Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Maderas. Ciencia y tecnología]]> http://www.scielo.cl/rss.php?pid=0718-221X20140003&lang=en vol. 16 num. 3 lang. en <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.cl/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.cl <![CDATA[<strong>Sabiendo lo que hay que saber en Ciencias de la Madera revalorizado en la sociedad del conocimiento</strong>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-221X2014000300001&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en <![CDATA[Degradation of polypropylene in naturally and artificially weathered plastic matrix composites]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-221X2014000300002&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Effects of accelerated and natural weathering on the molecular weight distribution (MWD) and crystallinity of polypropylene (PP) in wood plastic composites (WPC) were investigated. The composites were produced from pine fibers (60%) and PP (40%). Prolonged weathering caused an increase in wood degradation and erosion thereby leaving cracks and ‘‘pits’’ on the surface. Pyrolysis gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (Py GC-MS) revealed that PP dominated the weathered surface due to wood degradation. For matrix analysis, PP was extracted using 1,2,4- trichlorobenzene. Crystallinity and molecular weight distribution of PP were monitored by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and gel permeation chromatography (GPC), respectively. PP’s crystallinity increased upon longer exposure time. The weight and number average molecular weight (Mw and Mn) decreased with an increase in weathering duration. An increased polydispersity (PD =Mw/Mn) implies that a secondary cross-linking process occurred during weathering. <![CDATA[<strong>Some Physical characteristics of thermally modified oriental- beech wood</strong>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-221X2014000300003&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Heat treatment of Oriental-beech (Fagus orientalis) wood was carried out by hot air in an oven for 2, 4, and 8 h at 140, 170, and 200°C. After heat treatment, some physical characteristics such as surface roughness, color, glossiness, and mass loss of Oriental-beech wood specimens were measured. Our results showed that heat treatment caused decrease in surface roughness, glossiness, and mass loss values of Oriental-beech (Fagus orientalis) wood specimens. The decrease in lightness at all temperatures indicates that the specimens become darker with the treatment time. While, a* coordinate (red component) decreased as temperature increased, b* coordinate (yellow component) initially increased at 140°C and then decreased at 170°C and 200°C. <![CDATA[<strong>Moisture absorption and dimensional stability of poplar wood impregnated with sucrose and sodium chloride</strong>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-221X2014000300004&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en This paper deals with the effect of vacuum-pressure impregnation of Poplar wood (Populus alba) by aqueous solutions of sucrose and sodium chloride on its physical properties. Groups of samples with different concentrations of substances in the aqueous solution were compared within each other and also with a reference (non-impregnated) group. The specimens from all groups were tested for density, moisture absorption and dimensional stability. The obtained data were statistically analysed and compared each other. The most satisfying final properties were achieved in impregnation of sucrose with concentration of 6,25 g/100 ml H2O. The retention was 31 kg m-3 (WPG around 8 %). The values of ASE (anti-swelling efficiency) reached to 36 % and MEE (moisture exclusion efficiency) was reduced by 33 %. <![CDATA[<strong>Chemical and biometrical properties of plum wood and its application in pulp and paper production</strong>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-221X2014000300005&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Plum (Prunus domestica) is one of the most widespread species of fruit trees in Asia and South-East Europe. There are large quantities of fruit wood trees without suitable usage in world. The aim of this research was to examine biometrical and chemical properties of the plum wood and its application in the pulp and paper industry. Five normal plum trees were randomly selected from Shahriyar province, Iran. A log cut down at stem (breast height) and branch for each of trees. The pith parts of cross-section were removed to examine the chemical (according to the TAPPI standard) and biometrical properties (according to the Franklin method). Results indicated that there were significant differences between stem and branch samples in fiber diameter and lumen diameter. Types of wood (branch and stem) had not significant differences on the chemical properties and fiber