOs) are companies created to commercialize knowledge or technology developed in academia; thus, their major contribution to the knowledge economy is their ability to generate innovation. Following the Resource-Based View of the Firm and the Knowledge Spillover Theory of Entrepreneurship, it was stated that fostering mechanisms at university level and at regional level may positively influence the USOs innovation. Based on a sample of 621 Italian USOs, we show that the positive impact of the university context is more crucial compared with those of the regional context. In particular, the university affiliated business incubators and Science Parks, jointly with the university financial resources, seem to promote the innovation efforts of USOs. These evidences rise the need of a resilient partnership among all the contextual players involved in the spillover processes, mainly at regional level, in order to effectively exploit the potential innovative efforts of the university start-ups. <![CDATA[<strong>Knowledge Organisations and High-Tech Regional Innovation Systems in Developing Countries</strong>: <strong>Evidence from Argentina</strong>]]> In the globally and knowledge based economy, the universities and other knowledge organisations are valued for their ability to contribute to the regional innovation processes. This is particularly relevant for the developing countries in South America since their R & D spending is highly concentrated on the public knowledge infrastructure. However, there are few studies examining the role of knowledge organizations at regional level in Latin America. The proposed study aims to analyse the role played by knowledge organisations in the formation of a high-tech Regional Innovation Systems in Argentina. This country has a number of attractive features relative to the positive evolution of its R & D spending and the recent implementation of a policy that promotes cooperation between firms and knowledge organisations among high-tech sectors. As evidenced in developed regions, the organisations under study play a key role in the promotion of a high-tech Regional Innovation Systems. However, this prominent role is not based on those local factors identified in the literature, such as organisational and institutional local assets, but on national science and technology policies and individual initiatives conducted by the faculties involved. <![CDATA[<strong>Country Context and University Affiliation</strong>: <strong>A Comparative Study of Business Incubation in the United States and Brazil</strong>]]> This study compared university affiliated and non-university affiliated business incubators in the United States and Brazil in order to assess the impacts of country context and affiliation on incubator funding sources, direct financial assistance to client firms and internal versus external service mix through use of quantitative and qualitative data. Affiliations with external entities can provide life giving resources; however, it may also transfer external shocks to the new venture calling for buffers. Results indicated that incubators in the United States have a higher number of funding sources, are more likely to provide direct financial support, and offer more external services relative to Brazilian incubators; whereas Brazilian incubators are more inclined to connect incubatees to external financial resources but provide services in-house. The study results suggested that incubators in both countries use "bridges" and "buffers" to ameliorate resource deficits driven by environmental exigencies. <![CDATA[<strong>Relationships between Innovations and Productivity in the Services in the Slovak Economy</strong>]]> A key factor of increasing performances of service enterprises and in effect, that of the entire economy is the introduction of innovations. However, it is the final effect of the process that is important, rather than the type of innovation introduced by an enterprise. The aim of the paper is to verify the validity of the relationship between the innovation activity of service enterprises in Slovak Republic and their economic performance. Results of analysis have not demonstrated unanimously a positive relationship between innovations and the productivity of business service . The reason for that is in the so far low innovation performance of services as well as in the low time-related homogeneity of the imple-mentation and the effect of innovations. <![CDATA[<strong>SMEs' Innovation and Export Capabilities</strong>: <strong>Identification and Characterization of a Common Space Using Data Spatialization</strong>]]> Numerous publications try to identify and test empirically the link between innovation and export to explain firms' competitiveness. But it seems that several ways of thinking coexist, without a real consensus. This article proposes a different approach, by considering innovation and export not in terms of impact of the one on the other, but rather as two complementary activities mobilizing common capabilities (resources, skills, knowledge). These common capabilities represent the capabilities that a company needs to mobilize as a priority to improve its performance regarding innovation as well as export. This article aims to identify the common spaces between innovation and export in terms of current practices within SMEs. Initially, the innovation and export