Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Maderas. Ciencia y tecnología]]> vol. 18 num. 3 lang. pt <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> <![CDATA[<strong>Sorption behavior of four tropical woods using a dynamic vapor sorption standard analysis system</strong>]]> Sorption behavior of four tropical woods coming from Cameroon is studied using a Dynamic Vapor Sorption-Intrinsic apparatus. Sorption isotherms at 20°C and 40°C of Triplochiton scleroxylon (obeche), Entandrophragma cylindricum (sapele), Sterculia rhinopetala (lotofa) and Terminalia superba (frake also called limba) are compared to those in the literature with methods using saturated salts for lotofa and frake with satisfactory results. Experimental values are fitted using two sorption isotherm models. Sorption hysteresis is greatest in sapele and least in frake. When temperature increases, differences in the hysteresis of sorption among the woods decreases. Hystereses of all studied woods ranged from 0,5 to 3%. Our studied woods have lower equilibrium moisture content probably caused by the higher values of extractives content. The water sorbed molecules on multilayer during both adsorption and desorption at 20°C and 40°C is greater in the case of frake and lower in the case of lotofa. The water sorbed molecules on multilayer of sapele is greater than those of obeche. The predominance of multilayer over monolayer of our woods is from 0,2 to 0,4 relative humidity in adsorption phase, and from 0,3 to 0,4 relative humidity in desorption phase. <![CDATA[<strong>Some technological properties of laminated veneer lumber produced with fast-growing </strong><em><b>Poplar</b></em><strong> and </strong><em><b>Eucalyptus</b></em>]]> Fast-growing tree species are important due to their short growth time before they are harvested. Both the Poplar and Eucalyptus species are fast-growing trees. These two species have been cultivated in many parts of the world, and they are used in several ways, including in the pulp and paper industry, as wood- based panels, and as structural composite lumber. In this study, laminated veneer lumbers were produced using different combinations of Poplar (Populus x euramericana I-214) and Eucalyptus (Eucalyptus grandis) veneers. Some physical and mechanical properties, including density, thickness swelling, water absorption, modulus of elasticity, modulus of rupture, impact bending, and bonding performance were investigated. According to the test data that were obtained, the mechanical properties of laminated veneer lumbers produced with Eucalyptus were greater than those of laminated veneer lumbers produced with Poplar. When the two were combined and Eucalyptus was used as the top and bottom plies, the mechanical properties also were better than those of Poplar laminated veneer lumbers. As a result, it can be said that both Poplar and Eucalyptus veneers can be used to produce laminated veneer lumbers, and Poplar laminated veneer lumbers can be reinforced with Eucalyptus veneers. <![CDATA[<strong>Wood planing properties of Australian plantation-grown </strong><em><b>Eucalypts</b></em>]]> Planing properties of seven Australian plantation-grown Eucalypts were evaluated to provide recommendations on how these species should be machined and considered for the manufacture of high quality furniture and furnishings. The surface quality produced for each species was evaluated using eight planing conditions. All species performed well producing equivalent or better results than mature traditional furniture species, and could be used for high value furniture manufacturing. Tungsten carbide cutters produced better results than high-speed steel for most Eucalypts and the grinding of a small chip-breaker usually produced improving results as the size of the chip-breaker was reduced. Grain orientation did not affect the planed surfaces for some species but planing with the grain usually produced better surface. Recovery and presence of torn grain could not be related to the wood density. <![CDATA[<strong>Effect of extractive content on the thermal stability of two wood species from Brazil</strong>]]> The influence of extractive content on the thermal stability and kinetic degradation of two wood species has been investigated using chemical analysis and thermogravimetry. Two wood species were studied: Pinus taeda and Eucalyptus grandis. Thermogravimetric results showed that higher extractive contents in the wood accelerate the degradation process and promote an increase in the conversion values at lower temperatures reducing the wood thermal stability. After removing the extractives from wood the thermal stability for both