length, cell wall thickness and morphological properties. Among all of studied properties, the lignin, cellulose, fiber diameter, fiber lumen diameter, cell wall thickness and flexibility coefficient in branch wood is higher than stem wood. Although Runkel and flexibility coefficients of stem and branch fibers are lower than the accepted standard, but because of closing amount of lignin, extractive composition and fiber length to hardwood species, it can solve some of the problems of the lack of raw materials for paper production. <![CDATA[A contribution to the identification of charcoal origin in Brazil: I- anatomical characterization of corymbia and eucalyptus]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-221X2014000300006&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Charcoal is one of the main forestry products and Brazil is the world’s largest producer. Its production from native species is estimated at 30-35% of total output. One of the major problems of the iron and steel industry is charcoal consumption, especially in terms of environmental and social aspects. Therefore, the use of reforestation species must be increased. Considering most of the energy forests in Brazil are planted with eucalyptus, the present work aims to contribute to the identification of charcoal origin through anatomical analysis of Eucalyptus and Corymbia. The wood samples were carbonized in a muffle furnace during 7h to a maximum of 450ºC. Anatomical analysis was done according to IAWA Committee. We found few works with charcoal anatomy and the species analyzed were not characterized. The results on charcoal are very close to previous studies of wood anatomy. But, we recommend the comparison of materials of similar features, enhancing the visual acuity, particularities of each material and modifications that might happen. We believe that this analysis is an accurate tool to identify the source of charcoal and can help to guarantee the sustainability of the charcoal supply chain. <![CDATA[<strong>Effect of drying process on marupá wood color</strong>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-221X2014000300007&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en This research was developed after consultations with tropical timber exporters, who were facing problems with the colors of the species under study. This work aimed at characterizing Simarouba amara tropical wood color and verifying possible differences between the colorimetric parameters determined for the tangential and the radial directions of the wood, kiln-dried and air-dried. S. amara wood presents a grayish-white color. This color is mainly characterized by the b* coordinate (yellow pigment). Depending on the drying method used, the wood may present different colors for both tangential and radial directions. In both drying methods conducted, the wood presented lighter color in the tangential direction. Kiln-drying appeared to reduce S. amara wood lightness. <![CDATA[<b>Patterns of variation of wood density and cellular morphometry in <i>Salix babylonica </i>for </b><b>determining</b><b> the age of transition</b><b> between juvenile and mature wood</b>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-221X2014000300008&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en El objetivo del trabajo fue analizar los patrones de variación axial y radial de la densidad y morfometría celular de la madera de sauce americano y determinar la edad de transición de madera juvenil a madura. Se muestrearon cinco árboles de 45 años de Salix babylonica de Entre Ríos, Argentina. Se tomaron muestras a tres alturas en el fuste y en 9 posiciones radiales y se determinó la densidad básica y la morfometría de fibras y vasos. Los patrones de variación radial evidenciaron un leve aumento de magnitud con la edad, mientras que la mayor variación axial se manifestó mayoritariamente entre la base y la altura de 1,3m el fuste, presentándose diferentes tendencias de acuerdo a la variable. Dependiendo de la variable analizada, la edad de transición entre madera juvenil y madura fue de 5 a 10 años o de 10 a 15 años. La longitud y ancho de fibras y el diámetro de vasos fueron los primeros parámetros en madurar. Los valores promedio de las variables de la madera juvenil y madura no mostraron diferencias importantes entre los leños, por lo tanto podrían considerarse como homogéneos desde el punto de vista anatómico y de densidad.