Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Ius et Praxis]]> http://www.scielo.cl/rss.php?pid=0718-001220060001&lang=es vol. 12 num. 1 lang. es <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.cl/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.cl <![CDATA[PRESENTACIÓN]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-00122006000100001&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es <![CDATA[<b>Sobre relaciones laborales triangulares</b>: <b>La subcontratación y el suministro de trabajadores</b>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-00122006000100002&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Las relaciones laborales triangulares puede adoptar, en lo fundamental, dos modalidades: la subcontratación laboral y el suministro de trabajadores por la vía de una empresa de trabajo temporal. La primera se refiere a la situación en que una empresa, dueña de una obra o faena, contrata a otra empresa, denominada contratista, mediante un contrato civil o comercial, para que ejecute a su cuenta y riesgo, con sus propios trabajadores, un determinado trabajo o servicio, pudiendo esta última a su turno, contratar a otra empresa, denominada subcontratista, para que lleve a cabo el trabajo o servicio requerido. La segunda, en cambio, consiste en que una empresa, cuyo giro corresponde al suministro de trabajadores (empresa suministradora o de trabajo temporal), pone a disposición de otra empresa (denominada usuaria), por el pago de un precio determinado, los servicios laborales de sus empleados, reteniendo para sí la calidad formal de empleador. En Chile, mientras la figura de la subcontratación laboral data de antiguo, y está regulada en la legislación vigente, el caso del suministro es distinto: sólo en los últimos años se presenta como un fenómeno de relevancia para la comunidad jurídica nacional, en directa relación con el momento de moda que vive la denominada descentralización productiva, que no se encuentra, por lo demás, reconocida en nuestra legislación laboral. La regulación de ambos tipos de relaciones triangulares es el objetivo al que va a la dirigido nueva ley de subcontratación: por una parte, se reconoce y regula por primera vez en Chile la figura del suministro de personal a través de lo que denomina empresas de servicios transitorios, y se perfecciona, por otra, la regulación de la subcontratación laboral mediante nuevas normas sobre la responsabilidad del dueño de la obra<hr/>The triangular labour relations could basically adopt two modalities: labour subcontracting and the supplying of workers by a temporary company employment. The first refers to a situation where a company, holding a job contract or task hires another company denominated contractor, through a civil or commercial contract so that it can execute on its own account and risk with its own workers, a specified job or service, which later in turn can hire another company, denominated subcontractor so that it can carry out the work or the required service. The second on the other hand consists of a company whose line of business corresponds to the supplying of workers (Supplier Company or temporary labour) and remains in disposition of another company to do the labour services of its owners for a fixed price, retaining thus the formal quality of an employer. In Chile, while the image of the subcontractor dates from antiquity and is regulated in the current legislation, the case of the supplier is different: only in the last years a phenomenon of relevance is presented for the national judicial community in direct relation to the momentary popularity experienced by the so called productive decentralization which is not found, for that matter, recognized in our labor legislation. The regulation of both types of triangular relations is the objective to which the new law of subcontracting is directed: on one hand, for the first time in Chile, the image of the supplier of persons through the company of temporary services is recognized and regulated. On the other hand the regulation of the labor subcontractor is improved through new norms about the responsibility of the owner of the task <![CDATA[<B>Fernández, Fuenzalida y Vera</B>: <B>Comentaristas, autodidactas y olvidados. Análisis diacrónico y sincrónico de la doctrina penal chilena del siglo XIX</B>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-00122006000100003&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Este artículo demuestra la formación autodidacta de los autores de los Comentarios al Código penal del Siglo XIX, y su escasa influencia en las obras de su época y de las siguientes, lo que se atribuye a los (malos) hábitos intelectuales de la formación universitaria nacional más que a una supuesta falta de valor de la información y argumentaciones que ellos ofrecen<hr/>This paper demonstrates the self-taught formation of the authors of the Commentaries to the penal Code of Century XIX, and its little influence in works of its time and the following ones, which is is attributed to the intellectual (bad) habits of the national university formation than to an supposed lack of value of the information and argumentations contained in them <![CDATA[<B>El proceso civil de "civil law"</B>: <B>Aspectos fundamentales</B>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-00122006000100004&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es En este artículo el autor analiza los sistemas procesales civiles de civil law y de common law desmarcándose de las tradicionales contraposiciones que la doctrina ha acostumbrado utilizar para la explicación de las diferencias fundamentales existentes entre uno y otro modelo. En efecto, a partir de la constatación de la insuficiencia y en ocasiones inutilidad de estas explicaciones para describir la situación actual de ambos modelos procesales, ensaya el autor un discurso que termina por dar luz a la evolución experimentada por estos sistemas y que, como bien apunta, se ha traducido en un acercamiento que se manifiesta de diversas formas como se ocupa de explicar<hr/>In this article the author analyses the procedural law systems of civil law and common law outlining the traditional objections that the doctrine is accustomed to using to explain the existing fundamental