Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Journal of theoretical and applied electronic commerce research]]> vol. 9 num. 2 lang. en <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> <![CDATA[<b>Special Issue on Innovation through Open Data</b>: <b>Guest Editors' Introduction</b>]]> <![CDATA[Going Beyond Open Data: Challenges and Motivations for Smart Disclosure in Ethical Consumption]]> Although the principle of transparency and openness is not new, recent years have brought increased attention to the need for greater government and private sector accountability driven mostly by the open government, smart disclosure and open data movements. But opening data in the government and private sectors brings about a set of challenges that need to be mitigated if we are to achieve greater information access. This paper aims to contribute to a better understanding of the challenges and motivations for data disclosure in the private sector. We used the sustainable coffee supply chain as a case study, gathering data through a workshop and a series of interviews with coffee supply chain participants and other stakeholders. We identified five challenges and six motivating factors facing data producers along the supply chain. These challenges and motivating factors can be further classified into four areas: market dynamics, information policies, data challenges, and technological capability. We believe that these findings can be generalized to inform discussion and policy design in other market areas. The paper concludes with a proposal for possible future steps to promote openness and innovation in the private sector. <![CDATA[<b>Shaping Local Open Data Initiatives</b>: <b>Politics and</b> <b>Implications</b>]]> This article explores different perspectives attributed to the open data initiatives and how these perspectives shape the opening-up process. A socio-technical lens, the social construction of technology, was used to analyse a qualitative cross-case study of two Swedish municipalities. Findings revealed two ways of interpreting open data initiatives: 1) as a platform for techno-economic growth and 2) as a platform for co-created societal growth. These two approaches addressed the municipalities respective contextual challenges and interests alongside national recommendations in their aims to realize the open data initiative. In doing so, they diverged into the evolvement toward two different ends: the realization of open data and the realization of open government. To excel the understanding of actions taken to meet these ends, an additional set of differences between these municipalities is provided within a sociotechnical framework that allows us to discuss diverging evolvements of open data initiatives based on agreed and non-agreed interpretations of what is believed to be constructed. <![CDATA[<b>A State-of-the-Art Analysis of the Current Public Data Landscape from a Functional, Semantic and Technical</b> <b>Perspective</b>]]> Open Government Data initiatives and particularly Open Government Data portals have proliferated since the late 2000's. A comprehensive analysis of the capabilities and potential of these initiatives is currently missing from the recent research literature. In order to address this gap, the paper at hand aims towards analyzing the landscape of Open Governmental Data in the European Union from a functional, semantic and technical perspective. Our research focused on the collection and categorization of an indicative number of public data sources for each of the 27 European Union country-members through investigating their services and characteristics. By modeling and classifying the data sources according to their key attributes, we were able to proceed to their statistical analysis and assessment in terms of their content, licensing, multilingual support, acquisition, ease of access, provision and data format. Our results portray the current quality of Public Sector Information infrastructures and highlight what still needs to be done in order to make public data truly open and readily available for researchers, citizens, companies and innovation in general. <![CDATA[<b>Using a Method and Tool for Hybrid Ontology Engineering</b>: <b>an Evaluation in the Flemish Research Information Space</b>]]> We report on the results of the application of a method and tool for ontology construction in the research information domain, held in the context of an open data initiative of Flanders. The method emphasizes the use of natural language descriptions of concepts next to formal descriptions, and uses - for the formal definitions -a fact-oriented formalism grounded in natural language. In this experiment, a group of 36 participants were divided into different groups to build ontologies to establish semantic interoperability between autonomously developed research information systems and to annotate the data of an existing system provided by a public administration. User satisfaction of the tool was measured with the Post-Study System Usability Questionnaire. The result of that survey was that the participants were generally pleased with the platform, with its usefulness scoring best. As for the developed ontologies, their use was demonstrated by the applications developed by the participants. The experiment showed that having a formalism grounded in natural language leverages the ontology construction process for the stakeholders. The experiment also shows that a method needs to take into account the collaborative building of workflows within ontology projects, as not all ontology-engineering projects are alike. <![CDATA[<strong>A Metrics-Driven Approach for Quality Assessment of Linked</strong> <strong>Open Data</strong>]]> The main objective of the Web of Data paradigm is to crystallize knowledge through the interlinking of already existing but dispersed data. The usefulness of the developed knowledge depends strongly on the quality of the published data. Researchers have observed many deficiencies with regard to the quality of Linked Open Data. The first step towards improving the quality of data released as a part of the Linked Open Data Cloud is to develop tools for measuring the quality of such data. To this end, the main objective of this paper is to propose and validate a set of metrics for evaluating the inherent quality characteristics of a dataset before it is released to the Linked Open Data Cloud. These inherent characteristics are semantic accuracy, syntactic accuracy, uniqueness, completeness and consistency. We follow the Goal-Question-Metric approach to propose various metrics for each of these five quality characteristics. We provide both theoretical validation and empirical observation of the behavior of the proposed metrics in this paper. The proposed set of metrics establishes a starting point for a systematic inherent quality analysis of open datasets. <![CDATA[<b>Open Government Data Implementation Evaluation</b>]]> This paper analyses the implementation of the Open Government Data strategy and portal of the City of Vienna. This evaluation is based on qualitative interviews and online polls after the strategy was implemented. Two groups of users were involved in the evaluation: internal target groups (employees and heads of department in the City of Vienna's public administration departments) and external stakeholders (citizens, business representatives, science and research, journalists). Analyzed aspects included the present organizational processes, the benefits (to business and society), and requirements for future Open Government Data initiatives. This evaluation reveals success factors which accompanied the implementation: the clear definition of responsibilities and the implementation along a process model, the integration of the Open Government Data platform into existing Content Management Systems, the evaluation of the Open Government Data initiative very shortly after its inception. Based on the theoretical and empirical findings, recommendations for future Open Government Data strategies are made which target the local authority and would require action on the federal level such as Creative Commons Attribution License as the default for subsidy funds or public relation measures carried out directly by the data providing departments. <![CDATA[<b>Data-Driven Innovation through Open Government Data</b>]]> The exponentially growing production of data and the social trend towards openness and sharing are powerful forces that are changing the global economy and society. Governments around the world have become active participants in this evolution, opening up their data for access and re-use by public and private agents alike. The phenomenon of Open Government Data has spread around the world in the last four years, driven by the widely held belief that use of Open Government Data has the ability to generate both economic and social value. However, a cursory review of the popular press, as well as an investigation of academic research and empirical data, reveals the need to further understand the relationship between Open Government Data and value. In this paper, we focus on how use of Open Government Data can bring about new innovative solutions that can generate social and economic value. We apply a critical realist approach to a case study analysis to uncover the mechanisms that can explain how data is transformed to value. We explore the case of Opower, a pioneer in using and transforming data to induce a behavioral change that has resulted in a considerable reduction in energy use over the last six years.