Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Parasitología al día]]> http://www.scielo.cl/rss.php?pid=0716-072019990001&lang=es vol. 23 num. 1-2 lang. es <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.cl/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.cl http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0716-07201999000100001&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es ABSTRACT We utilized immunostaining assay with Avidin Biotin Peroxidase (ABP) technique and primary rat monoclonal antibody NLDC-145 specific for mouse dendritic cell, characterized Langerhans cells (LC) in epidermis sheet of 1 mm2 of skin of the footpads of inbred females BALB/c mice, intradermally (id) injected with 1.103 cultured promastigotes of Leishmania braziliensis. The result showed that the injection of the parasites in the skin of the animals produced a progressive increment of epidermal LC in the site of the previous injection, and statistically significant (P&lt;0.05) in each study period. The density of epidermal LC was going up by parasite insult in early time, after the 15 minutes (m) post-infection (pi) with 162± 31.2 LC/mm2, reaching a maximal value of 4503± 713 LC/mm2 to 2 week (w) pi until 898± 481 LC/mm2 to 6 w pi. The number of LC was always higher in epidermis sheet of mice infected with L. braziliensis, than in the epidermis of the control healthy mice, these skin samples showed 120± 28.9 LC/mm2. Morphological changes of the promastigotes injected could to be detected in skin Giemsa-stained imprints, the parasite showed form ovoid and a short flagel, between 15 m and 2 hour (hr) pi. No parasites were even seen in the imprint samples than of any other time of infection. These samples also showed many inflammatory cells, such as: activated macrophages (33%) to 15 m pi, neutrophils (46.33%) to 4 hr pi, eosinophils (2.33%) to 4 hr pi, lymphocytes (15.67%) to 6 hr pi, degraded lymphocytes (8.33%) to 1 w pi, monocytes (4.33%) to 5 day (d) pi and activated monocytes (19.33%) to 1 d pi. The stained sections of skin inoculated, revealed amastigotes into macrophages dermal near of the perivascular area and inflammatory process in the dermis consisted of lymphocytes, monocytes, plasma cell and polymorphonuclear cells between 1 w and 6 w pi. No parasites were detected in the epidermis. The results showed that the promastigotes in the skin survived the first 2 hr out of the macrophages, and on the other hand, stimuled various cell types in site of injection of the parasites, and the proliferation of antigen presentation by epidermal Langerhans cells, necessary for the initiation of the specific T cell immune response. <![CDATA[TRICOMONOSIS EN ADOLESCENTES EMBARAZADAS DE ANTOFAGASTA, CHILE]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0716-07201999000100002&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es TRICHOMONOSIS IN PREGNANT ADOLESCENT FROM ANTOFAGASTA, CHILE A large psychosocial load and a relatively lower impact in terms of morbidity and mortality characterize adolescence’s health problems. For adolescents, however, a decrease in the average for the first menstruation and an early start in sexual activity, are two risk factors for both pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases. In this work, we have investigated Trichomonas vaginalis’ infection and its related epidemiological and obstetric factors, among 300 pregnant adolescents from Antofagasta in northern Chile, between the ages of 12 to 18. Most adolescents studied (87.7%) were in the range of 15-17 years old; 76.0% had the first menstruation at the range of 12-14 years old and 27.3 % started sexual activity before the age 15. A T. vaginalis’ infection rate of 5.7 % was obtained<hr/>RESUMEN Los problemas de salud de la adolescencia se caracterizan por una carga psicosocial elevada y un nivel de daño relativamente bajo en términos de morbilidad y mortalidad, sin embargo, la disminución de la edad promedio de la menarquia y el inicio precoz de actividad sexual coital son factores de riesgo para el embarazo y las enfermedades de transmisión sexual (ETS) entre los adolescentes. En este trabajo se investigó la infección por Trichomonas vaginalis y los factores epidemiológicos y obstétricos relacionados entre 300 adolescentes embarazadas de la ciudad de Antofagasta, cuyas edades variaron entre 12 y 18 años, de las cuales el 87,7 % se concentró en el rango 15 y 17 años, en