Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Parasitología latinoamericana]]> http://www.scielo.cl/rss.php?pid=0717-771220080001&lang=en vol. 63 num. 1-2-3-4 lang. en <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.cl/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.cl <![CDATA[<b><i>Revista Iberolatinoamericana de Parasitología</i></b>: <b><i>Nueva etapa de dos revistas de Parasitología</i></b>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0717-77122008000100001&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en <![CDATA[<b><i>Partial purification, immunogenicity and putative new localization of a native Leishmania heat shock protein 70</i></b>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0717-77122008000100002&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en In this work we focused on a recombinant protein, containing approximately 230 aminoacids from the carboxy-terminal extremity of the Leishmania chagasi heat shock protein 70. The heat shock proteins are among the most abundant parasite antigens and conserved proteins in nature, and this family is one of the most immunogenic proteins present within pathogenic organisms. The recombinant protein has been partially purified by electroelution and further precipitation in acetone. The electroelution process did not modify its immunological and antigenic properties, as it continued to be recognized by visceral leishmaniasis positive sera and by the immunological system of rabbits during the immunization, both in ELISA and Western blots. The production of polyclonal sera with an antigen concentration that is far from the maximum dose, strengthens the idea that the proteins of this family are highly antigenic and immunogenic. Our results with these polyclonal sera in the Direct Agglutination Assay allow the conclusion that the Leishmania chagasi native heat shock protein 70 is distributed on the surface of the parasite.<hr/>Neste trabalho estudamos urna proteína recombinante (S7) contendo aproximadamente 230 aminoácidos da extremidade carboxi-terminal da proteína de choque térmico de 70 kDa (HSP70) de Leishmania chagasi. As proteínas de choque térmico estâo entre os antígenos parasitarios mais abundantes e mais conservados na natureza. Esta familia pertence a urna das classes de proteínas mais imunogênicas, presentes em organismos patogênicos. Aproteína S7 foi parcialmente purificada por eletroeluição, e em seguida precipitada em acetona. A eletroeluição não modificou suas propriedades imunológicas e antigênicas, pois a proteína continuou a ser reconhecida (tanto no ELISA como no Western blot) por soros positivos para leishmaniose visceral e pelo sistema imunológico de coelhos durante a imunização. Aproducção de soros policlonais com urna concentração antigênica muito inferior a dose máxima, reforca a idéia de que as proteínas desta familia sâo altamente antigênicas e imunogénicas. Nossos resultados com os soros policlonais no ensaio de aglutinação direta (DAT) permitem concluir que a HSP70 nativa de L. chagasi está presente na superficie do parásita. <![CDATA[<b>INTESTINAL PARASITIC INFESTATION AND OTHERS INFECTIOUS BACKGROUNDS INFLUENCE IN THE ANTROPOMETRIC NUTRITIONAL STATUS OF CHILDREN IN POVERTY</b>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0717-77122008000100003&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Las parasitosis afectan principalmente a la población infantil de bajos recursos económicos. A fin de establecer estas asociaciones se evaluaron los antecedentes patológicos previos al estudio (diarrea, infección respiratoria superior e inferior y sarampión) en 257 niños y niñas aparentemente sanos entre 2-18 años de edad, del Sur de Valencia, Edo. Carabobo. 250 muestras de heces fueron sometidas a examen al fresco y Kato. Se determinó el estado nutricional antropométrico utilizando combinación de indicadores (dimensión corporal, composición corporal) e indicadores mixtos y por el método de Graffar-Méndez Castellano se identificó la condición socioeconómica. El análisis estadístico comprendió distribución de frecuencias y Chi2 como medida de asociación; nivel de significancia de p < 0,05. Se encontró 49,6% de niños parasitados, predominio de estratos socioeconómicos IV y V y de monoparasitismo por protozoarios. El antecedente patológico más prevalente fue infección respiratoria superior. Existió una asociación estadísticamente significativa entre antecedente de diarrea y presencia de parásitos, más específicamente entre antecedente de diarrea aguda e infestación por Giardia lamblia y Trichuris trichiura. La asociación significativa encontrada entre desnutrición, parasitosis y antecedentes de diarrea, no pudo ser demostrada cuando se discriminó por tipo de parásito y grado de desnutrición. Se evidenció un efecto deletéreo de las parasitosis sobre el estado nutricional. Los antecedentes de diarrea pueden orientar hacia el diagnóstico de parasitosis, causa importante de morbilidad infantil en comunidades en situación de pobreza.