Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Revista médica de Chile]]> http://www.scielo.cl/rss.php?pid=0034-988720120006&lang=es vol. 140 num. 6 lang. es <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.cl/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.cl <![CDATA[Barreras para la formación en docencia de los profesores de medicina: una aproximación cualitativa]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872012000600001&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Background: Since 2000, the medical school of the Catholic University of Chile (EMUC) has offered courses for its faculty as part of a Diploma in Medical Education (DEM). However by 2009, 41% of faculty had never taken any courses. Aim: To explore the reasons why faculty choose not to participate in these courses. Material and Methods: Semi-structured interviews to seven faculty members, all of whom have an active role in teaching but who had not taken any DEM courses. The sampling was intentional and guided by theory. Based on Grounded theory, the data was analyzed using open, axial and selective coding. Results: Three categories emerged from the analysis. First, the characteristics of a "good teacher" and what it means to be a good teacher. Second, the current status of teaching. Third, the barriers to participate in courses of DEM. Non-attendance is multifactorial; teaching is seen as a natural skill that is difficult to be trained, teaching has a lower priority than other activities, and there are many barriers perceived for attendance. Conclusions: With these results we developed a model to explain the reasons why faculty choose not to participate in these courses. The lower value of teaching and the multiple roles that teachers have, are highlighted. <![CDATA[Rol de la cirugía mínimamente invasiva en la patología esofágica benigna: reporte de una serie de casos]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872012000600002&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Background: Minimally invasive surgery has the advantage of a lower rate of complications and can be used for benign esophageal diseases. Aim: To report a single surgeon experience with laparoscopic surgery for benign esophageal diseases. Material and Methods: Prospective analysis of 421 patients (160 males) with benign esophageal disease, who were subjected to laparoscopic surgery by a single surgeon. Immediate mortality, surgical complications and long term results in terms of symptoms recurrence, were analyzed. Results: The underlying diagnoses of the operated patients were Barrett's esophagus or esophagitis in 257, hiatal hernia in 91, achalasia in 68 and esophageal diverticula in five. Surgery obtained successful results in 90% of patients with Barrett's esophagus. Among patients with hiatal hernia, there was a 12% rate of complications and a 30% recurrence, when a mesh was not used. Among patients with achalasia the recurrence rate was less than 5%. Conclusions: Laparoscopic surgery has a fair success rate in benign esophageal diseases, with a lower rate of complications. <![CDATA[Comparación de la efectividad de la ligadura vs esclerosis endoscópica en pacientes con sangrado de várices esofágicas en el Hospital Hernán Henríquez de Temuco: estudio de cohortes comparativas]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872012000600003&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Background: Endoscopic band ligation is the treatment of choice for bleeding esophageal varices. However it is not clear if this procedure is associated with less early and late mortality than sclerotherapy. Aim: To assess rates of re-bleeding and mortality in cohorts of patients with bleeding esophageal varices treated with endos-copic injection or band ligation. Patients and Methods: Analysis of medical records and endoscopy reports of two cohorts of patients with bleeding esophageal varices, treated between 1990 and 2010. Of these, 54 patients were treated with sclerotherapy and 90 patients with band ligation. A third cohort of 116patients that did not require endoscopic treatment, was included. The mean analyzed follow up period was 2.5 years (range 1-16). Collection of data was retrospective for patients treated with sclerotherapy and prospective for patients treated with band ligation. Rates of re-bleeding and medium term mortality were assessed. Results: During the month ensuing the first endoscopic treatment, re-bleeding was recorded in 39 and 72% of patients treated with band ligation and sclerotherapy, respectively (p < 0.01). The relative risk of bleeding after band ligation was 0.53 (95% confidence limits 0.390.73). Death rates until the end of follow up were 20 and 48% among patients with treated with band ligation and sclerotherapy, respectively (p < 0.01), with a relative risk of dying for patients subjected to band ligation of 0.41 (95% confidence limits 0.25-0.68). Conclusions: Band ligation was associated with lower rates of re-bleeding and mortality in these cohorts of patients. <![CDATA[Factores de riesgo asociados a síntomas depresivos post parto en mujeres de bajo riesgo obstétrico atendidas en el sistema