Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Revista chilena de historia natural]]> http://www.scielo.cl/rss.php?pid=0716-078X20140001&lang=en vol. 87 num. lang. en <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.cl/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.cl <![CDATA[<b>Rolling Pampas agroecosystem</b>: <b>which landscape attributes are relevant for determining bird distributions?</b>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0716-078X2014000100001&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en BACKGROUND: Agricultural intensification is among the main factors affecting biodiversity. The Rolling Pampas of Argentina have undergone through a process of landscape transformation and agricultural intensification that altered avian diversity patterns. Grassland area loss is argued to be the main reason for grassland bird species declines, but there is a lack of studies that compare cropland vs. pastures including other landscape features as determinants of species richness and distribution. Also, it is needed to understand how these relations are modified at different spatial scales. In this study, we explored how species are associated to different landscape attributes and elements like land use, roadside vegetation, trees, homesteads, and water bodies. Our aim was to explore how bird species are associated to the new elements of the Pampas agroecosystem at different spatial scales to reveal which are important for avian management. RESULTS: We ran field surveys covering a range of land use and landscape complexity, defined by the variety of component features. We performed canonical correspondence and diversity partition analyses to determine the association of species with land use, landscape complexity, and particular anthropogenic elements. Our results show that land use type is an important driver of bird species distributions, but it is also controlled by the presence of trees, houses, and water bodies that provide nesting and food resources. Simple landscapes have higher species turnover rates (beta diversity) than complex ones with similar gamma diversity, demonstrating that the effect of landscape simplification on bird diversity differs across spatial scales, leading to different possible management and conservation strategies. CONCLUSIONS: New approaches are needed to manage agroecosystems for avian conservation. We need to take pragmatic approaches, and in highly disturbed ecosystems, anthropic elements have to be included as constituent parts of the system. <![CDATA[<b>Latitudinal diversity patterns of Chilean coastal fishes</b>: <b>searching for causal processes</b>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0716-078X2014000100002&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en BACKGROUND: Several particular aspects of diversity patterns of Chilean littoral fishes are still poorly understood, and existing studies within this scope are fundamentally based on bibliographic compilations. In this study, we use empirical data to assess whether the diversity patterns of fish fauna along 4000 km of the Chilean coast (20° - 55° S)can be explained in relation to the environmental latitudinal gradient. Fish were collected from intertidal pools and subtidal habitats (<35 m). Analyses focused on the spatial scales of diversity patterns and latitudinal breaks in species diversity, comparing the observed patterns among intertidal and subtidal habitats. Correlations between variance in environmental factors and species richness were calculated. RESULTS: Richness was positively autocorrelated at spatial scales <1000 km. Overall, richness was observed to progressively decrease toward higher latitudes, but values for intertidal fish in particular decreased towards the north and south from the point of maximum richness. This is a pattern that has already been recorded for other intertidal organisms. Similarity was seen to decrease with distance, and turnover point for intertidal fishes was high around 30° - 32° S, while northern species disappeared between 36° - 39° S. Subtidally, there is an invasion of subantarctic species between 53° - 55° S. CONCLUSIONS: Environmental variables are significant to the diversity patterns recorded. However, richness variations could result from many types of variables acting together and not from one single factor. <![CDATA[<b>A new population of Darwin's fox (<i>Lycalopex fulvipes</i>) in the Valdivian Coastal Range</b>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0716-078X2014000100003&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en BACKGROUND: Several particular aspects of diversity patterns of Chilean littoral fishes are still poorly understood, and existing studies within this scope are fundamentally based on bibliographic compilations. In this study, we use empirical data to assess whether the diversity patterns of fish fauna along 4000 km of the Chilean coast (20° - 55° S)can be explained in relation to the environmental latitudinal gradient. Fish were collected from intertidal pools and subtidal habitats (<35 m). Analyses focused on the spatial scales of diversity patterns and latitudinal breaks in species diversity, comparing the observed patterns among intertidal and subtidal habitats. Correlations between variance in environmental factors and species richness were calculated. RESULTS: Richness was positively autocorrelated at spatial scales <1000 km. Overall, richness was observed to progressively decrease toward higher latitudes, but values for intertidal fish in particular decreased towards the north and south from the point of maximum richness. This is a pattern that has already been recorded for other intertidal organisms. Similarity was seen to decrease with distance, and turnover point for intertidal fishes was high around 30° - 32° S, while northern species disappeared between 36° - 39° S. Subtidally, there is an invasion of subantarctic species between 53° - 55° S. CONCLUSIONS: Environmental variables are significant to the diversity patterns recorded. However, richness variations could result from many types of variables acting together and not from one single factor. <![CDATA[<b>Conservation of biodiversity in private lands</b>: <b>are Chilean landowners willing to keep threatened species in their lands?</b>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0716-078X2014000100004&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en BACKGROUND: The biological conservation in private lands largely depends upon landowners' willingness to keep populations of wild species on them, an issue highlighted by the Convention on Biological Diversity. In this study, we aim (i) to understand small landowners' behavioural intentions, or relative intensity to adopt a given behaviour, towards threatened wildlife and (ii) to assess the role of local ecological knowledge, awareness of protected area, and forest ownership on landowners' behavioural intentions towards threatened biodiversity. We interviewed peasants living around Los Queules National Reserve in Central Chile. RESULTS: Interview results showed that behavioural intentions towards threatened species were species-dependant. Results also showed that higher ecological knowledge and awareness of a protected area were associated with positive behavioural intentions towards wildlife. Peasants who owned land with larger forest cover reported positive behavioural intentions towards wildlife more frequently than peasants with less forest cover on their lands, although associations were not consistent across species. