Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Journal of technology management & innovation]]> vol. 9 num. 4 lang. en <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> <![CDATA[<strong>Can Latin America Move Forward after a Lost Decade in Technical Change?</strong>: <strong>Looking at Opportunities for Knowledge-based Change in Times of Increasing Uncertainty</strong>]]> In view of the current global context, which challenges are facing science- and technology-based developments and cooperation in a way to contribute for policies that stimulate localized learning, innovation and endogenous development in Latin America? This broad question has motivated the work behind the Special Issue introduced by this paper, which considers the development of case studies in selected Latin America regions. The analysis lead us to argue that value-based networks have the potential to make both public policies and markets more effective, promoting learning trajectories for the inclusive development of regions. But they require effective public investments to keep attracting and qualifying human resources, together with long-term developments towards technical industries and export capacity for emerging markets worldwide. Our analysis argues about the unique potential for further developing Latin America through strategic international, knowledge-based ventures, exploring the emerging role the internationalization of universities and scientific institutions may play at a global level. Above all, they require the systematic observation of science and technical change in international comparison, as well as a relational infrastructure for collective action, at an international level, in a context much influenced by a dynamic of change and a necessary balance between the creation and diffusion of knowledge towards the endogenous development of all parts involved. The role of Latin America Universities and science policies based on international cooperation are considered to be particularly important in this process. <![CDATA[<strong>Technological Capability and Firm Performance</strong>]]> This research aims to investigate the relationship between investments in technological capability and economic performance in Brazilian firms. Based on economic development theory and on developed countries history, it is assumed that this relationship is positive. Through key indicators, 133 Brazilian firms have been analyzed. Given the economic circumstances of an emerging economy, which the majority of businesses are primarily based on low and medium-low-technology industries, it is not possible to affirm the existence of a positive relation between technological capability and firm performance. There are other elements that allow firms to achieve such results. Firms of lower technological intensity industries performed above average in the economic performance indicators, adversely, they invested below average in technological capability. These findings do not diminish the merit of firms' and country's success. They in fact confirm a historical tradition of a country that concentrates its efforts on basic industries. <![CDATA[<strong>Innovation and Productivity across Mexican Manufacturing Firms</strong>]]> Following the Crépon-Duguet-Mairesse Model (1998), using a database with 2,078 Mexican manufacturing establishments from 2004 to 2006, adapting available proxy variables and proposing a different productivity estimation, this article sets out: Which is their innovation propensity? Which factors push on their innovation efforts? Are these efforts and the innovation favoring labor productivity? The main findings are: Mexican manufacturing establishments with a higher innovation propensity are the largest, with high technological intensity and market share. Advertising, knowledge appropriability, FDI, TT and access to credit have a positive effect on innovation efforts. Moreover, the innovation effort, together with export levels, FDI and access to technology have influenced the innovation of new processes and/or designs, particularly in local firms as compared to foreign firms. Finally, the variables: innovation, labour remunerations and capital intensity have a substantial effect on labor productivity and at a lower level market share, FDI and total quality control. <![CDATA[<strong>Tax Incentives for Technological Business Innovation in Brazil</strong>: <strong>The Use of the Good Law - Lei do Bem (Law No. 11196/2005)</strong>]]> The Research & Development & technological innovation (RD & I) are among the main sources for the development and growth of developed and developing countries. To stimulate investment in RD & I by private companies, the government resorts to several mechanisms, such as financial and non-financial incentives, such as tax incentives. Thus, this work is aimed at analyzing, through an exploratory research with private companies from various sectors of the Brazilian economy, the use of tax incentives for RD & I in the private sector, set forth in the main public incentive mechanism for RD & I enforced by the Federal Government of Brazil - Lei do Bem. The findings show the importance of public policies to promote investment in RD & I in Brazilian private firms, but also highlight difficulties and improvement suggestions for the use of tax incentives provided for by the Good Law - Lei do Bem, which results in