Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Revista médica de Chile]]> http://www.scielo.cl/rss.php?pid=0034-988720120005&lang=es vol. 140 num. 5 lang. es <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.cl/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.cl <![CDATA[<b>Frecuencia génica de antígenos menores de histocompatibilidad en la población chilena y estimación de sus efectos inmunológicos en el trasplante alogénico de progenitores hematopoyéticos</b>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872012000500001&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Background: Minor histocompatibility antigens (mHAgs) play a critical role in the immune responses associated with allogeneic stem cell transplantation, such as graft versus host disease (GVHD) and graft-versus-tumor (GVT). Aim: To determine the gene frequencies of the mHAgs HA-1, HA-2 and HA-8 in Chilean Blood Bank donors. Material and Methods: Blood from 192 blood donors was analyzed. The presence of haplotype HLA-A*02 was determined by flow cytometry. The frequency of mHAgs was determined by allele specific polymerase chain reaction in genomic DNA. Results: Sixty one participants were carriers of the haplotype HLA-A*02. The relative allele frequency HA-1H was 45%, HA-Ir 55%, HA-2V 80.6%, HA-2M 19.4%, HA-8R 49.8% and HA-8P was 50.2%. Based on mHAgs disparity between HA-1, HA-2 or HA-8, the probability to generate a GVT response in HLA-A*02 individuals was 40%. Conclusions: The mHAgs frequency in Chilean population is under Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and they are similar to those of other ethnic populations in the world. <![CDATA[<b>Situación actual de la rehabilitación cardiaca en Chile</b>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872012000500002&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Background: Cardiac rehabilitation (CR) programs play an important role in the control and prevention of new cardiac events. Aim: A survey was performed to evaluate the current situation of CR programs in Chile. Material and Methods: A questionnaire evaluating the structure of rehabilitation centers, characteristics of the rehabilitation programs and patients, management of risk factors, reimbursement methods, human resources and potential barriers for an efficient rehabilitation, was mailed to centers dedicated to CR in Chile. Results: Eight centers were contacted and seven responded. Coronary heart disease is the most common underlying disease of attended patients and CR is carried out mainly during phases II and III. All CR centers perform an initial assessment, stratify patients, plan and provide tips on physical activity and nutrition. Only three centers provide help to quit smoking. Lipid profile and blood sugar are assessed in 62% of centers. Most practitioners involved are cardiologists, nurses, physiotherapists and nutritionists, all trained in cardiopulmonary resuscitation. The main barrier for their development is the lack of patient referral from practitioners. Conclusions: Despite the recognized value of CR in the care of patients after a cardiac event, this study reveals the need for further development of such programs and improvement of patient referrals. <![CDATA[<b>Proteína C Reactiva en la EPOC y su relación con la gravedad de la enfermedad, las exacerbaciones y las comorbilidades</b>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872012000500003&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Background: Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have elevated serum levels of ultrasensitive C reactive protein (CRPus). This raise may be related directly to COPD and its associated systemic inflammation or secondary to other factors such as smoking status, disease severity, acute exacerbations, or associated complications. Aim: To evaluate the potential causes of raised levels of CRPus in stable COPD patients. Patients and Methods: Cohorts of 133 mild-to-very severe COPD patients (41 current smokers), 31 never-smokers, and 33 current smoker controls were compared. Clinical assessments included body mass index (BMI), fat (FM) and fat-free mass (FFM) measurement by DEXA, forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), arterial oxygen tension (PaO2), six-minute walking test (SMWT), emphysema (EMPH) and right thigh muscle cross-sectional area (TMCSA), both quantified by high resolution computed tomography. Results: Serum CRPus levels were significantly higher in COPD patients than in controls (7 ± 4.2 and 3.7 ± 2.7 mg/L respectively; p < 0.0001). Being smoker did not influence CRPus levels. These levels were significantly correlated with FM (r = 0.30), BMI (r = 0.21), FEV1 (r = -0.21), number of acute exacerbations of the disease in the last year (r = 0.28), and PaO2 (r = -0.27). Using multivariate analysis FM, PaO2, and number of acute exacerbations of the disease in the last year had the strongest association with CRPus levels. Conclusions: CRPus is elevated in COPD patients, independent of smoking status. It is weakly associated with fat mass, arterial oxygen tension and frequency of exacerbations. <![CDATA[<b>Un modelo estructural para medir la efectividad de los servicios hospitalarios: aplicación en hospitales públicos del sur de Chile</b>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872012000500004&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Background: One of the main determinants of quality in the public health care services is the perceived user satisfaction. Aim: To analyze the relationship between supply (User Orientation of