Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Revista chilena de infectología]]> http://www.scielo.cl/rss.php?pid=0716-101820020002&lang=es vol. 19 num. 2 lang. es <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.cl/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.cl <![CDATA[<I>Mecanismos de contaminación de las fórmulas para nutrición enteral</I>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0716-10182002000200001&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es One of the most frecuent complications of enteral nutrition is formula contamination. The objective of this study was to evaluate the frequency and routes by which enteral formula contamination occurs. Two types of formula were evaluated, one powdered and one liquid, with sterile re-used containers. The results show that the most important way of contamination is in the formula-preparing unit by manipulation or use of contaminated utensils. The utilization of re-used containers contributes to contamination in a lesser degree. The solution administration sets have a high degree of contamination, over 85% and this is not modified by the use of sterile material. Probably there is also a retrograde contamination mechanism. <![CDATA[<I>Infecciones por Pasteurella spp</I>: <I>reporte de 20 casos en un periodo de quince años</I>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0716-10182002000200002&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Pasteurella spp is a common cause of infection following animal bites. We report 20 cases of infections in which Pasteurella spp was isolated during a 15-year period at the Hospital Militar in Santiago. Sixteen patients had soft tissue and bone infections, two respiratory tract infections, one bacteremia without known localized site and one postoperative wound infection. The demographic and clinical characteristics are described. <![CDATA[<I>Manejo de la faringoamigdalitis estreptocóccica en pacientes adultos o adolescentes</I>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0716-10182002000200003&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Streptococcal pharyngitis is an important cause of morbidity and a common reason of antibiotic missuse. No more than 10 to 15% of adults that consult for acute sore throat and fever have a definite Group A streptococcal (GAS) pharyngitis. Inappropriate treatment exposes patients to allergic reactions, other adverse events and increased health care costs. Where rheumatic fever is declining and/or infrequent as observed in Chile, appropriate demonstration of GAS by rapid test or throat culture is the most logical approach. Rapid tests provide a good sensitivity (80-90%) and specificity (95-99%) to detect GAS pharyngitis. These tests can be applied at a reasonable cost and negative results can be further confirmed by culture. Several therapeutic options are now available to eradicate GAS from pharynx, a subsidiary marker of efficacy to protect patients from rheumatic fever. These alternatives do not significantly improve the efficacy obtained with oral penicillin V, have similar frequencies of adverse events and are characterized by an meaningful increase in acquisition costs. On the other hand, schemes based on oral amoxicillin or intramuscular penicillin G benzathine have similar costs than the standard treatment. Abbreviated courses of therapies using different compounds for 5 or 6 days, have similar efficacy to standard therapy but do not reduce the overall cost of treatment. <![CDATA[Cistitis hemorrágica asociada a penicilina]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0716-10182002000200004&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Hematuria and impairment of the renal function was observed in a 50-year-old patient who was receiving penicillin and gentamicin due to a bacterial endocarditis. The symptoms resolved after these antibiotics were changed for vancomycin. The diagnosis of an haemorrhagic cystitis was made through cytoscopy and the possibility of an interstitial nephritis was proposed. These abnormalities are thought to be induced by penicillin. The mechanisms involved would be hypersensitivity reactions and/or direct toxicity. Although interstitial nephritis is a complication rarely observed, its presence combined with haemorrhagic cystitis is quite infrequent. If hematuria appears during an antibiotic treatment with penicillin, one must think of these complications as a possible cause. <![CDATA[<I>Artritis séptica por Psychrobacter phenylpyruvicus</I>: Primer caso clínico y revisión de la literatura]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0716-10182002000200005&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es We report the case of a 