público]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872012000600004&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Background: Postpartum depression (PPD) is a public health problem with high prevalence in Chile. Many factors are associated with PPD. Aim: To analyze the factors associated with the incidence of depressive symptoms (SD) in women with low obstetric risk. Material and Methods: Cross-sectional analytical study on a sample of 105 postpartum women with low obstetric risk assessed by the Edinburgh Depression Scale at the eighth week postpartum. Results: A 37% prevalence of depressive symptoms was found. Univariate analysis showed that the perception of family functioning, overcrowding and number of siblings, were significantly associated with postpartum depressive symptoms. A multiple regression model only accepted family functioning as a predictor of depression. Conclusions: Perception of family functioning was the only variable that explained in part the presence of depressive symptoms in women with low obstetric risk. <![CDATA[<b>Evaluación del programa "Familias fuertes: amor y límites" en familias con adolescentes de 10 a 14 años</b>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872012000600005&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Background: "Strong Families" is a family program aimed at preventing risk behaviors in adolescents from 10 to 14 years of age. It has been developed by the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO/WHO) and is based on the Iowa Strengthening Families Program. This program has been certified and has been proven to effectively prevent adolescent drug and alcohol abuse in several countries around the globe. Aim: To evaluate the Strong Families Program toward adjusting current parenting styles, aiming to decrease risk behaviors in Chilean adolescents. Material and Methods: A quasi-experimental study involving 120 families, selected from 6 schools within the Metropolitan Region of Santiago, Chile. A group of 129 adolescents and 124 parents were chosen by convenience to be intervened. A control group of 223 adolescents and 165 parents were not intervened. The families that underwent intervention attended to 7 educational sessions. The intervened and control groups were evaluated before intervention as well as 6 months after intervention, by means of self-administered evaluation tools. Results: The intervened parents showed significant parenting changes six months after intervention, which resulted in less yelling (p = 0.007), insults (p = 0.002) and lack of control when their children misbehaved (p = 0.008). Regarding the risk behaviors in the intervened and control adolescents, no changes were observed in terms of the consumption rate of tobacco, alcohol or illegal drug use, or in sexual risk behaviors. Conclusions: After six months of intervention, the Program proved to be effective in modifying parenting styles. However, no changes were observed in risk behaviors among adolescents, which could occur within a longer period of time, as reported in other studies. <![CDATA[<b>Características epidemiológicas de los fallecidos durante el terremoto y maremoto de Chile 2010</b>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872012000600006&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Background: On February 27, 2010 a powerful earthquake followed by a tsunami stroke Chile. The study of mortality during this emergency can provide important public health information. Aim: To describe the main characteristics of people who died during the earthquake and the following three months. Material and Methods: Cross sectional analysis of death records databases obtained from Department of Health Statistics and Information of the Ministry of Health and the Coroner office. Results: Until May 25,2010, 505 corpses were completely identified. Seventy two of these corresponded to people aged 80 years or more. The higher age adjusted death rates per 100,000 inhabitants were observed among subjects aged more than 80 years and those aged 70 to 79 years (22.6 and 7.7 respectively). The higher rates of deaths were observed in regions where the earthquake had a higher intensity and coastal regions affected by the tsunami. The causes of death were trauma in 75% of cases and drowning in 25%. There was no association between the Mercalli scale of earthquake intensity and rates of death. Among deceased subjects, there was a concentration of unemployed, under educated and low socioeconomic status subjects. Conclusions: After the earthquake, the higher rates of deaths occurred among older people and in the region of the epicenter of the earthquake. Most deaths were due to trauma. <![CDATA[¿Cuántas personas fuman?: Percepción del nivel de consumo y su relación con el consumo de cigarrillos en adolescentes chilenos]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872012000600007&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Background: Cigarette smoking among adolescents is a major health problem in Chile, which is determined by several factors. Among these, it is important the role of perceived norms regarding cigarette use among peers and the general population. Aim: To study the social norms about the perceived prevalence of