differences between one and the other model. In fact, it is from the constatation of the insufficiency and, in occasion the uselessness of these explanations in describing the actual situation of both procedural models, that the author attempts a discourse that in the end sheds light on the evolution experienced by these systems and, as he clearly indicates, has translated into an approximation that manifests in different forms <![CDATA[<B>El aperente conflicto de los artículos 68 y 127 de la carta fundamental respecto de la tramitación legislativa de los proyectos de reforma constitucional y la interpretación constitucional</B>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-00122006000100005&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es En el presente artículo se analizan a partir de los postulados básicos de interpretación constitucional, los artículos 68 y 127 de la Constitución chilena, teniendo presente la reforma constitucional de agosto de 2005 y la incorporación dentro del procedimiento de reforma constitucional de la modalidad de insistencia presidencial frente al rechazo de la idea de legislar por la Cámara de Origen<hr/>In the present article they are analysed from them advanced basic of institucional interpretation, the article 68 and 127 of chilean constutution, having present the constitutional reform of August of 2005 and the incorporation inside the procedure of constitutional reform of the modality of presidential insistence front al refusal of the idea of legislating for the Camera of Origin <![CDATA[<B>El reconocimiento jurisprudencial de la tortura y de la desaparición forzada de personas como normas imperativas de derecho internacional público</B>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-00122006000100006&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Una de las características más sobresalientes de la realidad jurídica del mundo moderno consiste en la presencia creciente del Derecho Internacional contemporáneo al momento de adoptar decisiones legislativas o jurisprudenciales en el ámbito de la jurisdicción interna de los Estados. Una de las principales normas que aparecen como cruciales en este aspecto son aquellas llamadas normas de ius cogens. Tanto tribunales internacionales como regionales y nacionales están reconociendo y recurriendo cada vez más a estas normas imperativas e inderogables. Debido a los acontecimientos ocurridos en el mundo, especialmente en el último tiempo, ciertas normas imperativas, como la prohibición de la tortura, adquieren para los órganos legislativos, ejecutivos y judiciales de los Estados una función inspiradora y orientadora fundamental. La actividad jurisprudencial desarrollada por los órganos jurisdiccionales tanto internacionales como extranjeros, constituye una demostración de que, debido a la interacción e interdependencia creciente entre el derecho interno y el Derecho Internacional, sin lugar a dudas, estas normas jugarán un rol mayor en el ámbito interno de los Estados<hr/>One of the most outstanding features of the modern world legal current issues consists in increasing presence of the contemporary international law at the moment of adopting law making or judicial decisions within states domestic jurisdiction. One of the main provisions that appear to be crucial in this aspect is those called imperative or ius cogens. International, regional and national tribunals are increasingly recognizing and applying these imperative and non derogable norms. Due to the world events especially in recent times, some peremptory norms like the prohibition of torture provide legislative, executive and judicial state's bodies with a major inspiring and guiding role. As a result of the hierarchy of these norms and the increasing interaction and interdependency between national and international legal systems, the case law activity developed by jurisdictional bodies, both international and foreign, represents evidence, without any doubt, that these norms will play a fundamental role within the states <![CDATA[<B>La determinación del derecho aplicable al contrato en la ley Nº 19.971 sobre arbitraje comercial internacional</B>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-00122006000100007&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es La ley N&ordm; 19.971 sobre arbitraje comercial internacional contiene normas relativas a la determinación del derecho aplicable al contrato, conforme a las cuales las partes están habilitadas para escoger el derecho que rija el fondo del mismo con un alto grado de autonomía, permitiéndose incluso el fraccionamiento legislativo o la elección de derechos no estatales. En el evento que las partes no designen el derecho aplicable al contrato, el tribunal arbitral determinará las normas de conflicto con arreglo a las cuales se designará la legislación que lo regirá. En este sentido, la regulación contenida en la ley sobre arbitraje comercial internacional viene a confirmar la plena vigencia en el ordenamiento jurídico nacional de la autonomía conflictual como factor de conexión en materia contractual, aceptada sólo parcialmente por la doctrina y la jurisprudencia. Estas circunstancias permiten anticipar posibles controversias en torno al alcance de la referida autonomía. Teniendo en consideración que el contenido de la ley N&ordm; 19.971 corresponde, con escasas variaciones, al de la ley modelo de la UNCITRAL sobre arbitraje comercial internacional, para la interpretación de la primera, resulta pertinente tener en consideración la historia de establecimiento, comentarios y jurisprudencia relativos a la segunda, antecedentes que deberán tenerse en cuenta al fijar el sentido y alcance de sus disposiciones<hr/>Law N&deg; 19.971 concerning international commercial arbitration contains rules relative to determining the law applicable to contracts, in accordance with which the parties are enabled to choose, with a high degree of autonomy, the law controlling the contract, even allowing fragmentation of the law or the choice of non-state laws. In the event that the parties do not designate the law applicable to the contract, the arbitral tribune will determine the rules of dispute in accordance with which the legislation governing them will be designated. In this sense, the regulation