70 year-old-man with history of non-insulin dependant diabetes, arterial hypertension and chronic renal failure in hemodyalisis who was admitted to hospital with a history of fever for three weeks. Aseptic arthritis of the left hip was diagnosed an a surgical debridement was performed. Cultures showed growth of a fastidious gram-negative cocobacilus. The patient was re-admitted because of impaired consciousness, an acute myocardial infarction and fever. Brain CT scan and head MRI were normal as well as cerebrospinal fluid analysis. Final identification of the gram negative rod corresponded to Psychrobacter phenylpyruvicus (formerly Moraxella phenylpyruvicus). Treatment with ceftriaxone was begun. After two weeks the patient died of cardiac arrest. Moraxellaceae family is part of the normal flora of the upper respiratory tract and genitourinary tract. Occasionally Moraxellaceae family is seen as a pathogen. There are only two previous reports of infections due to Psychrobacter phenylpyruvicus, a diabetic foot and an infectious endocarditis, this is the first case of septic arthritis caused by this microorganism. <![CDATA[<I>Síndrome diarreico agudo</I>: <I>Recomendaciones para el diagnóstico microbiológico</I>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0716-10182002000200006&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es We report the case of a 70 year-old-man with history of non-insulin dependant diabetes, arterial hypertension and chronic renal failure in hemodyalisis who was admitted to hospital with a history of fever for three weeks. Aseptic arthritis of the left hip was diagnosed an a surgical debridement was performed. Cultures showed growth of a fastidious gram-negative cocobacilus. The patient was re-admitted because of impaired consciousness, an acute myocardial infarction and fever. Brain CT scan and head MRI were normal as well as cerebrospinal fluid analysis. Final identification of the gram negative rod corresponded to Psychrobacter phenylpyruvicus (formerly Moraxella phenylpyruvicus). Treatment with ceftriaxone was begun. After two weeks the patient died of cardiac arrest. Moraxellaceae family is part of the normal flora of the upper respiratory tract and genitourinary tract. Occasionally Moraxellaceae family is seen as a pathogen. There are only two previous reports of infections due to Psychrobacter phenylpyruvicus, a diabetic foot and an infectious endocarditis, this is the first case of septic arthritis caused by this microorganism. <![CDATA[Sensibilidad del hisopado rectal para la detección de VRE]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0716-10182002000200007&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es We report the case of a 70 year-old-man with history of non-insulin dependant diabetes, arterial hypertension and chronic renal failure in hemodyalisis who was admitted to hospital with a history of fever for three weeks. Aseptic arthritis of the left hip was diagnosed an a surgical debridement was performed. Cultures showed growth of a fastidious gram-negative cocobacilus. The patient was re-admitted because of impaired consciousness, an acute myocardial infarction and fever. Brain CT scan and head MRI were normal as well as cerebrospinal fluid analysis. Final identification of the gram negative rod corresponded to Psychrobacter phenylpyruvicus (formerly Moraxella phenylpyruvicus). Treatment with ceftriaxone was begun. After two weeks the patient died of cardiac arrest. Moraxellaceae family is part of the normal flora of the upper respiratory tract and genitourinary tract. Occasionally Moraxellaceae family is seen as a pathogen. There are only two previous reports of infections due to Psychrobacter phenylpyruvicus, a diabetic foot and an infectious endocarditis, this is the first case of septic arthritis caused by this microorganism. <![CDATA[Nueva prodroga que se activa por la producción de b- lactamasas: Síntesis y actividad <I>in vitro</I> de una prodroga]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0716-10182002000200008&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es We report the case of a 70 year-old-man with history of non-insulin dependant diabetes, arterial hypertension and chronic renal failure in hemodyalisis who was admitted to hospital with a history of fever for three weeks. Aseptic arthritis of the left hip was diagnosed an a surgical debridement was performed. Cultures showed growth of a fastidious gram-negative cocobacilus. The patient was re-admitted because of impaired consciousness, an acute myocardial infarction and fever. Brain CT scan and head MRI were normal as well as cerebrospinal fluid analysis. Final identification of the gram negative rod corresponded to