Management) (UO), demand (User Satisfaction with service components) (US) and subjective indicators of effectiveness, such as Perceived Global Quality (PGQ) and Global Satisfaction (GS) among hospital service users. Material and Methods: A survey was applied to users of hospital services, asking about management and quality of hospital services and satisfaction with the service provided. Data was analyzed with exploratory and confirmatory factorial analyses. Structural Equation Models were used to test the hypotheses implied in the theoretical model of effectiveness. Results: The cause-effect relationship between UO and US was confirmed. There was also a direct relationship between PGQ and GS. Conclusions: Efficient nursing and administrative personnel are of highest importance to improve user satisfaction. The hospital management must pay extreme attention to this kind of staff in order to be effective from the point of view of their patients. <![CDATA[<b>Evaluación de la globulina transportadora de hormonas esteroidales (SHBG) durante el embarazo como factor predictor de pre-eclampsia y restricción del crecimiento intrauterino</b>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872012000500005&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Background: Sex-Hormone Binding Globulin (SHBG) may be associated to Pre-eclampsia (PE) and Fetal Growth Restriction (RCIU). Aim: To determine if maternal serum SHBG concentrations during the first and second trimesters are predictive biomarkers of Pre-eclampsia and RCIU. Patients and Methods: Prospective cohort study carried out in the Fetal Medicine Unit, Universidad de Chile Clinical Hospital between January, 2005 and December, 2006. Blood samples were obtained from unselectedpregnant women during routine 11-14 week and 22-25 week ultrasound examinations, conforming two different study groups. Posteriorly, serum SHBG concentrations were determined in women who developed Pre-eclampsia, RCIU and their respective controls. Results: Fifty five patients were included in the 11-14 weeks group. Nine women that developed PE, 10 that developed RCIU and 36 controls were selected from this group. There were no significant differences in SHBG levels between patients with PE, RCIU or controls (324.7 (26.6), 336.8 (33.9) and 377.5 (24.3) nmol/L, respectively). Fifty four women were included in the 22-25 weeks group. Eight women who developed Pre-eclampsia, 15 who developed RCIU and 31 controls were selected. Again, there were no significant differences in SHBG levels between patients with PE, RCIU or controls (345.5 (151.1), 383.8 (143.4) and 345.5 nmol/l (151.1), respectively). Conclusions: Maternal SHBG serum levels did not predict subsequent development of Pre-eclampsia and RCIU. <![CDATA[<b>Micosis pulmonares en pacientes de la Quinta Región</b>: <b>Período 2007-2010</b>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872012000500006&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Background: The frequency of pulmonary mycoses has increased in the past few years specially in immunocompromised patients. Aim: To determine the frequency of invasive fungal diseases by analyzing lung secretion samples. Material and Methods: Samples of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) tracheal aspiration (TA) and induced sputum (IS) were obtained from patients of five hospitals in the Valparaíso Region for the diagnosis of invasive or non-invasive fungal disease, and pneumocystis (PCP), in the period 2007-2010. Clinical data of patients was obtained reviewing medical records or interviewing attending physicians. The diagnosis considered the clinical condition of the patient (immunocompromised or prior lung damage), computed tomography imaging, direct microscopy and cultures. European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer/Mycoses Study Group (EORTC/MSG) criteria was used for the diagnosis of invasive fungal diseases. Results: Ninety respiratory samples were received and 39 fungal infections were diagnosed. Eleven were probably invasive, seven were non-invasive and 21 were PCP. All patients with probable invasive disease had neutropenia. Most patients with non-invasive infections had bronchiectasis. Aspergillus fumigatus was the main causing agent in both invasive and non-invasive fungal diseases. Patients with PCP were mostly adults with AIDS and children with leukemia. The total mortality rate of patients with invasive fungal disease was of 73%. No deaths were recorded among patients with non-invasive disease. Among patients with PCP, three of 11 HIV and six of 10 non HIV subjects died. Conclusions: Aspergillus fumigatus predominates both in invasive and non-invasive pulmonary mycoses. The former has a high mortality. PCP occurred mainly in adult patients with HIV-AIDS. <![CDATA[<b>Agregación de factores de riesgo cardiovascular y conciencia de enfermedad en trabajadores de un hospital universitario</b>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872012000500007&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Background: Health promotion can be carried out at work places. Aim: To assess cardiovascular risk factors among workers of a University hospital. Material and Methods: Cross sectional study of 888 participants (aged 41 ± 11 years, 76% women), who answered a survey about cardiovascular risk factors. Body mass index, waist, blood pressure and total cholesterol (TC) by capillary method were determined. Results: Self reported prevalence of risk factors were as follows: 19% of participants had high blood pressure, 30% hypercholesterolemia, 