Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Journal of technology management & innovation]]> vol. 12 num. 1 lang. en <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> <![CDATA[<strong>La Sub-Capitalización de Activos Intelectuales en América Latina</strong>]]> <![CDATA[<strong>An Institutional Framework to Explain the University</strong>: <strong>Industry Technology Transfer in a Public University of Mexico</strong>]]> In the last years, studies and modifications to the science and technology regulatory framework in Mexico show the increase in the attention to transfer the research results of professors and researchers from higher education institutions, towards the productive sector with the purpose of generating regional, national and international growth and development. This study has conducted to the search of the factors that determine the increase of linkage activities and technology transfer. Based on the literature review, this study develops a framework integrated with the factors considered that have a significantly impact in the university-industry linkage and technology transfer. The proposed independent variables are the following: Institutional Factors, Academic Profile, and Innovation. <![CDATA[<strong>Global Organization of Innovation and Cooperability in Brazilian Multinationals</strong>]]> Understanding the dissipation of innovations is necessary to develop them, as a company on its own does not have all the capabilities that it needs. On the contrary, they are increasingly spread over internal and external contexts, and are not developed in isolation. Most of the time, they depend on interactive, innovative processes in a global context. The aim of this study is to evaluate how the global organizational structure of innovation affects the dynamic capability of cooperation (cooperability) in Brazilian multinationals (BMNs). To achieve this goal, we conducted a survey of BMNs, and a final sample of 60 companies answered a structured questionnaire. We performed statistical tests such as Factor Analysis, Cronbach's Alpha, Multiple Regression and Hierarchical Cluster, and cross-analysis of quantitative results that enabled us to create a Cooperability Model, that is, a model of local, international and global development for a dynamic capability of cooperation in BMNs. The results show that technological strengths of foreign subsidiaries and the reverse transfer of their capabilities to the parent company and technology partners affect the dynamics of cooperation in BMNs (inputs and results of cooperability). Furthermore, we detected an inverse relationship between the autonomy of foreign subsidiaries and the dynamic of cooperation in BMNs. <![CDATA[<strong>Regulation - Do or Die</strong>: <strong>An Analysis of Factors Critical to New Product Development in a Regulatory Context</strong>]]> This study explores new product development in a strict regulatory and historically secretive environment. Adopting a systems perspective and a mixed methods approach in our research, we examine medical device development in Ireland. Findings indicate that the possession of a regulatory strategy expedites the rate of commercialization, so too does the generation of clear product definitions and marketing claims in the earliest developmental phases. Moreover, results suggest that if the regulated industry strengthens its culture for regulation by prioritizing regulation over speed to market, by encouraging cross-functional team collaborations, and by taking a more proactive approach in post-marketing surveillance activities, it has the potential to improve customer satisfaction and enhance product innovation. This study provides unique empirical data enriched by the homogeneity of its sample. It also contributes guidance to practitioners of new product development within a regulatory context. <![CDATA[<strong>Characterisation of the Manufacturing Sectors of High and Medium-High Technology Compared with Other Industrial Sectors</strong>]]> This study aims to identify the main characteristics of the activities concentrating on R & D and innovation in the industrial sector of high and medium-high technology, and also the main differences with regard to non technological sectors. In order to do so we use data on 1540 manufacturing companies in Spain in two subgroups according to the National Classification of Economic Activities (CNAE). The data correspond to the values of 44 variables organised into 5 blocks of activity that have to do with R & D and innovation. The study includes an exploratory-descriptive analysis with the aim of providing information, and evidence of the outstanding characteristics of sectors with more technological components compared with other industrial manufacturing sectors. Although the study refers to Spanish companies, a large proportion of the results are easily transferrable to similar socioeconomic environments. <![CDATA[<strong>Vectors of Innovation Definition for Application During Conceptual Design Stage of Product Development Process</strong>]]> The quest for product with unique attributes and added value, along with the shortening of product life cycle are directly related to the degree of competitiveness of organizations. The identification