<hr/>Parasitic infestations affect mainly infantile population of low economic resources. In order to assess this evidence, pathological antecedents of diarrhea, superior and inferior respiratory infection and measles were evaluated in 257 apparently healthy children (boys and girls) aged 2-18 from the South of Valencia city, Edo. Carabobo 250 feces samples were examinationed by fresh and Kato method. The Anthropometric nutritional status was determined by combination of indicators (corporal dimension, corporal composition) and mixed indicators. Sociodemográfic evaluation was performed by method of Graffar-Méndez. Frecuency distribution and Chi² association was measure, with a significance value of p < 0,05. It was found 49.6% of parasitic infestation with predominance of socioeconomic strata IV and V Monoparasitism and protozoa infestation were highly prevalent. Superior respiratory infection was the most frequent antecedent. A statistically significant association between diarrhea antecedents and parasite infestation, therewas more specifically between antecedent of acute diarrhea and infestación by Giardia lamblia or Trichuris trichiura. A statistically significant association was found among undernourishment, parasitism and antecedent of diarrhea, but it could not be demonstrated when discrimination by type of parasite and degree of undernourishment. Deleterious effect of parasitic infestation on the nutritional status; was found diarrhea antecedents can lead to the diagnosis, important cause of infantile morbidity in communities in poverty situation. <![CDATA[<b>PARASITIC TRANSITION TO <i>Blastocystis hominis </i>IN CHILDREN FROM CENTER ZONE OF GUERRERO STATE, MEXICO</b>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0717-77122008000100004&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Blastocystis hominis es un organismo emergente cuya prevalencia se ha incrementado en los últimos años. La frecuencia en México va de 4,0% a 62%, sin reportes previos en el estado de Guerrero. La población estudiada fueron tres localidades del estado de Guerrero: Chilpancingo, Petaquilla y Tixtla en un total de 1.138 niños preescolares y escolares, de ambos sexos. Mediante tres técnicas coproparasitóscopicas (CPS): examen directo, concentración por flotación de Faust y cultivo de Barret, se detectaron un total de 38% de niños parasitados y B. hominis ocupó el primer lugar con el 61% de los CPS positivos. El 90% de los casos fueron parasitosis única. El 58% de los niños aparentemente sanos y con B. hominis declararon tener algún síntoma gastrointestinal. La asociación de B. hominis con dolor abdominal y beber agua de la llave tuvo diferencia significativa. Proponemos una transición parasitaria a B. hominis como principal parásito del hombre, como resultado de las medidas de control para las parasitosis intestinales.<hr/>Blastocystis hominis is an enteric emergen organism found in human it's prevalence has been increasing in the lasts years. The frequency in Mexico is from 4.0% to 62%, without reports in the Guerrero state. The aim of this study was to inform the parasitic transition to B. hominis in the Central Zone of Guerrero state. The population in this study were three communities of Guerrero state: Chilpancingo, Petaquilla and Tixtla in a total of 1,138 preschools and schools children of both sexs. Three parasitological tests were used for detection of the parasite in stool specimens: micrscopy of direct smears, concentration and flotation technique and serum-solution saline culture. Global prevalence of parasites was of 38% and B. hominis was the principal parasite with 61% on the positive tests. The 90% were only B. hominis and 10% with others parasites. A total of 58% of the children healthy with B. hominis declarated have gastrointestinal symptoms. The association ofB. hominis with abdominal pain and drinking taste water had significant difference. We propuse a parasitic transition to B. hominis as principal human parasite, this can be the result of man-made intervention in the intestinal parasitosis control. <![CDATA[<b>EVALUATION OF A RAPID DIAGNOSIS TEST FOR <i>Trypanosoma cruzi </i>INFECTION IN SERUM SAMPLE</b>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0717-77122008000100005&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Con el fin de evaluar la utilidad práctica, y la sensibilidad y especificidad del test rápido Dipstick test Trypanosoma