wood species increased. The results also demonstrated that prior information about the wood composition can be helpful to increase the range of industrial applications of wood. <![CDATA[<strong>Studies on effect of coat thickness on the moisture uptake by a hardwood substrate</strong>]]> The moisture sorption behaviour of three coating thicknesses of shellac and polyurethane films on Dalbergia sissoo substrate is studied in this paper. The thin films of either coat failed to reduce the water vapour transmission significantly. However, the thick coats were able to reduce this rate illustrating the importance film thickness of coating used on surfaces of wood products. The increment in Moisture Content over the conditioned MC showed a clear film thickness effect in the case of PU with the increments reducing with increasing thickness. The Moisture Exclusion Effectiveness of PU coating showed better values than shellac coating with both the finishes showing a thickness effect. More importantly, the study illustrated the effect of coating thickness even when the differences are small. <![CDATA[Effect of mechanical treatment on properties of cellulose nanofibrils produced from bleached hardwood and softwood pulps]]> Bleached hardwood and softwood South African kraft pulps were passed through a commercially available micro grinder for varying number of passes and the properties of the resultant pulps were assessed periodically using microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray crystallography (XRD) and Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The ultrastructural analysis of the pulp fibres revealed that after 120 passes both hardwood and softwood bleached fibres showed the presence of cellulose nanofibres (CNFs). The FTIR analysis showed no modification to the cellulose structure and side groups upon treatment with the supermasscolloider (SMC). Both hardwood and softwood pulp fibres showed a decline in crystallinity after SMC treatment. For the hardwood pulps there were no major differences between the untreated pulps and those passed through the SMC. In the case of the softwood pulps, the SMC treatment resulted in more thermally stable CNFs compared with the untreated bleached pulps. This was observed at several levels of treatment (40, 120 and 200 passes). After 200 passes both the hardwood and softwood kraft pulp fibres produced CNFs with an average width of 11 nm and lengths with several micrometers. <![CDATA[<strong>Ultrasound and anisotropy of </strong><em><b>Thuja plicata</b></em><strong> and </strong><em><b>Acer saccharum</b></em><strong> wood</strong>]]> La velocidad del ultrasonido en la madera y el módulo de elasticidad, siguen un patrón anisotrópico, que se infiere mediante un modelo teórico. El objetivo de la investigación fue determinar la variación de la velocidad del ultrasonido y del módulo de elasticidad en el plano longitudinal-tangencial en la madera de Thuja plicata y Acer saccharum. Se estudiaron 32 probetas de cada especie diseñadas específicamente para la investigación. Se calcularon la velocidad del ultrasonido y el módulo de elasticidad en diez posiciones en el plano longitudinal-tangencial. Los resultados experimentales se contrastaron con las previsiones del modelo de anisotropía propuesto. Para la madera de T. plicata y A. saccharum, las velocidades de ultrasonido fueron para la dirección longitudinal 5610 m/s y 5935 m/s y para la dirección tangencial 1198 m/s y 1372 m/s. Los módulos de elasticidad en la dirección longitudinal fueron 11126 MPa y 24688 MPa y para la dirección tangencial 530 MPa y 1320 MPa.<hr/>The ultrasound speed and the modulus of elasticity of the wood material follow an anisotropic behavior predicted by a theoretical model. The goal of the research was to determine the variation of the ultrasound speed and the modulus of elasticity over the longitudinal-tangential plane of Thuja plicata and Acer saccharum wood. For each species, 32 wood specimens were tested. The ultrasound speed and the modulus of elasticity were calculated in ten positions over the longitudinal-tangential plane. Experimental results were contrasted with the predictions of the proposed anisotropy model. For the T. plicata and A. saccharum woods, the ultrasound speeds were, for the longitudinal direction 5610 m/s and 5935 m/s, and for the tangential direction 1198 m/s y 1372 m/s. The moduli of elasticity were, for the longitudinal direction 11126 MPa and 24688 MPa, and for the tangential direction 530 MPa and 1320 MPa. <![CDATA[<strong>Analysis of volumetric swelling and shrinkage of heat treated woods</strong>: <strong>Experimental and artificial neural network modeling