of innovation opportunities in the early stages of the product development process is seen as a means for increasing competitiveness. Among those stages that have relevant impacts during the design process, is conceptual design, when many important decisions related to the degree of novelty of a design solution are taken. This study aims at identifying elements connected to innovation issues that can contribute to the selection of conceptual proposals that have potential to be transformed into novel and successful products. To map these elements, a literature review was conducted in parallel with a reverse analysis of a set of so called innovative products. From the recognition and grouping of these elements that can induce innovation, a field research was conducted with professional designers in order to identify if they recognized the set of elements as representing vectors of innovation, as well as, their relative importance. Next, a descriptive application was run, considering a real design situation extracted from literature, illustrating how to select a conceptual design solution that presents the greater potential for innovation, from the set of elements identified. Thus, this study provides the identification and determination of degrees of importance for inducing elements innovation in order to demonstrate the possibility of assessing potential for innovation in the early stages of the product development process. <![CDATA[<strong>Proposal for a Method for Business Model Performance Assessment</strong>: <strong>Toward an Experimentation Tool for Business Model Innovation</strong>]]> The representation of business models has been recently widespread, especially in the pursuit of innovation. However, defining a company's business model is sometimes limited to discussion and debates. This study observes the need for performance measurement so that business models can be data-driven. To meet this goal, the work proposed as a hypothesis the creation of a method that combines the practices of the Balanced Scorecard with a method of business models representation - the Business Model Canvas. Such a combination was based on study of conceptual adaptation, resulting in an application roadmap. A case study application was performed to check the functionality of the proposition, focusing on startup organizations. It was concluded that based on the performance assessment of the business model it is possible to propose the search for change through experimentation, a path that can lead to business model innovation. <![CDATA[<strong>Study of the Start-Up Ecosystem in Lima, Peru</strong>: <strong>Analysis of Interorganizational Networks</strong>]]> According to the literature, In the context of changes at a global level the formation of new businesses drives the economy, being important start-ups, which are linked to a community of entrepreneurs, mentors, incubators, accelerators, providers of common services, angel investors, venture capitalists, universities and public support entities, which together configure an ecosystem that is linked to other ecosystems. In this way, this work focuses on the Lima, Peru ecosystem with the aim of providing an understanding of the interorganizational networks that are established based on the analysis of the interactions that occur in the LinkedIn social network. Definitions, methodology, results and conclusions are presented. <![CDATA[<strong>Import Substitution in Argentine Biopharmaceutical Industry</strong>: <strong>A Moving Target Strategy</strong>]]> Desde una perspectiva de sustitución de importaciones basada en la industria infantil, la protección del mercado interno es necesaria como un primer paso para generar un proceso de aprendizaje tecnológico. Esta perspectiva es de relevancia frente a la emergencia de la biotecnología como paradigma tecnológico. Para ciertos países en desarrollo como la Argentina que han alcanzado tempranamente un umbral mínimo de conocimientos y ciertas capacidades manufactureras, esto abre una ventana de oportunidad. Este trabajo muestra a partir de datos de comercio la existencia de espacio para sustitución de importaciones dependiendo de la complejidad de las tecnologías y discute ciertos aspectos para impulsar deliberadamente este tipo de estrategias.<hr/>From an infant capability approach of import substitution, domestic market protection is a necessary first step to generate technological learning. This view is relevant in the face of biotechnology paradigm emergence. For developing countries as Argentina, that had early achieved a minimum threshold of knowledge and manufacturing experience, this opens a window of opportunity. This works shows that there is space for an importation substitution strategy in Argentina depending on the complexity of technologies involved discussing some aspects to encourage deliberately this strategy. <![CDATA[<strong>Innovation and Entrepreneurship in Chilean Political Discourse</strong>]]> El objetivo de esta investigación es determinar el significado político que han adoptado las nociones de 'innovación' y 'emprendimiento' en las cuentas públicas presidenciales del 21 de mayo en Chile desde el año 1990 hasta 2016, con el fin de revelar tanto las construcciones discursivas asociadas a estos términos como la manera en que éstas se relacionan con las prácticas políticas a través del tiempo. Para lograrlo, se emplearon herramientas de la lingüística de corpus para realizar el análisis del discurso político. Los resultados arrojaron que tanto 'innovación' como 'emprendimiento' son conceptos que están asociados a aspectos económicos. Además, mientras el primero se comienza a usar de manera sistemática en los discursos del primer gobierno de Michelle Bachelet, el segundo es empleado principalmente en los discursos de Sebastián Piñera. En cuanto a los ámbitos temáticos, 'innovación' se entiende, en mayor medida, como un concepto esencial en el desarrollo productivo del país y 'emprendimiento' se entiende como un trabajo en sí.