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that (i) opportunities for getting peasants to support species conservation depend on the particular species and vary across peasants and (ii) there is a relevant social heterogeneity among peasants in terms of behavioural intentions towards species. As both factors likely influence conservation outcomes, they should be considered in the design of biodiversity conservation efforts. <![CDATA[<b>Temporal and spatial variation of the pollinator assemblages in <i>Alstroemeria ligtu</i> (Alstroemeriaceae)</b>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0716-078X2014000100005&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en BACKGROUND: The biological conservation in private lands largely depends upon landowners' willingness to keep populations of wild species on them, an issue highlighted by the Convention on Biological Diversity. In this study, we aim (i) to understand small landowners' behavioural intentions, or relative intensity to adopt a given behaviour, towards threatened wildlife and (ii) to assess the role of local ecological knowledge, awareness of protected area, and forest ownership on landowners' behavioural intentions towards threatened biodiversity. We interviewed peasants living around Los Queules National Reserve in Central Chile. RESULTS: Interview results showed that behavioural intentions towards threatened species were species-dependant. Results also showed that higher ecological knowledge and awareness of a protected area were associated with positive behavioural intentions towards wildlife. Peasants who owned land with larger forest cover reported positive behavioural intentions towards wildlife more frequently than peasants with less forest cover on their lands, although associations were not consistent across species. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that (i) opportunities for getting peasants to support species conservation depend on the particular species and vary across peasants and (ii) there is a relevant social heterogeneity among peasants in terms of behavioural intentions towards species. As both factors likely influence conservation outcomes, they should be considered in the design of biodiversity conservation efforts. <![CDATA[<b>At-sea abundance and distribution of skuas and jaegers (Charadriiformes: Stercorariidae) at coastal waters off central Chile</b>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0716-078X2014000100006&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en BACKGROUND: Skuas and jaegers (Charadriiformes: Stercorariidae) are seabirds breeding at moderate to high latitudes and some perform extensive post-breeding transequatorial migrations. Most species overwinter and perform significant portions of their migratory flyways along the Pacific coast of South America, but scant information is available on their at-sea ecology in this waters. Our aims in this study were to determine: 1) the timing of occurrence and fluctuations in abundance of skua and jaeger species, 2) their spatial distribution within the coastal zone and 3) at-sea behavior of birds, including flock size and interactions with other seabird species. RESULTS: Between July 2006 and October 2013, we conducted at-sea bird counts at Valparaiso Bay (33°S) in central Chile and confirmed the occurrence of Chilean skuas (Stercorarius chilensis), Brown skuas (S. antarcticus), and Parasitic jaegers (S. parasiticus). Parasitic jaegers are regular austral summer visitors (November to March), whereas Brown skuas occur in the area only in winter (July to October). Chilean skuas were regularly recorded year-round in the area with higher abundances between late winter and early spring (August to October). Brown and Chilean skuas where observed comparatively offshore, whereas Jaegers presented a more coastal distribution, probably associated to host presence. Chilean skuas kleptoparasitized similar-sized (shearwaters and fulmars) and larger seabird species (boobies), whereas jaegers chased only smaller coastal birds (gulls and terns). Brown skuas engaged in no kleptoparasitic behaviors. All three species were observed mostly as solitary individuals. CONCLUSIONS: Skuas and jaegers showed in general a marked seasonality in their occurrence and abundance (only Chilean skua occurs year-round) and use this area as a commuting and stopover zone within their extensive migratory flyway along the southeastern Pacific. <![CDATA[<b>Pollination ecology and breeding system of two<i> Calceolaria</i> species in Chile</b>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0716-078X2014000100007&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en BACKGROUND: Skuas and jaegers (Charadriiformes: Stercorariidae) are seabirds breeding at moderate to high latitudes and some perform extensive post-breeding transequatorial migrations. Most species overwinter and perform significant portions of their migratory flyways along the Pacific coast of South America, but scant information is available on their at-sea ecology in this waters. Our aims in this study were to determine: 1) the timing of occurrence and fluctuations in abundance of skua and jaeger species, 2) their spatial distribution within the coastal zone and 3) at-sea behavior of birds, including flock size and interactions with other seabird species. RESULTS: Between July 2006 and October 2013, we conducted at-sea bird counts at Valparaiso Bay (33°S) in central Chile and confirmed the occurrence of Chilean skuas (Stercorarius chilensis), Brown skuas (S. antarcticus), and Parasitic jaegers (S. parasiticus). Parasitic jaegers are regular austral summer visitors (November to March), whereas Brown skuas occur in the area only in winter (July to October). Chilean skuas were regularly recorded year-round in the area with higher abundances between late winter and early spring (August to October). Brown and Chilean skuas where observed comparatively offshore, whereas Jaegers presented a more coastal distribution, probably associated to host presence. Chilean skuas kleptoparasitized similar-sized (shearwaters and fulmars) and larger seabird species (boobies), whereas jaegers chased only smaller coastal birds (gulls and terns). Brown skuas engaged in no kleptoparasitic behaviors. All three species were observed mostly as solitary individuals. CONCLUSIONS: Skuas and jaegers showed in general a marked seasonality in their occurrence and abundance (only Chilean skua occurs year-round) and use this area as a commuting and stopover zone within their extensive migratory flyway along the southeastern Pacific.