smoking and its relationship with cigarette smoking among Chilean adolescents. Material and Methods: Participants were 480 adolescents of educational institutions from the South-East area of the Metropolitan Region, who completed a questionnaire that included questions regarding cigarette use and the perceived prevalence of cigarette use among peers and adults. Results: Adolescents overestimated the percentage of smokers compared to national statistics regarding their peers and adult population. The perception of adolescents regarding the rates of use among peers predicted both current and future use. Conclusions: Cigarette smoking is influenced by perceived norms regarding use and, despite the current smoking restrictions in place, youth continue to perceive that smoking is a common behavior. <![CDATA[<b>Una lesión en el cintigrama renal DMSA 6 meses post fase aguda de una pielonefritis representa siempre una cicatriz</b>: <b>un debate abierto</b>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872012000600008&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Background: Abnormal Dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) renal scintigraphy performed six months after an acute pyelonephritis (AP) is generally interpreted as scarring. Aim: To perform a follow up of childhood patients showing scintigraphic renal lesions during the acute phase of pyelonephritis (within 7 days from the beginning of fever). Material and Methods: A scintigraphic control was carried out at 5-7 months and, in case of persistent lesions, an additional late scintigraphy at 10-13 months. All patients were followed clinically for one year and those with a relapse of urinary tract infection were excluded from the study. Results: Eighty five patients with a median age of 8 months were included. Among these, the first scintigraphic control was normal in 59 (69%) and abnormal in 26 patients (31%). In five of these 26 patients (5/26:19%-5/85: 6%), a considerable regression of the lesions was obvious on the early control, and normalized completely on the late control. When expressing the results in kidney units, 107 showed lesions during the acute phase of infection; 69% was normal at the early control. Thirty three showed lesions persisting at the early control (31%) and 7 out of these 33 (21%) became normal on the late control (7/107: 7%). In total, 25% of the children included in the study (24% of the kidney units) remained with renal sequelae one year after the initial episode of AP. Conclusions: The persistence of scintigraphic lesions six months after an episode of AP, does not necessarily correspond to permanent scars, since normalization can sometimes be observed on late controls. <![CDATA[Conducta suicida en niños y adolescentes ingresados en un hospital general: Análisis descriptivo]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872012000600009&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Background: Worldwide, suicide is the third cause of death among adolescents. Aim: To determine the socio-demographic context and clinical characteristics of children and adolescents hospitalized for suicidal behavior in a general hospital. Material and Methods: Between 2007 and 2009, we evaluated 47 patients with a mean age of 15.3 years (87% women) admitted for suicidal behavior at the Clinical Hospital of the Catholic University of Chile. Demographic data of the participants were registered. Clinical interviews were done by a child and adolescent psychiatrist. Results: Fifty seven percent of patients lived with both parents. Fifty one percent had previous suicide attempts and 68% had a previous psychiatric treatment. The main trigger was a conflict with parents in 66%. The psychiatric diagnoses were major depressive episode in 74.5% and pathological development of personality in 43%. All suicide attempts were with drugs and 6.4% were associated with cuts. Seventeen percent of attempts were classified as medically serious and they were more common in older age groups. Non severe attempts were observed mainly in women (92.3%). Acetaminophen intake was recorded in 8.5% of cases. Admission to hospital increased in the final quarter of the year. High costs of hospitalization were observed associated to stays in high complexity units. Conclusions: The population studied shows a high incidence of prior suicidal behavior. Most of the studied patients had attempts that were not classified as serious. These occurred predominantly in women in all age ranges. Medically serious suicidal behavior is mainly observed in older adolescents. <![CDATA[Cardiotoxicidad reversible en una mujer con 54 años tratada con trastuzumab]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872012000600010&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Background: We report a 54-year-old woman with an stage IIA (T2N0M0) RE and RP negative and HER2-positive ductal invasive breast cancer who developed a reversible cardiotoxicity associated with chemotherapy. After surgery, she received four cycles of doxorubicin and cyclophosfamide. Later, she used paclitaxel and trastuzumab. At the 7th cycle of trastuzumab, she had symptoms of heart failure with left ventricle ejection fraction = 59%. Trastuzumab dosage was reduced in 25%, and heart function progressively improved. Two years after her discharge, the patient remains asymptomatic. Systolic function of the left ventricle was normal before the initial dosis of trastuzumab, but significantly worsened following the beginning of drug administration. Moreover, a clear improvement of heart function was observed soon after the daily dose of trastuzumab was reduced. Better knowledge of risk factors for cardiotoxicity related to chemotherapy, and longstanding surveillance with serial echocardiograms can avoid more severe cardiotoxicity by chemotherapy.