tanto que el 76,0 % tuvo su menarquia entre los 12 - 14 años y el 27,3 % inició su actividad sexual antes de los 15 años. Se determinó una tasa de infección por T. vaginalis de un 5,7 % . <![CDATA[ANTI-TICK EFFECT OBSERVED IN MATURE PLANTS O TROPICAL LEGUMES Stylosanthes humilis and <I> Stylosanthes hamata</I>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0716-07201999000100003&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es ABSTRACT The anti-tick effect of Stylosanthes humilis and Stylosanthes hamata was evaluated for mature plants on plots experimentally infested with larvae of the cattle tick Boophilus microplus. Cenchurus ciliaris was used as control grass. The effect was evaluated counting the total number of live tick larvae recovered by the double flannel flag technique from the experimental plots during a four week period. The effect observed in both Stylosanthes species did not show significant differences (p &gt; 0.05) between them and the larval survival percentage was 5.1 % for S. humilis and 7.5 % for S. hamata. In the first specie the anti-tick effect was lower than the one reported for young plants, but in S. hamata this effect was similar in young and mature plants. Further studies are necessary to complement the knowledge about this plant and to establish their use in field conditions..<hr/>RESUMEN El efecto anti-garrapata de plantas maduras de las leguminosas tropicales Stylosanthes humilis y Stylosanthes hamata , fue evaluado en parcelas experimentalmente infestadas con larvas de garrapata Boophilus microplus, utilizando al pasto Cenchurus ciliaris como tratamiento testigo. El efecto fue evaluado contando el número total de larvas vivas recuperadas de las parcelas experimentales por la técnica de bandera de doble recorrido durante un periodo de cuatro semanas. El efecto anti-garrapata observado en ambas especies de Stylosanthes no mostró diferencias entre ellas (p&lt;0.05), el porcentaje de sobrevivencia de larvas fue del 5.1% para S. humilis y 7.5% para S. hamata. En la primera especie el efecto anti-garrapata fue menor que el reportado en plantas jóvenes, pero en S. hamata este efecto fue similar en plantas maduras y jóvenes. Es necesario realizar más estudios para complementar el conocimiento que se tiene acerca de estas plantas y establecer su uso en condiciones de campo <![CDATA[CONTROLE DE QUALIDADE DE IMATUROS DE <I> Cochliomyia macellaria</I> (FABRICIUS) (DIPTERA: CALLIPHORIDAE) EM ESTOQUES]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0716-07201999000100004&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es QUALITY CONTROL OF Cochliomyia macellaria (FABRICIUS) (DIPTERA: CALLIPHORIDAE) IMATURES IN COLONY Quality control of Cochliomyia macellaria (Fabricius) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) larvae and pupae in colony was observed during eight consecutive generations. A diet consisting of decomposing horse flesh was used, and the relation of 0.02 g egg mass/ 200 g diet was established. The larval and pupal viability at 27 oC and 30 oC temperature, 65 <FONT FACE=Symbol>±</FONT> 10% UR and 14 h photofase, respectively, were greater than 80%. The egg to pupae period and the body mass of postfeeding larvae variation were 4.7-7.0 days and 59.40-70.30 mg, respectively. The emergence ocurred 8.0-12.0 days after the neolarvae innoculation in diet. The study has not show a linear relation between the analised characteristic and monitored generations<hr/>RESUMO O controle de qualidade de larvas e pupas de Cochliomyia macellaria (Fabricius) (Diptera: Calliphoridae), mantidas em estoques, foi monitorado durante oito gerações consecutivas. Uma dieta consistindo de carne eqüina putrefata foi utilizada, estabelecendo-se a relação de 0.02 g de massa de ovos / 200 g de dieta. A taxa de sobrevivência larval e pupal a 27 ºC e 30 ºC de temperatura, 65 <FONT FACE=Symbol>±</FONT> 10% UR e 14 h de fotofase, respectivamente, foi superior a 80%. O período de ovo a pupa e a massa corporal de larvas pós-alimentadas oscilou entre 4.7-7.0 dias e 59.40-70.30 mg, respectivamente. A emergência ocorreu 8.0-12.0 dias após a inoculação das neolarvas na dieta. O estudo não sugeriu uma relação linear entre as características analisadas e as gerações monitoradas. <![CDATA[ESTRUTURA DAS INFRACOMUNIDADES DE NEMATOIDES ESTRONGILÍDEOS (NEMATODA: STRONGYLIDAE) DO CECO DE <I>Equus caballus </I>NATURALMENTE INFECTADOS, PROVENIENTES DA REGIÃO