6% diabetes, 41% smoked, 88% were sedentary and 26% had a family history of cardiovascular diseases. Five percent of participants did not have any risk factor, 20% had one risk factor, 32% had two and 43% had three or more. The highest frequency of lack of awareness was about blood glucose values. A high blood cholesterol level was found in 27% of those reporting normal cholesterol levels. Likewise, a high body mass index was found in 18% of those reporting a normal weight. Conclusions: The prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in this group of participants is similar to that found in the last national health survey in Chile. Noteworthy is the lack of awareness about these risk factors. <![CDATA[<b>Intereses y perspectiva sobre la carrera de medicina</b>: <b>un contraste entre estudiantes de medicina de primero y séptimo año</b>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872012000500008&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Background: The interests that motivate medical students to study this career are diverse and they may change during the seven years of study. In Chile, 22 universities offer medicine and the number of graduated students has increased by more than 50% over the last 10 years. Aim: To determine the motivational profile of medical students at admission, and at the end of their career. Subjects and Methods: A voluntary anonymous survey was applied to 275 first and 140 seventh year medical students from one traditional public and two private schools. Results: The main reason for applying to medical school was social interest (68.7%), followed by interest in science and academia. Thirty six percent of students from seventh year would not study medicine again. In the seventh year, the interest in medical care persists in 88% of students, followed by academic interests in 64%. Only 24% had research interests. Fifty nine and 57% of students projected their medical work in private and public hospital settings, respectively. Only 11% projected themselves as doing research. Sixty nine percent of students would like to receive more information about post graduate education. Conclusions: There is a low interest in research and a high percentage of seventh year students that would not apply to medicine again. Medical schools should perform a systematic analysis of students' interests to improve faulty areas. <![CDATA[<b>Evaluación de un módulo de docencia ambulatoria de enfermedades respiratorias en el currículo de pregrado de Medicina</b>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872012000500009&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Background: As the focus of healthcare provision shifts towards ambulatory care, increasing attention must now be given to develop opportunities for clinical teaching in this setting. Aim: To assess teacher and students' views about the strengths and weaknesses of real and simulated patient interactions for teaching undergraduate students clinical skills in the ambulatory setting. Material and Methods: Fourth-year medical students were exposed in a systematic way, during two weeks, to real and simulated patients in an outpatient clinic, who presented common respiratory problems, such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, smoking and sleep apnea syndrome. After the clinical interview, students received feedback from the tutor and their peers. The module was assessed interviewing the teachers and evaluating the results qualitatively. Students evaluated the contents and quality of teaching at the end of the rotation. Results: Tutors identified the factors that facilitate ambulatory teaching. These depended on the module design, resources and patient care, of characteristics of students and their participation, leadership and interaction with professors. They also identified factors that hamper teaching activities such as availability of resources, student motivation and academic recognition. Most students evaluated favorably the interaction with real and simulated patients in the ambulatory setting. Conclusions: Teaching in the ambulatory setting was well evaluated by students and teachers. The use of qualitative methodology allowed contrasting the opinions of teachers and students. <![CDATA[Parálisis general sifilítica: presentación de 5 casos]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872012000500010&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es We report five male patients, aged 35 to 63 years who suffered from paretic neurosyphilis. The clinical course was that of a subacute dementia with a frontal syndrome, with more apathy than euphoria. All were HIV negative and four were heterosexual. In all, the cerebrospinal fluid had a mononuclear pleocytosis and a positive VDRL. EEG was abnormal in the 3 cases in whom it was performed. One patient in whom a brain angiography was performed, had images of vasculitis. Treatment with 18-24 million units of penicillin per day during two weeks or more, was partially effective. <![CDATA[<b>Adenoma metanéfrico del riñon asociado a policitemia y eritromelalgia</b>: <b>caso clínico</b>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872012000500011&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Background: We report a 21-year-old male, presenting with erythromelalgia and polycythe-mia. A solid renal mass of the lower pole of the right kidney was discovered. The patient was subjected to a right open partial nephrectomy. The pathological study of the surgical specimen showed a metanephric adenoma of the kidney. The patient had an uneventful