<hr/>The objective of this research is to determine the political signification of the notions of innovation and entrepreneurship in the presidential public accounts of May 21 in Chile from 1990 to 2016, in order to reveal both the discursive constructions associated with these terms and the way they relate to political practices over time. To achieve this, corpus linguistics tools are used for the analysis of political discourse. The results showed that both innovation and entrepreneurship are concepts that are associated with economic aspects. In addition, while the first begins to be used systematically in the speeches of the first government of Michelle Bachelet, the second is used mainly in Sebastian Piñeras speeches. Regarding the thematic areas, innovation is understood as an essential concept in the productive development of the country and entrepreneurship is understood as a job in itself. <![CDATA[<strong>Public procurement policy as a stimulus for innovation and entrepreneurship</strong>]]> En los últimos años se ha produciendo una creciente tendencia hacia la incorporación de instrumentos de articulación de la demanda. Uno de los instrumentos que mayor atención ha recibido es el de la compra pública. En este artículo tratamos de ilustrar cómo el sector público puede comportarse de una manera estratégica, considerando la innovación como uno de los principios fundamentales a la hora de realizar dichas compras. Todo ello queda reflejado por medio de cuatro iniciativas de compras públicas como estímulo a la innovación. Además de ello, ofrecemos un marco conceptual en el que se relaciona la innovación con el emprendimiento y se analiza el potencial de la compra pública para estimular ambos fenómenos.<hr/>In recent years a major use of demand side instruments to innovation policy has been witnessed, one of this instruments being public procurement. This article aims at providing some evidence on how the public sector can adopt a strategic behavior, considering innovation as one of the main rationales in their public procurement processes. We illustrate this role by analyzing four cases that shed some light on how public procurement for innovation can take place. In addition, we also introduce a conceptual framework relating innovation to entrepreneurship, and the potential role of public procurement as an effective instrument fostering both activities is analyzed. <![CDATA[<strong>Export of Art, Editorial and Graphic Objects</strong>: <strong>Perspective for Argentina and Chile</strong>]]> Frente a la oportunidad que brinda el mercado de bienes creativos a la diversificación exportadora y a la creación de empleo e inclusión, el objetivo principal de este artículo es analizar el mercado mundial y regional de objetos de arte, colección, antigüedad, editorial e industrias gráficas y determinar las variables que pueden estar influyendo en el comportamiento exportador de estos bienes creativos en Argentina y Chile durante el período 2002-2015. Para ello, se desarrollará una investigación descriptiva y empírica, revisando detalladamente datos y evidencias y; posteriormente, se determinará un modelo gravitacional ampliado que será estimado mediante datos de panel estáticos y dinámicos. Los principales resultados indican que el comportamiento exportador de estos bienes creativos en Argentina y Chile está explicado por un modelo dinámico, en que a mayor producto nacional bruto del país importador y mejor facilidad reglamentaria y legal para hacer negocios mayores será la exportación de estos bienes.<hr/>The main objective of this article is to analyze the world and regional market for objects of art, collection, antiquity, publishing and graphic industries, and in order to analyze the opportunities offered by the creative goods market to export diversification and job creation and inclusion. Determine the variables that may be influencing the export behavior of these creative goods in Argentina and Chile during the period 2002-2015. For this, a descriptive and empirical investigation will be developed, reviewing in detail data and evidences and; Later, an extended gravitational model will be determined which will be estimated using static and dynamic panel data. The main results indicate that the export behavior of these creative goods in Argentina and Chile is explained by a dynamic model in which the greater gross national product of the importing country and better regulatory and legal facility to do business will be the export of these goods.