METROPOLITANA DO RIO DE JANEIRO, BRASIL]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0716-07201999000100005&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es ESTRUCTURE OF INFRACOMMUNITIES OF STRONGYLID NEMATODES (NEMATODA: STRONGYLIDAE) OF CECUM OF Equus caballus NATURALLY INFECTED,FROM METROPOLITANA REGION OF RIO DE JANEIRO STATE; BRAZIL The strutucture of the infracommunities parasitic nematodes in equines from Metropolitana Region of Rio de Janeiro State was analyzed. Patterns in the parasite diversity and interspecific relationships were observed. Moreover, the prevalence and abundance of the strongylid nematodes were calculated. Thirty-three equines were necropsied, and were collected 8,640 helminths (6,078 belonging to Strongylidae) from the intestinal cecum. Dominance among the Cyathostominae species was not observed. Coronocyclus coronatus (90.9%, 60), Cylicostephanus calicatus (87.9%, 48.9) and Strongylus vulgaris (84.8%, 24), were more prevalent and abundance species. Cylicostephanus brevicapsulatus showed highest values of dispersion and aggregation. Three infrapopulations (2, 3 and 15) showed the same parasite richness (3), however the value obtained from Shannon and Pielou indices were different because the unequal evenness of these samples. From 182 possible associated species pairs, only 8 showed significance association and covariation.<hr/>RESUMO Analisou-se a estrutura das infracomunidades de nematóides Strongylidae em eqüinos, proveniente da Região Metropolitana do Rio de Janeiro, observando-se padrôes na diversidade parasitária e relações interespecíficas. Além disto, a prevalência e a abundância dos nematóides Strongylidae foram calculados. Trinta e três eqüinos foram necropsiados. Coletou-se 8.640 helmintos do conteúdo cecal, deste total, 6.078 espécimes pertencentes à família Strongylidae. Coronocyclus coronatus (90,9%; 60), Cylicostephanus calicatus (87,9%; 48,9) e Strongylus vulgaris (84,8%; 24) foram as espécies mais prevalentes e abundantes, respectivamente. Cylicocyclus brevicapsulatus apresentou um dos maiores índices de dispersão e agregação. Três infrapopulações (2, 3 e 15) apresentaram a mesma riqueza parasitária (3), contudo, os valores obtidos para os índices de Shannon e Pielou foram diferentes, devido à distinta equitabilidade das amostras. De 182 pares de espécies associados, somente oito foram significativos para associação e correlação. <![CDATA[PARASITOS DE LOS ANIMALES DOMESTICOS EN CHILE]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0716-07201999000100006&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es PARASITES OF DOMESTIC ANIMALS IN CHILE An up-to-date list of the parasites that have been identified in horses, cattle, sheep, goats, llamas, alpacas, pigs, dogs, cats, rabbits, chickens and pigeons in Chile, according to the studies performed at the University of Chile and other Universities and Institutes. <![CDATA[PREVALENCE OF <I>Trichomonas gallinae </I>FROM THE UPPER DIGESTIVE TRACT OF THE COMMON PIGEON, <I>Columba livia </I>IN THE SOUTHERN BRAZILIAN STATE, RIO GRANDE DO SUL]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0716-07201999000100007&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es ABSTRACT Trichomonas gallinae (Rivolta, 1878) is a parasitic protozoan of the upper digestive tract and various organs of different avian groups, being common among the Columbids, was isolated described and its prevalence studies in the Southern Brazilian State, Rio Grande do Sul. The morphology study of the live specimens done by examination of fresh and stained specimens, showed that the T. gallinae isolated has the same morphological characteristics as the upper digestive tract trichomonads previously described by other authors <![CDATA[PARASITISMO DE LEUCOCITOS Y TROMBOCITOS DE <I>Gallus gallus </I>L. POR <I>Plasmodium </I>(<I>Novyella</I>) <I> juxtanucleare</I> (APICOMPLEXA: PLASMODIIDAE)]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0716-07201999000100008&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es PARASITISM OF LEUKOCYTES AND THROMBOCYTES OF Gallus gallus L. BY Plasmodium (Novyella) juxtanucleare (APICOMPLEXA: PLASMODIIDAE) A research about parasitism of the Plasmodium juxtanucleare in crossbred fowls from Seropédica municipality, Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil, were done. Blood smear were done, and stained by Giemsa stain diluted in sorensen buffer pH6.8. The hemoscopical exam of fowls with high parasitaemia (&gt;10%) showed trophozoite and meront forms in the cytoplasm of leukocytic cells; and trophozoite forms in the cytoplasm of the thrombocytic cells. These observation do conclude that P. juxtanucleare strain from Seropédica produce phanerozoic meronts. This report constitutes the first finding of P. juxtanucleare forms in the leukocytes.