postoperative evolution. Currently the patient is in good health without evidence of recurrence of the tumor and normal hematological parameters. <![CDATA[<b>Pustulosis subcórnea (enfermedad de Sneddon-Wilkinson)</b>: <b>Caso clínico</b>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872012000500012&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Background: We report a 35-year-old female patient with a one year history of a pustular and painful erythematous dermatitis, located in great folds, pubis and abdomen. She was evaluated in primary health care, receiving antifungal treatment, antimicrobials, topical and systemic non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, with no response. A skin biopsy was compatible with subcorneal pustular dermatosis. She was initially treated with prednisone (0.8 mg/kg), observing a partial response. Therefore clotrimoxazole was initiated, obtaining an excellent response after 30 days of treatment. <![CDATA[<b>Rosácea <i>fulminans</i> inducida por corticoides tópicos</b>: <b>Casos clínicos</b>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872012000500013&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Background: Rosacea fulminans is a rare condition, characterized by a sudden onset of papulopustules, cysts, edema, and draining sinuses usually confined to the facial area. It is often accompanied by low-grade fever, myalgias and leukocytosis. Patients usually have a background of mild rosacea. We report two male patients aged 29 and 54 years, presenting with rosacea fulminans and ocular involvement, triggered by the use of topical steroids. Both responded to systemic treatment with corticosteroids, isotretinoin and metronidazole. Rosacea fulminans should be considered as a variant of rosacea that includes papulopustular, ocular, phymatous and erythematotelangiectatic types. <![CDATA[<b>Cirugía de revascularización miocárdica versus angioplastía coronaria con <i>stent</i> en enfermedad de tres vasos y/o tronco común izquierdo en diabéticos</b>: <b>meta-análisis de estudios aleatorios</b>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872012000500014&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Background: Diabetic patients are a group of primary interest in the study of myocardial revascularization. Aim: To compare coronary artery bypass grafting surgery (CABG) and percutaneous angioplasty with stents (PCI-S) in diabetic patients with coronary three-vessel or left main coronary artery disease. Material and Methods: Meta-analysis of MEDLINE randomized controlled studies comparing CABG and PCI-S in diabetic patients. The primary outcome measure was major adverse cardiovascular events (MACCE), death, myocardial infarction, cerebrovascular accident (CVA) and coronary re-intervention. Secondary outcomes were the individual components of MACCE. Results: Three studies comparing CABG and PCI-S met the inclusion criteria. One thousand sixty two patients were studied: 565 in the CABG group and 597 in the PCI-S group. At one year follow up MACCE occurred in 24.9 and 12.7% of patients in PCI-S and CABG groups, respectively (Odds ratio (OR) 2.27; 95% confidence intervals (CI) 1.66-3.09). There were no differences in death or myocardial infarction. Strokes were less common in the PCI-S group (OR 0.25, 95% CI0.09-0.68) and coronary re-intervention was required with higher frequency in the PCI-S group (OR 5.32, 95% CI 3.27-8.67). Conclusions: In diabetic patients with three-vessel coronary disease or left main coronary artery, revascularization with CABG had significantly less MACCE at one year than those treated with PCI-S. Stroke frequency was higher in CABG, coronary re-intervention was higher in PCI-S. These results must be interpreted cautiously. <![CDATA[<b>Vejez y cáncer de mama, el desafío del siglo 21</b>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872012000500015&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Background: Due to the increase in life expectancy in Chile, more than 10% of the population is 60 years or older. Since the incidence of most cancers increases with age, one of every two men and one in three women will develop a malignancy during their lifetime. In Chile breast cancer is the first leading cause of death from cancer among women. Its detection in postmenopausal women has steadily increased since the eighties, due to the expanded use of mammography. Less than 10% of patients participating in randomized controlled trials for the treatment of breast cancer, are older than 60 years, despite the fact that biological characteristics of breast cancer in older women are different and that most patients with breast cancer are of that age. Due to the high incidence of estrogen receptor positive tumors in this age group, most patients are candidates for hormone therapy. However, in those who need chemotherapy, therapeutic decisions are based on the existence of concomitant diseases and the tolerance to cytotoxic therapy. We review the relationship between age and cancer, the particular characteristics of breast cancer in older women and the alternatives of treatment with chemotherapy in advanced disease. <![CDATA[<b>Narrativa y formación docente</b>: <b>la experiencia de 5 años de un taller de escritura</b>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872012000500016&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Background: Narrative medicine has showed to be a powerful instrument to reinforce relationships, identity, and self-knowledge among health professionals. Subjective issues have been recently recognized as