cruzi Detect, (Inbios, Seattle, WA) se estudiaron 284 sueros humanos de los cuales 145 correspondieron a casos probados de infección chagásica y 139 a individuos sanos de zonas no endémicas. Todos ellos analizados previamente con las Técnicas de ELISA y de Inmunofluorescencia Indirecta para la detección de anticuerpos IgG anti T. cruzi. Además se estudiaron 56 muestras serologicamente negativas para enfermedad de Chagas pero que presentan otras patologías parasitarias y no parasitarias. El "test" rápido de INBIOS demostró una especificidad de 99,3% al igual que la sensibilidad. Y una concordancia con La ELISA y la RIFI de de 98,2%. De acuerdo a estos resultados y a la facilidad de su ejecución, Dipstick test T. cruzi Detect (INBIOS) resulta ideal como tamiz para la vigilancia y los programas de intervención de la enfermedad de Chagas.<hr/>We tested a Rapid Diagnostic Test (RDT) to detect Trypanosoma cruzi infection using a total of 284 human sera, some of them from provedcases ofChagas disease (n = 145) and healthy individuals from non-endemic areas (n = 139). Another group included was non chagasic serum samples of individuals of other parasitic and non parasitic disease (n = 56), all of them with known serological test results. The RDT had a specificity of 99,3% and a sensitivity of 99,3%. The agreement with ELISA and IFAT was 98,2%. According to the results and the feasibility of the RDT should be an ideal tool for screening purposes in disease surveillance and intervention programs ofChagas disease. <![CDATA[<b><i>Enteroparasites and commensals among individuals living in rural and urban areas in Abadia dos Dourados, Minas Gerais state, Brazil</i></b>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0717-77122008000100006&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The aim of this study was to evaluate the enteroparasite and commensal occurrence in inhabitants living in the city of Abadia dos Dourados, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Three hundred and seventy six people were selected at random, 188 living in the rural area and 188 living in the urban area, from January through December of 1996. Using the Lutz method 177 (47.1%) individuals infected: 102 (57.6%) in the rural population and 75 (39.9%) in the urban population (P < 0.05). Of the total 177 enteroparasite and commensal occurrences diagnosed were: Entamoeba coli (18.3%), hookworm (17.8%), Endolimax nana (6.1 %>), Giardia lamblia (5.8%), Ascaris lumbricoides (2.6%>), Entamoeba hartmanni (2.1%), Iodamoeba biltschlii (1.6%), Strongyloides ster cor alls (1.3%), Enterobius vermicularis (0.5%), and Trichostrongylus sp (0.5%). Geohelminths were predominant in the rural area, with an occurrence ofhookworm infections at 28.2% in these individuals and 7.4% in the urban people (OR: 14.33 CI: 6.230 to 32.970). The infection rate of enteroparasites was high in the population studied. In conclusion, it is necessary to implement regular parasitological exams and education about the forms and consequences of transmitting parasites, primarily among people living in the rural area.<hr/>El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la presencia de enteroparasitas y comensales en habitantes de la ciudad de Abadia dos Dourados, Minas Gerais, Brasil. 376 personas fueron seleccionadas aleatoriamente, 188 viviendo en el área rural y 188 viviendo en el área urbana, enero a diciembre de 1996. Usando el método de Lutz, 177 (47,1%) individuos estaban infectados, siendo 102 (57,6%) del área rural y 75 (39,9%) del área urbana (P < 0,05). Del total de 177 positivos, la ocurrencia de entoparasitas y comenzáis diagnosticadas fueron: Entamoeba coli (18,3%), hookworm (17,8%), Endolimax nana (6,1%), Giardia lamblia (5,8%), Ascaris lumbricoides (2,6%), Entamoeba hartmanni (2,1%), Iodamoeba butschlii (1,6"%), Stron-gyloides stercolaris (1,3%), Enterobius vermicularis (0,5%), y Trichostrongylus sp (0,5%), Geohelmintos fueron predominantes en el área rural, con 28,2% de infección para hookworm en esta populación y 7,4% en la populación urbana (OR: 14,33 CI: 6.230 para 32.970). La tasa de infección para enteroparasitas fue alta en los individuos estudiados, siendo necesario hacer exámenes parasitológicos regulares en estas personas y adoptar medidas profilácticas sobre las formas y consecuencias de transmisión de parásitas, principalmente entre personas que viven en el área rural. <![CDATA[<b>IN VITRO EVALUATION OF THE ACTION OF THE NEMATOPHAGOUS FUNGI <i>Duddingtonia flagrans</i>, <i>Monacrosporium thaumasium </i>AND <i>Pochonia chlamydosporia </i>ON <i>Eurytrema coelomaticum </i>EGGS</b>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0717-77122008000100007&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Objetivou-se