<hr/>RESUMEN Se realizó una investigación del parasitismo de Plasmodium juxtanucleare en gallinas sin raza definida, provenientes de criaderos rústicos en el município de Seropédica, estado de Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. Se realizaron frotis sanguineos periféricos, los cuales fueron coloreados con Giemsa diluído en tampon sorensen pH6,8. En el exámen hemoscópico se puede observar en aves con alto índice de parasitemia (&gt;10%) formas parasitarias de trofozoítas y esquizontes en el citoplasma de células de la linea leucocítica y trofozoítas en células de la linea trombocítica. Las observaciones en el presente estudio hacen inferir que la cepa de P. juxtanucleare que ocurre en Seropédica realiza esquizogonia fanerozóica. Este trabajo constituye el primer hallazgo de formas parasitárias de P. juxtanucleare en leucocitos <![CDATA[ENTEROPARASITOS EN NIÑOS RESIDENTES EN ZONA RURAL DEL PARTIDO DE CARMEN DE PATAGONES. PROVINCIA DE BUENOS AIRES. ARGENTINA]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0716-07201999000100009&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es ENTEROPARASITES IN CHILDREN LIVING IN RURAL AREAS AT THE PARTIDO DE CARMEN DE PATAGONES. PROVINCE OF BUENOS AIRES.ARGENTINA In the absence of epidemiological data on enteroparasites in a population of 0-14 year-old residents in the rural area of Partido de Carmen de Patagones, Province of Buenos Aires, Argentina, a descriptive and epidemiologic study was carried out as part of a Primary Health Care Program ( PHCP). Faecal matter and anal mucus serial parasitoscopic studies were carried out on 210 children. Results indicate that 60,5% ofthe studied population is intestinal-parasite carrier. Positive monoparasitism was of 67%, while the remaining 33% was manifested in 2-to-5 parasite forms. Parasite spectrum was registered in the following way: Entamoeba coli 31,5%, Giardia lamblia 24,7%, Enterobius vermicularis 18%, Hymenolepis nana 10,4%, Blastocystis hominis 10,3%, Chilomastix mesnili 2,5%, Uncinarias 1%, Entamoeba histolytica 0,9% and Trichuris trichiura 0,5%.Parasite distribution in the studied population was homogeneous in general except for H. nana which registered a prevalence which was higher in risk areas ( 92,4%) than in dry areas ( 7,6%).The results obtained in the present study have been communicated to the corresponding sanitary authorities.<hr/>RESUMEN Como parte del Programa de Atención Primaria de la Salud (APS) del año 1996, y en virtud de que no existían datos epidemiológicos referidos a enteroparásitos hallados en niños de 0 a 14 años, residentes en una zona rural del Partido de Carmen de Patagones, Provincia de Buenos Aires, es que se realizó el presente estudio epidemiológico descriptivo. Se estudiaron 210 niños a los que se les efectúo un estudio parasitoscópico seriado de materia fecal y mucus anal. Los resultados mostraron que el 60,5% de la población estudiada era portadora de algún parásito intestinal. El monoparasitismo hallado fue de 67%, mientras que el 33% restante presentó entre 2 y 5 formas parasitarias. El espectro parasitario fue el siguiente: Entamoeba coli 31,5%; Giardia lamblia 24,7 %; Enterobius vermicularis 18%; Hymenolepis nana 10,4%; Blastocystis hominis 10,3%; Chilomastix mesnili 2,5%; Uncinarias 1%; Entamoeba histolytica 0,9% y Trichuris trichiura 0,5%. La distribución parasitaria en los distintos sectores estudiados fue en general homogénea excepto para H. nana la cual presentó una prevalencia más alta en zonas de riego con relación a la zona seca . Los resultados obtenidos fueron comunicados a las autoridades sanitarias correspondientes <![CDATA[FREQUÊNCIA DE MOSCAS (DIPTERA,CYCLORRAPHA) DE IMPORTÂNCIA MÉDICO VETERINÁRIA NO ZOOLÓGICO DA UNIVERSIDADE FEDERAL DO MATO GROSSO, BRASIL, 1.]