practices were identified in the literature and through a set of interviews with business managers. Then an analysis of similarity put forward the common practices between the innovation and export processes. A data spatialization shows that the common practices concern at least: (1) network management, (2) consideration of the customer, (3) the acquisition of information, (4) skills management, (5) the capitalization of knowledge, (6) the global strategy, (7) the follow-up of the projects, (8) the intellectual property, and finally (9) the corporate culture. <![CDATA[<strong>Impact of Image and Satisfaction on Marketing Innovation </strong>]]> Colombia is a country that has achieved significant tourism growth in recent years. However, both research and empirical evidence about its tourism development is very limited. Marketing innovation in tourism enterprises is one of the keys to this country maintaining positive tourism development. This empirical study analyzed marketing innovation in 364 of Colombia's tourism companies. The findings show that "satisfaction" in terms of application of innovative marketing strategies that improve customer satisfaction and "image" in terms of application of innovative marketing strategies that help to improve image of company's products and services have a significant relationship with marketing innovation of Colombia's tourist enterprises. <![CDATA[<strong>Social Networks as Enablers of Enterprise Creativity</strong>: <strong>Evidence from Portuguese Firms and Users</strong>]]> The present work analyzes the profiles of social networks' users, individuais and enterprises in Algarve (Portugal), having accomplished online questionnaires. Samples of 230 users and 70 firms were collected. According to data obtained there are different behaviors. Users' results highlight the need of harnessing the potential of recruitment and business projects through social networks, as searching for knowledge, communication and professional relations are expressive. Firms' results reveal two types of social networks' use: 1) knowledge search, interact with customers, launch new products; and 2) potential for marketing. Users' desire of expressing own ideas and being creative had low importance. In social networks they auscultate more about what others are doing than revealing own aspirations. Here firms can act in order to shape users ' attitudes and preferences to their creativity. Thus, enterprises can use the first level of social networks (knowledge and product-customer interaction) in order to enhance the second level (marketing and innovation). <![CDATA[<strong>Adding Entrepreneurship to India's Science, Technology & Innovation Policy</strong>]]> Science, Technology & Innovation Policy (STIP) is an important policy instrument particularly in the developing countries. India also has recognized the role of science, technology and innovation in development as early as 1958 but still trails behind its peer Brazil, China and the Asian tiger Singapore. Considering strong correlation between research and development investment and growth based on existing studies, this paper brings forth the present situation of India in investment and its influence on the performance of the economy vis-à-vis the three countries. This paper studies the STIP 2013 in detail and reports the contribution of the Department of Science and Technology in India. The main conclusion of this paper is the recommendation for incorporation of "entrepreneurship" in STIP based on global best practices, which can be achieved by government's involvement as a venture capitalist to seed and support innovations, increasing transparency and incorporating entrepreneurial curriculum. <![CDATA[<strong>Industry 4.0 and Object-Oriented Development</strong>: <strong>Incremental and Architectural Change</strong>]]> Industry 4.0 in manufacturing is about combining cyber-physical systems with industrial automation systems. This integration of Systems so different in nature aims to create context-aware factories in which people and machines are in real-time alignment. This paper examines the change processes triggered by Industry 4.0 from a conceptual perspective. We find that the observed patterns of change are not novel but have a lot in common with the paradigmatic shift in software development from structured to object-oriented development. The latter approach features to be incremental in the production phase and architectural in the product and process design phase. We argue that Industry 4.0 will be equally paradigmatic and mind-set changing for architects and engineers as to crafting production processes and creating products for the future. <![CDATA[<strong>Academic Cooperation in Latin America for Innovation in Agribusiness</strong>]]> Cuando no existe transferencia de conocimiento al sector productivo o en casos donde la capacidad científico-tecnológica de las universidades es débil, como sucede en varias universidades latinoamericanas, las posibilidades de desarrollo económico se reducen. Frente a este problema, el objetivo del presente trabajo es realizar un análisis de las redes sociales de profesores y unidades académicas involucradas en la generación y transferencia de conocimientos sobre agronegocios de una universidad argentina y otra brasilera. El estudio se efectúa sobre la producción de tesis, investigación y extensión durante un período de cuatro años y se utiliza la metodología cuantitativa de Análisis de Redes Sociales. Los resultados muestran redes más fortalecidas y cooperativas en investigación sobre agronegocios de la universidad argentina, mientras que indican mayor desarrollo en redes de extensión y tesis de la universidad brasilera. Se observó en las redes de mayor tamaño condiciones de Small World y una actuación interdisciplinar.