<hr/>Se reporta un caso de cardiotoxicidad asociada con quimioterapia con trastuzumab, en una mujer con 54 años de edad que presentó un cáncer de mama ductal invasivo, con receptores de estrógeno y de progesterona negativos y HER2-positivo, en estadio IIA (T2N0M0). En el posoperatorio, recibió cuatro ciclos de doxorubicina y ciclofosfamida. Después recibió paclitaxel y trastuzumab. En el séptimo ciclo de trastuzumab, la paciente presentó síntomas de falla cardiaca, con fracción de eyección de ventrículo izquierdo = 59%. La dosis de trastuzumab fue reducida en 25%, y la función cardiaca se normalizó progresivamente. Más de 2 años después del alta hospitalaria, permanece sin síntomas. En esta paciente la función sistólica de ventrículo izquierdo estaba normal previo al uso de trastuzumab y hubo un significativo deterioro desde el início de este medicamento. Se observó una mejoría importante en la función cardiaca cuando se redujo la dosis diaria de trastuzumab. Un mejor conocimiento acerca de los factores de riesgo para cardiotoxicidad relacionados con quimioterapia y el seguimiento prolongado con ecocardiogramas pueden evitar la cardiotoxicidad más severa debida a quimioterapia. <![CDATA[<b>Schwannoma retroperitoneal</b>: <b>Caso clínico</b>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872012000600011&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Background: Retroperitoneal schwannoma is an uncommon and usually benign condition. We report a 51-year-old woman presenting with a palpable pelvic tumor. The patient was operated on and during the intervention, two retroperitoneal tumors were found and resected. The postoperative course was favorable. Pathology confirmed the diagnosis of retroperitoneal benign shwannomas. After eight years of follow up, there is no evidence of malignant transformation. <![CDATA[<b>Suicidio por interrupción de hemodiálisis en un paciente con nefropatía crónica</b>: <b>análisis de un caso</b>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872012000600012&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Background: In Chile, interruption of hemodialysis is cause of death in 0.37% of patients under this treatment. We report a 83-year-old woman suffering from chronic renal failure who withdrew from prolonged hemodialysis treatment. Biographical aspects, circumstances and the cause of death are analyzed from forensic and psychiatric points of view, highlighting attributes that allow classification of the death of this patient as suicide. Risk factors involved in this type of patients, as well as possible preventive measures are discussed. <![CDATA[<b>Autotrasplante cardiaco en el tratamiento quirúrgico de tumores cardiacos primarios</b>: <b>Caso clínico</b>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872012000600013&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Background: Heart autotrasplantation is an exceptional surgical technique used in the treatment of uncontrolled cardiac arrhythmias and primary unresectable cardiac tumors. We report a 28-year-old male with a rhabdomyosarcoma of the left ventricle, localized in the lateral and posterior wall, which involved the mitral valve and circumflex artery. After a complete study ruling out dissemination of the tumor, the patient was operated. Surgical exploration determined the unresectabilility of the tumor with the heart in situ. Therefore, the heart was explanted, preserving the right atrium and coronary sinus for re-implantation. Fifty percent of the mitral valve and the circumflex artery from its origin, were resected due to tumor infiltration. The heart was reconstructed with bovine pericardium and a mechanical valve was implanted in the mitral position. Afterward, the heart was implanted again following the same sequence as in bicaval transplantation, followed by a double bypass grafting to the distal circumflex territory. The patient had no significant complications and after nine months of follow up, there was no evidence of local recurrence. In the fourth postoperative month, a subcutaneous mass in the left thigh that was considered a metastasis without histological confirmation appeared. The lesion disappeared with radio and chemotherapy. <![CDATA[<b>Consideraciones farmacocinéticas en el paciente crítico</b>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872012000600014&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Background: Critically ill patients in Intensive Care Units (ICUs) are exposed to multiple procedures and usually require complex treatment regimens. Many of them suffer from comorbidities and different