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0716-07201999000100010&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es FREQUENCE OF FLIES WITH VETERINARY IMPORTANCE AT THE ZOOLOGICAL GARDEN OF THE FEDERAL UNIVERSITY OF MATO GROSSO (UFMT)/BRAZIL. From january until december 1996 were used three Wind Oriented Traps (WOT) with different baits: banana, feces and fish. The traps have been installed in different places in the zoological garden. The inspection of the WOT was made at every 72 hours. The flies collected were classified, using the key proposed by James (1964). During the experiment period 3563 diptera have been captured, that is 90,18% (3213) classified as Calliphoridae, Muscidae and Sarcophagidae, and 9,82% (350) don´t classified. The WOT, who captured the major number of flies, was the one baited with fish. The genera Chrysomyia was prevalent over any other genera during all the year, with major number (852 specimens) captured in september. The genera Sarcophaga presented greater number captured in july (201 specimens) . From january until march Chrysomyia prefered the banana baited trap. <![CDATA[ALGUNOS HELMINTOS DE LA MARSOPA ESPINOSA, <I>Phocoena spinipinnis </I>DE LA RESERVA NACIONAL DE PARACAS, PERU.]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0716-07201999000100011&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es SOME HELMINTHS OF THE PORPOISE, Phocoena spinipinnis, OF PARACAS NATIONAL RESERVE, PERU Three helminths: Synthesium tursionis, Pseudalius inflexus and Stenurus australis are presented as parasite in Phocoena spinipinnis, on the coast of Paracas National Reserve, Pisco, Peru. P. spinipinnis is a new host for Synthesium tursionis in the peruvian coast.<hr/>RESUMEN Se informa de la presencia de 3 helmintos que parasitan a Phocoene spinipinnis de la Reserva Nacional de Paracas, Ica, Perú : Synthesium tursionis, Pseudalius inflexus y Stenurus australis. Por primera vez se encuentra en la costa S. tursionis parasitando a P. spinipinnis en la costa peruana. <![CDATA[<I>Corynosoma obtuscens </I>LINCICOME, 1943 (ACANTHOCEPHALA: POLYMORPHIDAE) EN <I>Canis familiaris </I>DE LA CIUDAD DE CHINCHA, PERU.]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0716-07201999000100012&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Corynosoma obtuscens LINCICOME, 1943 (ACANTHOCEPHALA: POLYMORPHIDAE) IN Canis familiaris FROM CHINCHA CITY, PERU. In the present communication, is reported the presence of Corynosoma obtuscens Lincicome, 1943 (Acanthocephala: Polymorphidae) in Canis familiaris, from Chincha city, Perú. C. obtuscens is a natural parasite of pinnipeds on the peruvian coast, but due to their finding in dogs, it is considerated as a potencial parasite for the man and for others domestic and wildlife mammals that eat raw or uncooked fishes. This helminth is a new pathogen for dogs.<hr/>RESUMEN El objetivo de la presente comunicación, es dar a conocer la presencia de Corynosoma obtuscens Lincicome, 1943 (Acanthocephala: Polymorphidae) en Canis familiaris, procedentes de la ciudad de Chincha, Perú. Esta especie es un parásito natural de pinnípedos en la costa peruana, pero debido a su hallazgo en caninos domésticos, se le considera como un parásito potencial para el hombre y para otros mamíferos domésticos y silvestres que ingieren pescado crudo o insuficientemente cocido en el Perú. Este helminto es un nuevo patógeno para caninos. <![CDATA[DISTRIBUCION Y TENDENCIA DE LA TRICHINELLOSIS HUMANA Y PORCINA EN CHILE (1989 - 1995).]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0716-07201999000100013&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es DISTRIBUTION AND TENDENCY OF HUMAN AND SWINE THRICHINELLOSIS IN CHILE (1989-1995) With data obtained from the Ministry of Health the prevalence of trichinellosis in human and porcine populations from 1989 to 1995 was calculated. The infection is present in swine from the V to the XII Region of the country. In both populations, the rates of trichinellosis are decreasing during the studied period. There was no association between human and swine frequency of trichinellosis according to regions or years.<hr/>RESUMEN Con información de los años 1989 a 1995, obtenida del Ministerio de Salud de Chile, se describe la prevalencia de la trichinellosis de las poblaciones humana y porcina. La enfermedad en la población porcina se presenta desde la V a la XII Región, En la población humana no se observaron casos en la I, II y X Región. En ambas poblaciones la tendencia es al descenso. No se observó asociación entre las tasas observadas en la población humana con las determinadas en la especie porcina. Tanto entre regiones como entre años.