a observação in vitro da ação dos fungos nematófagos Duddingtonia flagrans (AC001),Monacrosporium thaumasium (NF 34) e Pochonia chlamydosporia (VC1 e VC4) sobre ovos de Eurytrema coelomaticum. Os ovos foram vertidos em superficie de ágar-água 2% contendo os isolados fúngicos e em AA 2% sem fungo como controle. Ao completaren! sete, 10 e 14 dias, aproximadamente os ovos foram removidos e classificados de acordó com os seguintes parámetros: efeito tipo 1, efeito lítico sem prejuízo morfológico a casca do ovo; tipo 2, efeito lítico com alteração morfológica da casca e embriáo e tipo 3, efeito lítico com alteração morfológica do embriáo e da casca, além de penetração de hifas e colonização interna do ovo. Os isolados AC001 e NF34 não demonstraran! percentuais para o efeito do tipo 3, contudo o isolado VC1 apresentou resultados percentuais para o efeito do tipo 3 que determinant a atividade ovicida de um fungo: 27,2% aos sete dias, 23,1% aos 10 dias e 25,0% aos 14 dias. Da mesma forma que isolado VC4 apresentou: 15,0% aos sete dias, 25,4% aos 10 dias e 21,8% aos 14 dias respectivamente. Pochonia chlamydosporia é um fungo promis sor que pôde ser usado no controle biológico de E. coelomaticum.<hr/>The present study assessed in vitro action of nematophagous fungi species Duddingtonia flagrans (AC 001), Monacrosporium thaumasium (NF 34) and Pochonia chlamydosporia (VC1 and VC4) on eggs of Eurytrema coelomaticum. Eggs were placed on Petri dishes with fungus isolate grown in water- agar 2% and in the control (no fungus). After seven, 10 and 14 days, the eggs were removed and classified according to the following parameters: type 1, lytic effect without morphological damage to eggshell; type 2, lytic effect with morphological alteration of embryo and eggshell; and type 3, lytic effect with morphological alteration of embryo and eggshell, besides hyphal penetration and internal egg colonization. The isolate AC001 andNF34 had not demonstrated percentages to type 3 effects, however isolated VC1 presented results percentages for the type 3 effect that it determines the ovicida activity of one fungus: 27.2% to the seven days, 23.1% to the 10 days and 25.0% to the 14 days. The isolated VC4 presented: 15.0% to the seven days, 25.4% to the 10 days and, 21.8%to the 14 days. P. chlamydosporia is a promising fungus can be used in the biological control of E. coelomaticum. <![CDATA[<b><i>Frequency of seropositive equines for Theileria equi in the Southern Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil</i></b>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0717-77122008000100008&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Foi realizado um levantamento sobre theileriose equina em uma propriedade da região sul do estado do Rio Grande do Sul (RS). Amostras de sangue foram coletadas de 108 éguas de um haras localizado no municipio de Bagé, latitude 31°30' Sul e longitude 54Ú10' Oeste. A sorologia foi realizada com o uso da imunofluorescência indireta (IFAT) e utilizou-se a técnica de Nested Reacão em Cadeia Polimerase (nPCR). Do total de amostras examinadas, 22% (24) foram positivas por IFAT e 15% (16) por nPCR). Na análise por raca, 15.05% (14) dos animáis Puro Sangue Inglês (PSI) foram soro-positivos, e dos animáis da raça Crioula (RC), 55% (11) foram positivos por IFAT.<hr/>A study on equine theileriosis was carried out in the southern region of the Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Sul (RS). Blood samples were collected from 113 mares from an equine breeding farm located in the city ofBagé, latitude 31 "30'S and a longitude of 54 U10' W. The serological testing was carried out with the use of indirect fluorescence test (IFAT) and compared with Nested Polimerase Chain Reaction (nPCR). Among the sera collected from 118 horses, 25 were found positive to Theileria equi by the IFAT, while by nPCR 17 positive for T. equi was observed, corresponding to a frequency of22.1%> and 15.0%, respectively. The racial analysis showed 15.05% (14) thoroughbred and 55% (11) Crioulo breed horses to be positive by IFAT. <![CDATA[<b>MONOGENEA COMMUNITY ON THE GILLS OF <i>Pimelodus albicans </i>(VALENCIENNES, 1840) IN THE NORTHERN SALADO RIVER, SAN JUSTO (SANTA FE, ARGENTINA)</b>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0717-77122008000100009&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Se estudió la comunidad de Monogenea de las branquias de juveniles de Pimelodus albicans Valenciennes 1840, en el río Salado del Norte, tributario del río Paraná Medio (Argentina). Se hallaron los siguientes taxa: Demidospermus armostus, Demidospermus bidiverticulatum, Demidospermus idolus, Demidospermus majusculus, Scleroductus yuncensi, Demidospermus sp y Ancyrocephalinae sp. Los resultados permiten concluir que no existe una especie dominante, aunque D. majusculus, D. armostus, D. idolus y Ancyrocephalinae sp se destacan por ser secundarias. La diversidad parasitaria local es moderada y no existe correlación entre la talla de los hospedadores y la intensidad de infestación de todos los taxa. En este artículo se analizan las infrapoblaciones e infracomunidades de Monogenea de P. albicans, y se presenta un nuevo registro de distribución geográfica de estos ictioparásitos neotropicales.