<hr/>When there is no transfer of knowledge to the productive sector, or in cases where scientific and technological capacity of universities is weak, such as in numerous Latin American universities, chances of economic development are reduced.In the framework of this problem, the objective of this article is to perform a comparative analysis of social networks of teachers and academic departments involved in the generation and transfer of knowledge on agribusiness of an Argentine and a Brazilian university. This analysis is built by the production of theses, research projects and extension activities, during a four-year-period and quantitative methodology of Social Network Analysis is applied. The main results show more strengthened and cooperative networks in research on agribusiness in Argentine university, while indicating further development of extension and thesis networks atthe Brazilian university. Small World conditions and an interdisciplinary performance were observed in larger networks. <![CDATA[<strong>Science-Society Links</strong>: <strong>Stereotypes and New Approaches</strong>]]> La importancia social de la ciencia ha evolucionado notablemente desde mediados del siglo XX, dando lugar a un cambio en el enfoque y desarrollo de la actividad científica. En este contexto, se ha producido un aumento notable de los estudios que analizan en profundidad los procesos de intercambio y transferencia de conocimiento que se producen entre los investigadores y los agentes sociales, en gran medida para su promoción desde las políticas científicas e institucionales. Este artículo describe la evolución de los enfoques sobre las relaciones ciencia-sociedad y analiza los principales elementos de los procesos de intercambio y transferencia de conocimiento mediante un estudio empírico del mayor organismo público de investigación español. Los resultados ponen de manifiesto que la visión dominante sobre las relaciones ciencia-sociedad es muy restringida y requiere ser revisada.<hr/>The social relevance of science has evolved significantly since the mid-twentieth century, leading to a change in the approach and deve-lopment of the scientific activity. In this context, there has been a notable increase of in-depth studies addressing exchange and knowledge transfer processes between researchers and social agents, largely to encourage these processes from the scientific and institutional policies. This paper describes the evolution of the science-society relationships approaches and analyses the main elements of the exchange and knowledge transfer processes though an empirical study of the largest Spanish public research organisation. Results highlight that the dominant view on the relations between science and society is very limited and needs to be revised. <![CDATA[<strong>Impact of Intermediaries in Innovation Systems</strong>]]> La perspectiva sistémica ha sido aplicada extensamente al estudio de la innovación, dada la existencia de múltiples agentes heterogéneos cuya interacción permite la generación, difusión y uso del conocimiento. Sin embargo, tal interacción presenta dificultades por las brechas existentes entre los agentes, siendo los intermediarios los responsables de construir puentes y facilitar la vinculación. No obstante, analizar el impacto de los intermediarios no es fácil, principalmente por el problema de atribución, que reduce muchas aproximaciones a fotografías carentes de análisis dinámico y longitudinal. Este trabajo propone superar tales limitaciones mediante simulación basada en agentes, la cual ayuda a ampliar el entendimiento del fenómeno de la intermediación en los sistemas de innovación y su impacto en el desempeño.<hr/>The systemic approach has been widely applied to the study of innovation, given the existence of multiple heterogeneous agents whose interaction allows the generation, diffusion and use of knowledge. However, such interaction presents difficulties because there are gaps between agents, being the intermediaries responsible for building bridges and facilitating linkage. Nevertheless, analyzing the impact of intermediaries is not easy, mainly because the problem of attribution, where different approaches are nothing more than a photography that lacks a dynamic and longitudinal analysis. This work aims to overcome such limitations by agent-based simulation, which helps broaden understanding of the phenomenon of intermediation in innovation systems and their impact on performance. <![CDATA[<strong>Discussing the Concepts of Cluster and Industrial District</strong>]]> The significance and popularity of the cluster and industrial district concepts claim for a deeper reflection. The analysis of one of the European Commission's (EC) policy documents shows inconsistencies that do not impede the formulation of normative statements. That way we answer the question of why and how cluster ideas have substituted industrial district principles and the consequences derived from that phenomenon.