approach</strong>]]> Shrinkage and swelling characteristics of wood as a hygroscopic material affect negatively its effective utilization for a variety of applications. Heat treatment is widely used for minimizing the negative effects of volumetric swelling and shrinkage of wood. The present study aims to develop artificial neural network (ANN) models for predicting volumetric swelling and shrinkage of heat treated woods. For this purpose, wood samples were subjected to heat treatment at varying temperatures (130, 150, 170 and 190 ºC) for varying durations (2, 4, 6 and 8 h). Experimental results have showed that volumetric swelling and shrinkage of wood decreased by heat treatment. Then, neural networks models capable of predicting the swelling and shrinkage of the treated woods were developed based on the resulting data. It was seen that ANN models allowed volumetric swelling and shrinkage of such woods to predict successfully with a limited set of experimental data. This approach was able to predict volumetric swelling and shrinkage of wood with a mean absolute percentage error equal to 2,599% and 2,647% in test phase, respectively. The developed models might thus serve as a robust tool to predict volumetric swelling and shrinkage with less number of experiments. <![CDATA[<strong>NIR spectroscopy can evaluate the crystallinity and the tensile and burst strengths of nanocellulosic films</strong>]]> The near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy presents it self as an interesting non-destructive test tool as it enables a fast, simple and reliable way for characterizing large samplings of biological materials in a short period of time. This work aimed to establish multivariate models to estimate the crystallinity indices and tensile and burst strength of cellulosic and nanocellulosic films through NIR spectroscopy. NIR spectra were recorded from the films before tensile and bursting strength, and crystallinity tests. Spectral information were correlated with reference values obtained by laboratory procedures through partial least square regression (PLS-R). The PLS-R model for estimating the crystallinity index presented a coefficient of determination in cross-validation (R²cv) of 0,94 and the ratio of performance to deviation (RPD) was 3,77. The mechanical properties of the films presented a high correlation with the NIR spectra: R²p = 0,85 (RPD = 2,23) for tensile and R²p = 0,93 (RPD = 3,40) for burst strength. The statistics associated to the models presented have shown that the NIR spectroscopy has the potential to estimate the crystallinity index and resistance properties of cellulose and nanocellulose films on in-line monitoring systems. <![CDATA[<strong>Wood and charcoal identification of five species from the miscellaneous group known in Brazil as “</strong><em><b>Angelim</b></em><strong>” by Near-IR and wood anatomy</strong>]]> Samples of wood sold as "angelim" in Brazil were studied. Disks from the trunks of Diplotropis purpurea, Hymenolobium petraeum, Parkia pendula, Vatairea guianensis and Vatairea paraensis were obtained from Mato Grosso state. Samples from pith to bark of each species were obtained, oriented in the three anatomical planes. Each sample was wrapped in aluminum foil and carbonized in a muffle furnace, with a final temperature of 450 °C and a heating rate of 1,66 °C min-1. The description of the anatomical elements of wood and charcoal samples followed the orientations of the International Association of Wood Anatomists, on the basis of 25 readings regarding frequency and tangential diameter of the vessels and height and width of the rays in micrometers. Infrared analyses were performed with a Bruker Tensor 37 spectrophotometer equipped with an integrating sphere and operating in reflectance mode, with resolution of 4 cm-1 and a spectral range of 10000-4000 cm-1. The wood and charcoal samples were placed on top of integrating sphere and one spectrum was obtained from each surface, resulting in six spectra for each physical sample. The results of anatomical analysis showed that the qualitative characteristics of wood remained in charcoal, so the method can be applied for species discrimination. When comparing cell dimensions, we observed different behavior between species in the same carbonization process in function of cell wall thickness and parenchyma distribution. In infrared analysis, pretreatment influenced adequate discrimination of "angelim" species in wood and charcoal. Linear discriminant analysis based on PCA scores and the region between 4000-6200 cm-1 was more efficient. Near infrared analysis can be used for differentiation of wood and charcoal of "angelim" species.