<hr/>It was studied the monogenean communities on the gills of a Pimelodus albicans Valenciennes, 1840 juvenile, in the Northern Salado River, tributary of the Middle Paraná River (Argentina). Monogenea taxa were found: Demidospermus armostus, Demidospermus bidiverticulatum, Demidospermus idolus, Demidospermus majusculus, Scleroductus yuncensi, Demidospermus sp and Ancyrocephalinae sp. The results allow us to conclude that: D. majusculus, D. armostus, D. idolus and Ancyrocephalinae sp were secondary species and there is no a dominant one. The local diversity of parasites is moderate and there is no correlation between the size of the hosts and the intensity of parasitism. In this article, the infrapopulations and infracommunities of monogenean of P. albicans, were analyzed. These reports show a new geographical distribution register ofneotropical monogenean species. <![CDATA[<b>GASTROINTESTINAL PARASITES IN HUMBOLDT'S PENGUIN <i>(Spheniscus humboldti) </i>AND MAGELLANIAN PENGUIN <i>(Spheniscus magellanicus) </i>IN COASTS FROM CENTRAL AND SOUTH-CENTRAL CHILE</b>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0717-77122008000100010&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en A través de necropsias parasitarias realizadas a 12 pingüinos provenientes del litoral del centro y centro sur de Chile, se aislaron los helmintos Tetrabothrius lutzi, T. eudyptidis, Cardio-cephaloidesphysalis, Contracaecumpelagicum, C. heardi y Ascaridia sp. en pingüino de Magallanes y ejemplares de T. eudyptidis y Contracaecum pelagicum en pingüino de Humboldt. Las especies T. eudyptidis, C. pelagicum y C. heardi representan nuevos registros para Chile. Las especies C. physalis y Ascaridia sp. constituyen nuevas especies parásitas para el pingüino de Magallanes. Los presentes resultados son discutidos.<hr/>Twelve parasitic necropsies were performed on penguins from coast of Central and South Central Chile, yielding helminths Tetrabothrius lutzi, T. eudyptidis, Cardiocephaloides physalis, Contracaecum pelagicum, C. heardi andAscaridia sp. in magellanian penguin, and T. eudyptidis, C. physalis and Contracaecum pelagicum in humboldt 's penguin. New records were found of T. eudyptidis, C. pelagicum and C. heardi in Chile. C. physalis andAscaridia sp. represent new parasitic species in the magellanic penguin. <![CDATA[<b>GASTROINTESTINAL PARASITE FAUNA IN ADELIA PENGUIN <i>(Pygoscelis adeliae) </i>IN AN ANTARCTIC TERRITORY PROTECTED ZONE</b>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0717-77122008000100011&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Usando diferentes técnicas parasicológicas, fueron analizadas 167 muestras de heces y 3 tractos digestivos completos obtenidos de pingüinos Adelia {Pygoscelis adeliae) de una zona Antartica protegida. Se reporta la presencia de: huevos y una estróbila de Tetrabothrius spp. (Cestoda: Pseudophyllida); una tenia con un rostellum inerme (Cestoda: Cyclophyllida) en estado inmaduro; ooquistes de Esporozoos y huevos de Nematodos sin identificación; una gran cantidad de Streptocara spp. (Nematoda: Acuariidae) en diferentes estados de evolución.<hr/>One hundred and sixty seven fecal samples and three complete digestive tracts obtained from these penguins were analyzed using different parasitological methodologies. The presence ofTetrabothrius spp. eggs (Cestoda: Pseudophyllida), and the observation of Sporozoa oocists and Nematoda eggs both of undetermined species in the fecal samples is reported. In the same way a large number of nematodes identified as Streptocara spp. (Nematoda: Acuariidae) in different evolutionary stages in stomach, and the recovery of a whole 81 cm. Tetrabothrius spp. specimen (without the scolex) and one inmature tapeworm (Cestoda: Cyclophyllida) with unarmed rostellum in guts of Adéliepenguins chiks found dead in a protected zone of the Antarctic territory is reported. <![CDATA[<b><i>Prevalence of Toxocara canis infection in public squares of the Concórdia City, Santa Catarina, Brazil</i></b>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0717-77122008000100012&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Las escuelas, y