contained in the law on international commercial arbitration confirms the full force of the national legal code concerning autonomy in disputes as a connecting factor in contractual matters, accepted only partially by the doctrine and the jurisprudence. These circumstances permit the anticipation of possible controversies regarding the attainment of the aforementioned autonomy. Taking into account that the content of law n&deg; 19.971 corresponds, with few variations, to that of the UNCITRAL Model Law on international commercial arbitration when interpreting the first, it is pertinent to consider the history of establishment, commentaries and jurisprudence relative to the second, background that should be taken into account on fixing the meaning and the extent of its decrees <![CDATA[<B>La arbitrabilidad objetiva</B>: <B>Aspectos historicos, modernas tendencias en derecho comparado y ubicación en el escenario legislativo chileno</B>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-00122006000100008&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es El presente artículo pretende investigar los aspectos dogmáticos y legislativos de un tema de creciente importancia en la institución arbitral, cual es, el ámbito material de aplicación del arbitraje. Se parte por revisar los aspectos históricos de esta temática, luego se estudia la realidad la legislativa actual en Derecho comparado y las tendencias doctrinarias. Por último se repasa la historia legislativa chilena y su escenario normativo actual. Con tales elementos se realiza finalmente el ejercicio de posicionar la realidad chilena en el contexto de Derecho comparado. El resultado resulta interesante desde un punto de vista teórico y práctico, dado que las conclusiones a que se arriba en el presente estudio generan varias inquietudes dignas de analizar y debatir<hr/>The present article tries to investigate the dogmatic and legislative aspects of a subject of increasing importance in the by arbitration institution, as it is, the material scope of application of the arbitration. First, it reviewed the historical aspects of this thematic one. Later soon studies the present legislative reality in compared low and the dogmatics tendencies. Finally is done one reviews Chilean legislative history and its present normative scene. With such elements the exercise is finally made to position the Chilean reality in the context of compared Law. The result is interesting from a theoretical point of view, since the conclusions to that it is arrived the present in study generate several restlessness worthy to analyze and to debate <![CDATA[<B>La formación del consentimiento a través de las nuevas tecnologías de la información</B>: <B>Parte IV: El lugar de formación del consentimiento electrónico</B>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-00122006000100009&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es This is the last article in a series of four in which I have presented a comprehensive study of the formation of consent or agreement by electronic means. It deals with the location of electronic consent, analyzing, in the first section, the rules for its determination provided by the Spanish and Chilean law, and highlighting the differences between the solutions found in each national law. The second section moves to a more current discussion of the locus of consent formation, drawing from applicable international law instruments. Notwithstanding these rules, it is to be noted that the contemporary trend is to give more leverage to the will of the parties in determining the jurusduction and law to be applied to the controversies that may arise from a contract, with the excepcion of consumer law, where as it is well known, most rules are not disposable by the agreement of the parties due to the tutelary role of the law in that area <![CDATA[<b>Los desafíos actuales del derecho del trabajo en Chile</b>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-00122006000100010&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es This is the last article in a series of four in which I have presented a comprehensive study of the formation of consent or agreement by electronic means. It deals with the location of electronic consent, analyzing, in the first section, the rules for its determination provided by the Spanish and Chilean law, and highlighting the differences between the solutions found in each national law. The second section moves to a more current discussion of the locus of consent formation, drawing from applicable international law instruments. Notwithstanding these rules, it is to be noted that the contemporary trend is to give more leverage to the will of the parties in determining the jurusduction and law to be applied to the controversies that may arise from a contract, with the excepcion of consumer law, where as it is well known, most rules are not disposable by the agreement of the parties due to the tutelary role of the law in that area <![CDATA[<B>Informe pericial ante Corte Interamericana de Derechos Humanos sobre Decreto ley 2191 de Amnistía de fecha 19 de abril de 1978</B>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-00122006000100011&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es This is the last article in a series of four in which I have presented a comprehensive study of the formation of consent or agreement by electronic means. It deals with the location of electronic consent, analyzing, in the first section, the rules for its determination provided by the Spanish and Chilean law, and highlighting the differences between the solutions found in each national law. The second section moves to a more current discussion of the locus of consent formation, drawing from applicable international law instruments. Notwithstanding these rules, it is to be noted that the contemporary trend is to give more leverage to the will of the parties in determining the jurusduction and law to be applied to the controversies that may arise from a contract, with the excepcion of consumer law, where as it is well known, most rules are not disposable by the agreement of the parties due to the tutelary role of the law in that area <![CDATA[<B>Informe pericial ante Corte Interamericana de Derechos Humanos, sobre