complications such as organ failure, drug-drug interactions, and unusual therapeutic interventions that can produce significant pathophysiologic changes. For that reason, pharmacokinetics for several substances is different to what is described for healthy patients, complicating drug selection and drug dosage to achieve appropriate effects. Low doses may determine a reduction of drug effectiveness and overdoses leading to toxicity. The aim of this paper is to review the pharmacokinetic considerations that must be considered when treating acute ICU patients. <![CDATA[<b>Telepsiquiatría</b>: <b>una revisión sistemática cualitativa</b>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872012000600015&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Background: The objective of this review was to search the literature on the use of telemedicine in mental health and evaluate if it can play a role in Chile. A systematic, qualitative review was carried out to compile systematic reviews, meta-analysis, and clinical controlled trials (CCT) that were in English or Spanish and that applied information technologies for the treatment of psychiatric diseases. Excluded from the review were articles without summaries or articles that included only the trial design, without results. The references of each selected article were critically evaluated. Of the 265 articles found, 224 were excluded for failing to comply with the inclusion criteria. Therefore, 41 articles were left for analysis, 30 reporting CCT and 11 systematic reviews. It is concluded that the use of information technologies to provide mental health care is widespread. It can be implemented in geographically remote places, without access to specialized mental health care and be a part of complex interventions that integrate several components. <![CDATA[<b>Microalbuminuria y excreción urinaria de albúmina en la práctica clínica</b>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872012000600016&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Background: Microalbuminuria is a new tool in the management of patients with diabetes mellitus or hypertension. Microalbuminuria is an easily measured biomarker in a urine sample. Urinary albumin to creatinine ratio in first morning urine sample correlates with 24 hours urinary albumin excretion, but it is easier to obtain, and can identify hypertensive or diabetic patients with high risk for cardiovascular events. Therapeutic interventions such as renin angiotensin system blockade have demonstrated their usefulness in reducing urinary albumin excretion in clinical studies. It would be advisable to incorporate urinary albumin to creatinine ratio to the routine clinical monitoring of patients with cardiovascular risk, such as those with hypertension and diabetes mellitus. <![CDATA[<b>La naturaleza dual del proceso diagnóstico y su vulnerabilidad a los sesgos cognitivos</b>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872012000600017&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Background: Clinical thinking is a very complex process that can be described by the dual-process theory, it has an intuitive part (that recognizes patterns) and an analytical part (that tests hypotheses). It is vulnerable to cognitive bias that professionals must be aware of, to minimize diagnostic errors. <![CDATA[<b>Comunicación diagnóstica en enfermedad de Alzheimer</b>: <b>Reflexión y propuesta</b>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872012000600018&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Background: Alzheimer's disease is becoming an increasingly common problem due to population aging. Most of the research on truth telling in relation to diagnosis has been done in oncology. However, although growing, there has a lack of interest about attitudes held among physicians towards disclosing the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease. Physicians, family caregivers and patients have different views about it. The reasons most often given for communicating the diagnosis are the right to know, relief of anxiety to know the cause of memory problems, early access to treatment and ability to plan ahead. On the contrary, the reasons for concealing the diagnosis are based on the right not to know, the anxiety associated to knowing the diagnosis and the absence of curative therapies for the disease. The aim of this paper is to report the current state of literature on diagnostic truth telling in dementia, review the ethical principles involved, and finally give a strategy to address the issue. <![CDATA[<b>Medicina, música, amistad y prejuicios</b>: <b>Billroth I y Billroth II, los cuartetos para cuerdas Opus 51, N° 1 y N° 2 de Johannes Brahms</b>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872012000600019&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Background: The great German surgeon Theodor Billroth and the imaginative and creative composer Johannes Brahms had a very close friendship centered on musical activities, that lasted for more than thirty years while they lived and worked in Zurich and Vienna, during the second half of the Nineteenth Century. Billroth, besides his all-consuming medical activities, had