<hr/>The aim of this work was to determine the patterns of axial and radial variation of the density and cellular morphometry of american willow wood, for determining the age of transition from juvenile to mature wood. The study was conducted on five trees of a 45- years-old plantation of a clone of Salix babylonica, from Entre Rios, Argentina. Samples were taken at three heights and at 9 radial positions of the stem for the determination of basic density and morphometry of fibers and vessels. The radial variation patterns showed a slight increase in magnitude with age, whereas the axial variation showed up between the base and a height of 1.3 m in the stem, presenting different tendencies according to the variable. Depending on the analyzed variable, the age of transition between juvenile and mature wood was 5 to 10 years, or 10 to 15 years. Fiber length and width and vessel diameter were the first characters to mature. The average values of the properties of juvenile and mature wood showed no substantial differences between logs, therefore they could be considered as anatomically and density homogeneous. <![CDATA[<strong>Some surface properties of thermally modified scots pine after artificial weathering</strong>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-221X2014000300009&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en In this study, it was aimed to investigate some surface characteristics such as surface roughness, color, and glossiness of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) wood specimens after 500 hours artificial weathering exposure. Our results showed that surface characteristics of thermally modified Scots pine gave better results than unmodified Scots pine after artificial weathering. Artificial weathering caused an increase in surface roughness and a decrease in glossiness of Scots pine wood. Results showed artificial weathered wood become darker, reddish, and yellowish. Generally, higher duration and temperature for Scots pine resulted in better surface characteristics of Scots pine after artificial weathering. <![CDATA[<strong>Improving dimensional stability of injection molded wood plastic composites using cold and hot water extraction methods</strong>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-221X2014000300010&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Dimensional stability of wood plastic composites (WPCs) made from polypropylene and pine wood flour with and without coupling agent was investigated. The pine wood flour was prepared from wood chips which had been immersed, respectively, in boiling water for 1 h, 3 h, and 5 h or in distilled water for 1 day, 3 days, and 5 days at room temperature. It was found that thickness swelling (TS) and water absorption (WA) of the WPCs made using extracted wood were lower than those of WPCs produced with unextracted wood. The TS and WA values of WPCs decreased with extraction duration both for cold and hot water extraction. The effect of hot water extraction on the TS and WA properties of the WPCs was more pronounced than cold water extraction. <![CDATA[<strong>Growth stresses and physical properties of </strong><em><b>Eucalyptus dunnii</b></em><strong> wood in Argentina</strong>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-221X2014000300011&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en El objetivo del trabajo fue evaluar tensiones de crecimiento en Eucalyptus dunnii y determinar el efecto de las propiedades físicas de la madera sobre esta variable. Se muestrearon 45 árboles de un ensayo de 19 años situado en la provincia de Corrientes, Argentina. Se realizaron determinaciones de tensiones de crecimiento a través de dos métodos: indicador de tensiones de crecimiento (GSI, CIRAD-Forêt) e índice de rajado en rollizo (IR). Se midieron las propiedades físicas, densidad básica y contracción volumétrica total y se determinó la variación radial de la densidad básica. Los resultados de GSI e IR mostraron valores más bajos que los citados para la especie (GSI: 0,0763±0,0251 mm e IR: 0,43± 0,31 %) y tuvieron buena asociación entre sí (r: 0,71). Se encontró una asociación baja entre tensiones de crecimiento con las propiedades físicas de la madera, densidad básica (r: 0,35 - 0,39) y contracción volumétrica total (r: 0,29 - 0,35). Los niveles de asociación aumentaron cuando las correlaciones se hicieron entre las estimaciones de tensiones de crecimiento y la tasa de cambio radial de la densidad básica (r: 0,59 - 0,52).<hr/>To evaluate growth stresses in Eucalyptus dunnii and determine the effect of physical wood properties on that variable, a total of 45 trees were sampled from a 19-years-old trial located at Corrientes, Argentina. Growth stresses were determined using the growth stress indicator (GSI, CIRAD-Forêt) and the log end split index (IR). The physical wood properties basic density and total volumetric shrinkage were measured and the pith-to- bark gradient of the basic density was determined. GSI and IR values obtained were lower than those cited for the species (GSI: 0,0763 ± 0,0251 mm and IR: 0,43 ± 0,31 %) and showed good association between themselves (r: 0,71). A low association between growth stresses and the physical wood properties basic density (r: 0,35 - 0,39) and volumetric shrinkage total (r: 0,29-0,35) was founded. The association levels were higher when growth stresses (GSI and IR) and the pith-to-bark gradient of the basic density (r: 0,59-0,52) were correlated.