a number far below the expectations of the Federal Government of Brazil. <![CDATA[<strong>Further Democratizing Latin America</strong>: <strong>Broadening Access to Higher Education and Promoting Science Policies Focused on the Advanced Training of Human Resources</strong>]]> We focus this paper on the conditions to build reliable science, technology and higher education systems in Latin America, based on international comparative studies, fieldwork and interviews conducted over the last three years. The analysis shows that science can have a major role in furthering the democratization of society through public policies that foster opportunities to access knowledge and the advanced training of human resources. Broadening the social basis for higher education promotes the qualification of the labour force and contributes decisively to social and economic development. The need to guarantee higher education diversity, strengthening scientific institutions and investing in a strong science base, is deemed as critical, but goes far beyond policies centred on innovation and industry-science relationships. It requires adequate training and attraction of skilled people, as well as promoting scientific and technological culture among society. <![CDATA[Complexity, Transition and Development: A Convergent Schedule of S+T+I Policies in Latin America]]> El artículo presenta un trabajo teórico - analítico que crea un marco conceptual - interpretativo convergente, entre los estudios sociales de la tecnología y la economía de la innovación. El framework formula para América Latina, un cuestionamiento de los alcances de las políticas de CT+I simplificadoras, ya sea por considerar exclusivamente a la empresa como locus del cambio tecnológico o a las tendencias ofertistas de las comunidades científicas. Esta problematización implica que las políticas de CT+I podrían ser enfocadas desde una perspectiva: narrativa, crítica y explicativa; que a su vez retome el impulso de la praxis implícita en la tradición del pensamiento latinoamericano ciencia, tecnología y sociedad. De esta forma los esfuerzos de investigación convergentes pueden constituirse en espacios de emergencia de praxis articulatorias. Estos espacios de emergencia reconocen la pluralidad de posiciones, que a su vez plantean conformar espacios de elaboración de nuevas configuraciones sociotécnicas orientadas al desarrollo multidimensional.<hr/>The paper presents the progress of a theoretical analysis developed to create a framework between social studies of science and technology and the economics of innovation and technological change. The framework aims to formulate for Latin America a question about the scope of the ST & I policies. This question, involves from the framework, that ST & I policies must be approached from a multidimensional: narrative, critical and explanatory. But that in turn resume the momentum of political praxis implicit in the tradition of Latin American thought science, technology and society. These hybrid research efforts, arising from the framework, must exist by political praxis articulatory emergency. These emergency spaces recognize the plurality of theoretical and political positions, which in turn raise the horizon of action shape spaces for developing new sociotechnical configurations capable of orienting the multidimensional sense development (social inclusion, economic development and structural change). <![CDATA[<strong>Innovation System Development Policies in Mexico</strong>]]> In 2011, the Mexico-State Council of Science and Technology in alliance with the Inter-American Development Bank and the National Council of Science and Technology implemented a program to promote collaborative networks among firms for improving competitiveness trough innovations. Target firms belong to priority manufacturing and services sectors. This paper deals with the analysis of the program, State of Mexico's innovation capacities are described, the institutional framework and the main actors are also analyzed. The results show that SMEs had lack of experience in innovation but they increased their investment in innovation projects. Based on that analysis we conclude that success of innovation policies is highly dependent on previous experience and learning abilities of firms. Finally, we draw some recommendations for building capacities at the firm level as well as for strengthening innovation policies aimed at involving and technically upgrading SMEs<hr/>En 2011, el Banco Interamericano de Desarrollo, el Consejo Mexiquense de Ciencia y Tecnología y el Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología financiaron un programa para impulsar redes de colaboración tecnológica en sectores económicos prioritarios del Estado de México e integrar un sistema local de innovación. En este trabajo se analiza dicho programa, se describe la capacidad de innovación del Estado, su marco institucional y los principales actores. Los resultados obtenidos fueron sumamente positivos, en particular respecto a la inversión de pequeñas y medianas empresas en proyectos tecnológicos. Este programa puede ser un modelo para el desarrollo de políticas de innovación en el país al identificar elementos clave de su éxito, como por ejemplo: la experiencia previa de las empresas en materia de innovación y sus capacidades de aprendizaje. <![CDATA[Organic Law of Science,Technology and