parques donde existen lugares con arena pueden constituir un camino importante en la transmisión de varias zoonosis parasitarias, representando un riesgo potencial, principalmente para los niños en edad de la escuela que juegan en estos lugares. Entre varias zoonosis, larva migrans visceral (LMV), es una patología caracterizada por la migración de larvas de Toxocara spp. A través de los tejidos del ser humano originando reacciones del topi imunoalergénico. El objetivo de nuestro trabajo fue determinar la presencia de huevos de parásitos en las muestras de arenas de plazas públicas de la ciudad de Concordia. Se trabajó con 12 muestras de arena colectadas de diferentes plazas infantiles de Concordia, de los barrios: Centro, Nazare, Vista Alegre e Industriarios. Una muestra de aproximadamente 500 gramos de 4 lugares diferentes de una misma plaza fueron colocadas en frascos plásticos, siendo luego analizadas mediante el examen de sedimentación espontánea, propuesta por Lutz. Los resultados indicaron un 28% (7/25) de muestras positivas a T. canis lo que significa que los suelos de las plazas públicas de la ciudad de Concordia están muy contaminados con huevos de este parásito del perro. Por consiguiente, este estudio señala que debe lograrse un control al acceso de estos animales en los lugares públicos con el propósito de prevenir patologías que pueden afectar principalmente, a niños y sobre todo, en este caso, a la infección por T. canis.<hr/>Schools, squares andparks where sand is present can constitute an important transmission form for several parasitic zoonosis, representing a potential risk, mainly for children in school age that play at these places. Among the several zoonosis, visceral larva migrans (VLM), is an important pathology characterized by the migration of the larval stages of Toxocara spp. to human tissues originating imunoalergic type of reactions. The objective of our work was to determine the occurrence of parasites eggs in samples of sands from public squares ofConcordia city. This work was accomplished with 12 samples of sand collected at different squares of Concordia: Centro, Nazare, Vista Alegre and Industriarlos. 500 g. samples of 4 different places of the same square were collected in plastic flasks and then analyzed by the spontaneous sedimentation exam, proposed by Lutz. A 28% (7/25) of positive samples for Toxocara canis eggs is demonstrating that the public squares of Concordia represent a high level of environmental contamination for enteroparasites. Such result was anticipated due to the high number of canine population in the municipal district and their easy access to these places. <![CDATA[<b>PRELIMINARY STUDY ON THE DIFFERENT STAGES OF <i>Toxocara cati </i>IN CATS</b>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0717-77122008000100013&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Las larvas de T. cati tienen la capacidad de realizar migraciones por los tejidos del gato, permaneciendo infectivas. El objetivo del presente estudio fue determinar la presencia de distintos estadios de T. cati en gatos naturalmente infectados. Se efectuó la necropsia de 12 gatos hallados muertos en la vía pública. Se tomaron muestras de materia fecal para análisis coproparasitológico y muestras de músculo, la totalidad de los pulmones, ríñones, hígado y cerebro. Se utilizó la técnica de digestión artificial rápida para detectar la presencia de larvas de Toxocara cati en los tejidos. El análisis coproparasitológico fue positivo a T. cati en un 25%, a Toxascaris leonina en un 16, 66% y en un 8,33% a ambas especies. El 50% de los animales presentó parásitos adultos de T. cati, de los cuales el 20% presentó parasitosis mixta con T. leonina. La existencia de parásitos adultos y su relación con la edad del animal fue estadísticamente significativa. No resultó estadísticamente significativa con respecto al sexo. En el análisis de las muestras de órganos y tejidos no se detectaron larvas de T. cati. Las diferencias obtenidas en los resultados con la técnica coproparasitológica y con la necropsia podrían deberse a la presencia de estadios inmaduros o a la eliminación intermitente de huevos por materia fecal. La ausencia de larvas en los tejidos plantea diversos interrogantes que podrían condicionar el comportamiento migratorio de las mismas en el gato. Es necesario incrementar la cantidad de felinos estudiados y realizar estudios bajo condiciones controladas de infección para obtener un mayor conocimiento sobre el comportamiento de las larvas de T. cati durante la fase migratoria en el gato.