aplicación jurisprudencial de decreto ley 2191 de amnistía, de fecha 19 de abril de 1978</B>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-00122006000100012&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es This is the last article in a series of four in which I have presented a comprehensive study of the formation of consent or agreement by electronic means. It deals with the location of electronic consent, analyzing, in the first section, the rules for its determination provided by the Spanish and Chilean law, and highlighting the differences between the solutions found in each national law. The second section moves to a more current discussion of the locus of consent formation, drawing from applicable international law instruments. Notwithstanding these rules, it is to be noted that the contemporary trend is to give more leverage to the will of the parties in determining the jurusduction and law to be applied to the controversies that may arise from a contract, with the excepcion of consumer law, where as it is well known, most rules are not disposable by the agreement of the parties due to the tutelary role of the law in that area <![CDATA[<B>Proceso civil e ideología un prefacio, una sentencia, dos cartas y quince ensayos Montero Aroca, Juan (Coord.) Ed. Tirant lo Blanch, Valencia, 2006, 438 pp</B>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-00122006000100013&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es This is the last article in a series of four in which I have presented a comprehensive study of the formation of consent or agreement by electronic means. It deals with the location of electronic consent, analyzing, in the first section, the rules for its determination provided by the Spanish and Chilean law, and highlighting the differences between the solutions found in each national law. The second section moves to a more current discussion of the locus of consent formation, drawing from applicable international law instruments. Notwithstanding these rules, it is to be noted that the contemporary trend is to give more leverage to the will of the parties in determining the jurusduction and law to be applied to the controversies that may arise from a contract, with the excepcion of consumer law, where as it is well known, most rules are not disposable by the agreement of the parties due to the tutelary role of the law in that area <![CDATA[<B>Criterios de actuación del ministerio público en materias penales recensión del texto </B>: <B>Reforma procesal penal. Oficios del fiscal nacional. Materias penales. 2001-2004". Santiago 2005</B>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-00122006000100014&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es This is the last article in a series of four in which I have presented a comprehensive study of the formation of consent or agreement by electronic means. It deals with the location of electronic consent, analyzing, in the first section, the rules for its determination provided by the Spanish and Chilean law, and highlighting the differences between the solutions found in each national law. The second section moves to a more current discussion of the locus of consent formation, drawing from applicable international law instruments. Notwithstanding these rules, it is to be noted that the contemporary trend is to give more leverage to the will of the parties in determining the jurusduction and law to be applied to the controversies that may arise from a contract, with the excepcion of consumer law, where as it is well known, most rules are not disposable by the agreement of the parties due to the tutelary role of the law in that area <![CDATA[<B>La Europa de los Derechos Humanos</B>: <B>El Convenio Europeo de Derechos Humanos. Javier García Roca y Pablo Santolaya, Coordinadores. Centro de Estudios Políticos y Constitucionales. Madrid. 2005</B>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-00122006000100015&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es This is the last article in a series of four in which I have presented a comprehensive study of the formation of consent or agreement by electronic means. It deals with the location of electronic consent, analyzing, in the first section, the rules for its determination provided by the Spanish and Chilean law, and highlighting the differences between the solutions found in each national law. The second section moves to a more current discussion of the locus of consent formation, drawing from applicable international law instruments. Notwithstanding these rules, it is to be noted that the contemporary trend is to give more leverage to the will of the parties in determining the jurusduction and law to be applied to the controversies that may arise from a contract, with the excepcion of consumer law, where as it is well known, most rules are not disposable by the agreement of the parties due to the tutelary role of the law in that area <![CDATA[<B>La Crisis del Recurso de Amparo</B>: <B>La protección de los derechos fundamentales entre el Poder Judicial y el Tribunal Constitucional. Encarna Carmona Cuenca. Universidad de Alcalá de Henares, Servicio de Publicaciones. 2005, 143 páginas</B>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-00122006000100016&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es This is the last article in a series of four in which I have presented a comprehensive study of the formation of consent or agreement by electronic means. It deals with the location of electronic consent, analyzing, in the first section, the rules for its determination provided by the Spanish and Chilean law, and highlighting the differences between the solutions found in each national law. The second section moves to a more current discussion of the locus of consent formation, drawing from applicable international law instruments. Notwithstanding these rules, it is to be noted that the contemporary trend is to give more leverage to the will of the parties in determining the jurusduction and law to be applied to the controversies that may arise from a contract, with the excepcion of consumer law, where as it is well known, most rules are not disposable by the agreement of the parties due to the tutelary role of the law in that area