time to be a musical enthusiast who directed orchestras, played the violin in chamber music groups, and wrote musical criticism for newspapers. The common affection between these two creative giants is documented by their abundant and effusive correspondence, by the constant requests by Brahms of Billroth's opinions regarding his compositions, and by the positive and stimulating answers that Billroth gave to these requests. Billroth opened his house for musical evenings to play Brahms chamber compositions for the first time, and Brahms dedicated his two Opus 51 string quartets Nos. 1 and 2, known in the musical milieu as Billroth I and II, to his physician friend. Unfortunately, the close bonds between these two geniuses weakened towards the end of their lives as a result of Billroth's becoming intolerant to the lack of social refinements and gruff behavior of the composer. This baffling intolerance of Billroth to his friend Brahms can be better understood after reading Billroth's writings in his book The Medical Sciences in the German Universities. A Study in the History of Civilization. There Billroth expresses strong prejudices against potential medical students of humble social origins, such as those of Brahms, coupled to a primitive anti-Semitism. <![CDATA[<b>Sede de la Sociedad Médica de Santiago prohibe fumar en sus dependencias</b>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872012000600020&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Background: The great German surgeon Theodor Billroth and the imaginative and creative composer Johannes Brahms had a very close friendship centered on musical activities, that lasted for more than thirty years while they lived and worked in Zurich and Vienna, during the second half of the Nineteenth Century. Billroth, besides his all-consuming medical activities, had time to be a musical enthusiast who directed orchestras, played the violin in chamber music groups, and wrote musical criticism for newspapers. The common affection between these two creative giants is documented by their abundant and effusive correspondence, by the constant requests by Brahms of Billroth's opinions regarding his compositions, and by the positive and stimulating answers that Billroth gave to these requests. Billroth opened his house for musical evenings to play Brahms chamber compositions for the first time, and Brahms dedicated his two Opus 51 string quartets Nos. 1 and 2, known in the musical milieu as Billroth I and II, to his physician friend. Unfortunately, the close bonds between these two geniuses weakened towards the end of their lives as a result of Billroth's becoming intolerant to the lack of social refinements and gruff behavior of the composer. This baffling intolerance of Billroth to his friend Brahms can be better understood after reading Billroth's writings in his book The Medical Sciences in the German Universities. A Study in the History of Civilization. There Billroth expresses strong prejudices against potential medical students of humble social origins, such as those of Brahms, coupled to a primitive anti-Semitism. <![CDATA[<b>Temas de osteoporosis y otras enfermedades óseas</b>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872012000600021&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Background: The great German surgeon Theodor Billroth and the imaginative and creative composer Johannes Brahms had a very close friendship centered on musical activities, that lasted for more than thirty years while they lived and worked in Zurich and Vienna, during the second half of the Nineteenth Century. Billroth, besides his all-consuming medical activities, had time to be a musical enthusiast who directed orchestras, played the violin in chamber music groups, and wrote musical criticism for newspapers. The common affection between these two creative giants is documented by their abundant and effusive correspondence, by the constant requests by Brahms of Billroth's opinions regarding his compositions, and by the positive and stimulating answers that Billroth gave to these requests. Billroth opened his house for musical evenings to play Brahms chamber compositions for the first time, and Brahms dedicated his two Opus 51 string quartets Nos. 1 and 2, known in the musical milieu as Billroth I and II, to his physician friend. Unfortunately, the close bonds between these two geniuses weakened towards the end of their lives as a result of Billroth's becoming intolerant to the lack of social refinements and gruff behavior of the composer. This baffling intolerance of Billroth to his friend Brahms can be better understood after reading Billroth's writings in his book The Medical Sciences in the German Universities. A Study in the History of Civilization. There Billroth expresses strong prejudices against potential medical students of humble social origins, such as those of Brahms, coupled to a primitive anti-Semitism. <![CDATA[<i>Bronceosis</i>: enfermedad especulativa por depósito de bronce]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872012000600022&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Background: The great German surgeon Theodor Billroth and the imaginative and creative composer