<hr/>Toxocara cati larvae are able to migrate through the tissues of the cat, remaining infective. The objective of this study was to determine the presence of different stages ofT. cati in naturally infected cats. Twelve cats found dead in the street were necropsied and samples of faeces were collected for coproparasitological analysis. Samples of muscle, the lungs, kidneys, liver, mammary gland and brain were removed. They were processed by the rapid artificial digestion technique to detect T. cati larvae. Coproparasitological analysis was positive for T. cati by 25%, to Toxascaris leonina at 16, 66% and 8.33% to both species. The 50% of animals presented adult parasites ofT. cati, of which 20% were positive to T. leonina. Statistically significant differences were found between the presence of adult parasites and cat's age. No statistically significant differences were observed in regard to sex. No larvae ofT. cati were recovered from tissues. The differences in the results obtained between the coproparasitological technique and the necropsy could be due to the presence of immature stages of the parasites or to intermittent elimination of eggs in faeces. The absence of larvae in tissues raises several questions related to the migratory behaviour of T. cati larvae. Increasing the number of felines studied will contribute to ensure the validity of the results and will provide a better understanding about the behavior ofT. cati larvae during the migratory phase in the cat. <![CDATA[<b>FIRST REPORT OF <i>Cryptosporidium </i>spp. IN CAPTIVE RHEAS <i>(Rhea americana) </i>IN A BRAZILIAN ZOO</b>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0717-77122008000100014&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Este estudo objetivou avahar a ocorrência de oocistos de Cryptosporidium spp. em emas (Rhea americana) cativas no Parque Zoológico da Fundação Zoobotânica do Rio Grande do Sul, sul do Brasil. Foram identificados oocistos de Cryptosporidium spp. em esfregaços de fezes de emas e em amostras de agua, coradas pela técnica de Ziehl-Neelsen modificada. A análise morfométrica dos coccídeos revelou pequeños oocistos esféricos medindo, em media, 4,91 um X 4,91 \im e relação comprimento/largura de razão 1. A confirmação da prêsera de oocistos ñas amostras de fezes e de agua é relevante pelo potencial de transmissão e manutenção da criptosporidiose em hospedeiros susceptíveis. Este é o primeiro relato de Cryptosporidium spp. em R. americana no Brasil.<hr/>The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts in common rhea (Rhea americana) living in captivity in the zoological park of the Zoobotanical Foundation of the State of Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil. Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts were detected in fecal smears of common rhea and in water samples by using the modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining method. The morphometric analysis of coccidia revealed small spherical oocysts, measuring, on average, 4.91 [im x 4.91 fim, and a length/width ratio of 1. The detection of Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts in fecal and water samples is important as it can indicate the transmission and maintenance of cryptosporidiosis in susceptible hosts. This is the first report of Cryptosporidium spp. in R. americana in Brazil. <![CDATA[<b><i>Two cestode species in Brazilian turkeys, Meleagris gallopavo (Galliformes, Phasianidae)</i></b>: <b><i>pathology induced by Hymenolepis cantaniana and occurrence of Raillietina tetragona</i></b>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0717-77122008000100015&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Duas especies de cestóides em perus, Meleagris gallopavo (Galliformes, Phasianidae), no Brazil: patologia induzida por Hymenolepis cantaniana e ocorência de Raillietina tetragona. A patologia induzida em perus pelo cestóide H. cantaniana é descrita, com dados sobre prevalência, intensidade media e amplitude das cargas parasitarias. H. cantaniana ocorreu com urna prevalência de 5.0% ñas 40 aves examinadas, com intensidade media de 17.5 e amplitude de 14-21 espécimes de cestóides. Não foram observadas lesões macroscópicas nos perus parasitados. As lesões provocadas por H. cantaniana eram representadas, principalmente, ou por múltiplos segmentos dos parásitos, acompanhados por discreta reação inflamatoria mista com a presera de células mononucleares e heterófilos, ou por severos processos inflamatorios transmurais, caracterizados pela presera de células mononucleares, ao longo das carnadas muscular e serosa das vilosidades e criptas intestinais. Estes representam os primeiros achados patológicos relacionados a presera de cestóides em perus a serem relatados no Brasil. Raillietina tetragona, não patogênica para as aves investigadas, ocorreu com baixa prevalência e amplitude de infecção de 2.5% e 1-2 parásitos, respectivamente.