Psychrobacter phenylpyruvicus (formerly Moraxella phenylpyruvicus). Treatment with ceftriaxone was begun. After two weeks the patient died of cardiac arrest. Moraxellaceae family is part of the normal flora of the upper respiratory tract and genitourinary tract. Occasionally Moraxellaceae family is seen as a pathogen. There are only two previous reports of infections due to Psychrobacter phenylpyruvicus, a diabetic foot and an infectious endocarditis, this is the first case of septic arthritis caused by this microorganism. <![CDATA[Resistencia de <I>Streptococcus pneumoniae </I>a levofloxacina]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0716-10182002000200009&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es We report the case of a 70 year-old-man with history of non-insulin dependant diabetes, arterial hypertension and chronic renal failure in hemodyalisis who was admitted to hospital with a history of fever for three weeks. Aseptic arthritis of the left hip was diagnosed an a surgical debridement was performed. Cultures showed growth of a fastidious gram-negative cocobacilus. The patient was re-admitted because of impaired consciousness, an acute myocardial infarction and fever. Brain CT scan and head MRI were normal as well as cerebrospinal fluid analysis. Final identification of the gram negative rod corresponded to Psychrobacter phenylpyruvicus (formerly Moraxella phenylpyruvicus). Treatment with ceftriaxone was begun. After two weeks the patient died of cardiac arrest. Moraxellaceae family is part of the normal flora of the upper respiratory tract and genitourinary tract. Occasionally Moraxellaceae family is seen as a pathogen. There are only two previous reports of infections due to Psychrobacter phenylpyruvicus, a diabetic foot and an infectious endocarditis, this is the first case of septic arthritis caused by this microorganism. <![CDATA[Uso de caspofungina en candidiasis esofágica]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0716-10182002000200010&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es We report the case of a 70 year-old-man with history of non-insulin dependant diabetes, arterial hypertension and chronic renal failure in hemodyalisis who was admitted to hospital with a history of fever for three weeks. Aseptic arthritis of the left hip was diagnosed an a surgical debridement was performed. Cultures showed growth of a fastidious gram-negative cocobacilus. The patient was re-admitted because of impaired consciousness, an acute myocardial infarction and fever. Brain CT scan and head MRI were normal as well as cerebrospinal fluid analysis. Final identification of the gram negative rod corresponded to Psychrobacter phenylpyruvicus (formerly Moraxella phenylpyruvicus). Treatment with ceftriaxone was begun. After two weeks the patient died of cardiac arrest. Moraxellaceae family is part of the normal flora of the upper respiratory tract and genitourinary tract. Occasionally Moraxellaceae family is seen as a pathogen. There are only two previous reports of infections due to Psychrobacter phenylpyruvicus, a diabetic foot and an infectious endocarditis, this is the first case of septic arthritis caused by this microorganism. http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0716-10182002000200011&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es <![CDATA[<I>La epidemia de sarampión de 1899-1900 en Chile y la creación del primer hospital de niños de Santiago</I>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0716-10182002000200012&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es We report the case of a 70 year-old-man with history of non-insulin dependant diabetes, arterial hypertension and chronic renal failure in hemodyalisis who was admitted to hospital with a history of fever for three weeks. Aseptic arthritis of the left hip was diagnosed an a surgical debridement was performed. Cultures showed growth of a fastidious gram-negative cocobacilus. The patient was re-admitted because of impaired consciousness, an acute myocardial infarction and fever. Brain CT scan and head MRI were normal as well as cerebrospinal fluid analysis. Final identification of the gram negative rod corresponded to Psychrobacter phenylpyruvicus (formerly Moraxella phenylpyruvicus). Treatment with ceftriaxone was begun. After two weeks the patient died of cardiac arrest. Moraxellaceae family is part of the normal flora of the upper respiratory tract and genitourinary tract. Occasionally Moraxellaceae family is seen as a pathogen. There are only two previous reports of infections due to Psychrobacter phenylpyruvicus, a diabetic foot and an infectious endocarditis, this is the first case of septic arthritis caused by this microorganism.