Johannes Brahms had a very close friendship centered on musical activities, that lasted for more than thirty years while they lived and worked in Zurich and Vienna, during the second half of the Nineteenth Century. Billroth, besides his all-consuming medical activities, had time to be a musical enthusiast who directed orchestras, played the violin in chamber music groups, and wrote musical criticism for newspapers. The common affection between these two creative giants is documented by their abundant and effusive correspondence, by the constant requests by Brahms of Billroth's opinions regarding his compositions, and by the positive and stimulating answers that Billroth gave to these requests. Billroth opened his house for musical evenings to play Brahms chamber compositions for the first time, and Brahms dedicated his two Opus 51 string quartets Nos. 1 and 2, known in the musical milieu as Billroth I and II, to his physician friend. Unfortunately, the close bonds between these two geniuses weakened towards the end of their lives as a result of Billroth's becoming intolerant to the lack of social refinements and gruff behavior of the composer. This baffling intolerance of Billroth to his friend Brahms can be better understood after reading Billroth's writings in his book The Medical Sciences in the German Universities. A Study in the History of Civilization. There Billroth expresses strong prejudices against potential medical students of humble social origins, such as those of Brahms, coupled to a primitive anti-Semitism. <![CDATA[<b>Charles Dickens y su aporte a la medicina</b>: <b>en el bicentenario de su nacimiento</b>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872012000600023&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Background: The great German surgeon Theodor Billroth and the imaginative and creative composer Johannes Brahms had a very close friendship centered on musical activities, that lasted for more than thirty years while they lived and worked in Zurich and Vienna, during the second half of the Nineteenth Century. Billroth, besides his all-consuming medical activities, had time to be a musical enthusiast who directed orchestras, played the violin in chamber music groups, and wrote musical criticism for newspapers. The common affection between these two creative giants is documented by their abundant and effusive correspondence, by the constant requests by Brahms of Billroth's opinions regarding his compositions, and by the positive and stimulating answers that Billroth gave to these requests. Billroth opened his house for musical evenings to play Brahms chamber compositions for the first time, and Brahms dedicated his two Opus 51 string quartets Nos. 1 and 2, known in the musical milieu as Billroth I and II, to his physician friend. Unfortunately, the close bonds between these two geniuses weakened towards the end of their lives as a result of Billroth's becoming intolerant to the lack of social refinements and gruff behavior of the composer. This baffling intolerance of Billroth to his friend Brahms can be better understood after reading Billroth's writings in his book The Medical Sciences in the German Universities. A Study in the History of Civilization. There Billroth expresses strong prejudices against potential medical students of humble social origins, such as those of Brahms, coupled to a primitive anti-Semitism. <![CDATA[<b>Taquicardia paroxística y dolor torácico en urgencias</b>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872012000600024&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Background: The great German surgeon Theodor Billroth and the imaginative and creative composer Johannes Brahms had a very close friendship centered on musical activities, that lasted for more than thirty years while they lived and worked in Zurich and Vienna, during the second half of the Nineteenth Century. Billroth, besides his all-consuming medical activities, had time to be a musical enthusiast who directed orchestras, played the violin in chamber music groups, and wrote musical criticism for newspapers. The common affection between these two creative giants is documented by their abundant and effusive correspondence, by the constant requests by Brahms of Billroth's opinions regarding his compositions, and by the positive and stimulating answers that Billroth gave to these requests. Billroth opened his house for musical evenings to play Brahms chamber compositions for the first time, and Brahms dedicated his two Opus 51 string quartets Nos. 1 and 2, known in the musical milieu as Billroth I and II, to his physician friend. Unfortunately, the close bonds between these two geniuses weakened towards the end of their lives as a result of Billroth's becoming intolerant to the lack of social refinements and gruff behavior of the composer. This baffling intolerance of Billroth to his friend Brahms can be better understood after reading Billroth's writings in his book The Medical Sciences in the German Universities. A Study in the History of Civilization. There Billroth expresses strong prejudices against potential medical students of humble social origins, such as those of Brahms, coupled to a primitive anti-Semitism.