<hr/>The pathology induced in turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) by one cestode species Hymenolepis cantaniana is described together with data on prevalence, mean infection and range of worm burdens. H. cantaniana occurred with a prevalence of 5.0 % in the 40 examined hosts in a range of 14-21 specimens and a mean intensity of 17.5. Gross lesions were not observed in the parasitized birds. Lesions due to H cantaniana mainly consisted of multiple segments of parasites, together with a mild mixed inflammatory reaction with the presence ofmononuclear cells and heterophils or severe transmural inflammatory processes, characterized by the presence ofmononuclear cells along the muscular and serosa layers of the intestinal villi and crypts. These are the first pathological findings related to the presence ofcestodes in turkeys to be reported in Brazil so far. Raillietina tetragona, not pathogenic to the present investigated turkeys, occurred with a low prevalence and range of infection of 2.5% and 1-2 worms, respectively. <![CDATA[<b>COMPARISON OF PROTOZOAN INFECTION BETWEEN CHINCHILLAS <i>(Chinchilla lanigera) </i>FROM A COMMERCIAL BREEDING FACILITY IN SOUTHERN BRAZIL AND CHINCHILLAS FROM A NATURAL RESERVE IN CHILE</b>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0717-77122008000100016&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Chinchilla lanígera é um roedor proveniente do Chile e sua criação é com fins comerciáis. As doencas parasitarias, principalmente giardíase podem causar problemas clínicos e sanitarios, causando perdas produtivas e económicas. Foram colhidas amostras de fezes de 220 chinchilas de urna criação comercial no sul do Brasil e 35 amostras de chinchilas da Reserva Nacional las Chinchillas no Chile, e submetidas ão método de Faust e colaboradores. O total de amostras positivas para cistos de Giardia sp. foi de 31,37%(80/255); da criação comercial foi de 36,36%(80/220). O número de amostras que apresentaram mais de 5 cistos/campo foi 4,55%(10/220). Todas as amostras dos animáis da Reserva foram negativas. Não houve associação entre a positividade e a faixa etária dos animáis analisados.<hr/>Chinchilla lanígera is a rodent native to Chile which is bred for commercial purposes. Parasitic diseases, mainly giardiasis, may cause clinical and sanitary problems and lead to production and economic losses. Fecal samples were collected from 220 chinchillas pertaining to a commercial breeding facility in southern Brazil and from 35 chinchillas from Las Chinchillas National Reserve in Chile. All samples were analyzed using the method proposed by Faust et al. Positive samples for Giardia cysts amounted to 31.37% (80/255); 36.36% (80/220) was recovered from the commercial breeding facility. The rate of samples with over 5 cysts/field was equivalent to 4.55% (10/220). All of the samples collected from the National Reserve were negative for Giardia sp. No association was found between positive rates for Giardia sp. and the age of chinchillas. <![CDATA[<b>THOROUGHBRED RACEHORSES FASCIOLOSIS IN CLUB HÍPICO CONCEPCIÓN, CHILE</b>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0717-77122008000100017&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en El propósito de este estudio es entregar información sobre la situación de la fasciolosis en los equinos fina sangre de carrera del Club Hípico Concepción (Región del Bio-Bio, Chile). Se tomaron muestras de 269 equinos (92 hembras y 177 machos), con un rango de edad entre 2 y 11 años. En cada uno de los animales, se obtuvo una muestra de heces, la que fue analizada mediante examen de sedimentación para detectar la presencia de huevos de Fasciola hepática. De los 269 equinos examinados, se detectaron 28 (10,41%) positivos aF hepática. Se encontraron sólo diferencias de infección por edad, siendo los menores los que presentaron mayores prevalencias (p < 0,05).<hr/>The purpose of this study was to add information about current situation of the Thoroughbred racehorses fasciolosis in Chile. The study was made between January and February 2006. Fecal samples were taken from 269 horses (92 females and 177 males), whose age ranges from 2 and 11 years. And they were analyzed by means of sedimentation examination in order to find the presence of Fasciola hepática eggs. The coproparasitologic study was complement with a survey to the horse trainer. For the analysis of the results we used the statistical test of %² and Fisher exact test. We detected 28 (10,4%) positive to the F. hepática eggs. Significant differences were found (p < 0,05) by age and between the animals that received flukicide drug treatment and the not treated.