Innovation and Oil Organic Law: An Analysis of Their Relation to the Country's Political Process]]> El objetivo de este artículo es presentar un análisis de la relación entre la Ley Orgánica de Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación (2010) y la Ley Orgánica de Hidrocarburos en Venezuela (2006) como instrumentos de política pública del proceso político venezolano. En principio presentamos un marco teórico conceptual que nos permite ubicarnos en el contexto del análisis de políticas públicas. El método utilizado será el interpretativo tanto en las leyes en cuestión como de los referentes teóricos sobre el análisis de políticas públicas para establecer la relación entre las leyes antes mencionadas. Se plantea como resultado que la formulación de ambos instrumentos jurídicos forman parte del proceso político de Venezuela, encaminados a generar valor público, resolver las necesidades de los actores sociales y para el desarrollo integral del país, haciendo énfasis en la soberanía, tanto energética como científica y tecnológica.<hr/>The aim of this paper is to present an analysis of the relationship between the Organic Law on Science, Technology and Innovation (2010) and the Organic Law of Hydrocarbons in Venezuela (2006) as instruments of public policy of the Venezuelan political process. We present a conceptual framework that allows us to place ourselves in the context of public policy analysis. The method used is both interpretative laws in question as the theoretical framework for the analysis of public policies to establish the relationship between the above-mentioned laws. Arises as a result the development of both legal instruments are part of the political process in Venezuela, aimed at generating public value, to meet the needs of stakeholders and to the development of the country, emphasizing the sovereignty, both energy and science and technology. <![CDATA[Innovation and Production in Manufacturing Industry: a Comparative Study about Global Chains]]> Desde hace cuatro décadas se verifica la emergencia de una nueva lógica de acumulación en el seno de la producción capitalista. La hipótesis del trabajo es que en la industria manufacturera esta nueva tendencia se expresa en la creciente segmentación de las etapas de innovación y fabricación de productos, acompañada de una integración de las variantes informacional y estético-expresiva en el plano de la innovación. A partir de un abordaje que combina diferentes categorías teóricas (cadenas de valor global, sistema histórico de acumulación, desacople entre capacidades de innovación y producción) y de una metodología basada en el análisis de fuentes secundarias, se estudiaron las cadenas farmacéutica, de indumentaria y de productos electrónicos de consumo. Los resultados alcanzados permitieron confirmar la hipótesis planteada y la detección de particularidades en materia de naturaleza de la innovación, constitución de barreras a la entrada y dispersión geográfica para cada cadena.<hr/>A new logic in the capitalist accumulation process has emerged in the last four decades. The hypothesis of the article is that this new logic expresses itself in the manufacturing industry through the increasing segmentation of product innovation and product manufacturing activities, and the integration of two alternative types of innovation activities: informational and aesthetic-expressive. Starting from an approach that combines different theoretical categories (global value chain, historical system of accumulation, disconnection between innovation and production capabilities) and a methodology based on the analysis of secondary sources of information, three productive chains have been studied: pharmaceutical, apparel and consumer electronics. The outcome of the research confirms the formulated hypothesis and allows us to detect specificities in the content of innovation, the constitution of entry barriers and the geographical dispersion in each chain. <![CDATA[Occupational Insertion of New PhD Researchers in Chile]]> The formation of new highly trained human resources is considered a key factor for social, cultural and economic development. During the last years, Chile has made a significant effort to increase the amount of Ph.D researchers. Nevertheless, there is no evidence from the National Innovation System (NIS) regarding the insertion capacity for this duplicated population of new researchers in the local labor market. Under such point of view, public investment is eventually under risk, due to the sub-optimal conditions to absorb and employ these professionals in activities related to science research and technological development in Chile.<hr/>La formación de nuevo capital humano avanzado es clave para el desarrollo social, cultural y económico de las naciones. En los últimos años, Chile ha realizado un esfuerzo considerable por aumentar la cantidad de investigadores con grado de doctorado. Sin embargo, no hay evidencia que el Sistema Nacional de Innovación (SNI) chileno tenga la capacidad para insertar a estos nuevos investigadores que vendrían a duplicar la población de científicos en Chile. De esta forma, la inversión pública en esta materia corre el eventual riesgo de que los nuevos doctores no encuentren las condiciones para insertarse laboralmente en funciones profesionales propias de investigación científica y desarrollo tecnológico dentro de Chile.