relevant for faculty development in addition to the technical aspects. Since 2006 a creative writing workshop has been included as part of the Diploma in Medical Education at the medical school of the Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile. Aim: To describe the experience and results of the creative writing workshop (2006-2010). Material and Methods: Descriptive and retrospective study with a qualitative and quantitative design. Thirty-six teachers of the School of Medicine attended a 12-hour workshop. The Kirkpatrick model for evaluation of educational outcomes was used to report the data obtained in the course evaluation survey and in the stories produced. Results: There were positive results at the four levels of Kirkpatrick evaluation model. The learning objectives of the workshop were achieved and 83 stories were created, compiled and published. Conclusions: The creative writing workshop can provide faculty with protected time for reflective practice about academic experiences and produce educational outcomes at different levels of the Kirkpatrick model. <![CDATA[<b>Análisis crítico de un artículo</b>: <b>antibióticos en otitis media aguda, ¿son necesarios?, ¿existe algún subgrupo que se beneficia?</b>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872012000500017&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Background: Acute otitis media (AOM) is one of the most common diseases in early infancy and childhood. Antibiotic use for AOM varies from 56% in the Netherlands to 95% in the USA and Australia. Objectives: To assess the effects of antibiotics for children with AOM. Search strategy: We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library, 2008, issue 2) which contains the Acute Respiratory Infections (ARI) Group's Specialized Register; MEDLINE (1966 to June week 4 2008); OLDMEDLINE (1958 to 1965); EMBASE (January 1990 to July 2008); and Current Contents (1966 to July 2008). Selection criteria: Randomised controlled trials comparing 1) antimicrobial drugs with placebo 2) immediate antibiotic treatment with observational treatment approaches in children with AOM. Data collection and analysis: Three review authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. Main results: We found 10 trials (2928 children) from high income countries with low risk of bias. Pain was not reduced by antibiotics at24 hours, but was at two to seven days, (relative risk (RR) 0.72; 95% confidence interval 0.62 to 0.83). However four trials (1271 children) comparing antibiotics prescribed immediately rather than initial observation found no difference at three to seven days. Antibiotics did not reduce tympanometry, perforation or recurrence. The only case of mastoiditis was in an antibiotic treated child. Vomiting, diarrhoea or rash was higher in children taking antibiotics (RR 1.37; 95% CI 1.09 to 1.76). Individual patient data meta-analysis of a subset of the included trials found antibiotics to be most beneficial in children: aged less than two; with bilateral AOM and with both AOM and otorrhoea. Authors' conclusions: Antibiotics slightly reduce the number of children with acute middle ear infection experiencing pain after a few days. However, most (78%) settle spontaneously in this time, meaning 16 children must be treated to prevent one suffering ear pain. This benefit must be weighed against the possible harms: 1 in 24 children experience symptoms caused by antibiotics. Antibiotics are most useful in children under two years of age, with bilateral AOM, and with both AOM and discharging ears. For most other children with mild disease, an expectant observational approach seems justified. We have no data on populations with higher risks of complications. <![CDATA[<b>Análisis de subgrupos</b>: <b>¿Mejoran la interpretación de los resultados o nos inducen al error?</b>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872012000500018&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Background: Acute otitis media (AOM) is one of the most common diseases in early infancy and childhood. Antibiotic use for AOM varies from 56% in the Netherlands to 95% in the USA and Australia. Objectives: To assess the effects of antibiotics for children with AOM. Search strategy: We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library, 2008, issue 2) which contains the Acute Respiratory Infections (ARI) Group's Specialized Register; MEDLINE (1966 to June week 4 2008); OLDMEDLINE (1958 to 1965); EMBASE (January 1990 to July 2008); and Current Contents (1966 to July 2008). Selection criteria: Randomised controlled trials comparing 1) antimicrobial drugs with placebo 2) immediate antibiotic treatment with observational treatment approaches in children with AOM. Data collection and analysis: Three review authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. Main results: We found 10 trials (2928 children) from high income countries with low risk of bias. Pain was not reduced by antibiotics at24 hours, but was at two to seven days, (relative risk (RR) 0.72; 95% confidence interval 0.62 to 0.83). However four trials (1271 children) comparing antibiotics prescribed immediately rather than initial observation found no difference at three to seven days. Antibiotics did not reduce tympanometry, perforation or recurrence. The only case of mastoiditis was in an antibiotic treated child. Vomiting, diarrhoea or rash was higher in children taking antibiotics (RR 1.37; 95% CI 1.09 to 1.76). Individual patient data meta-analysis of a subset of the included trials found antibiotics to be most beneficial in children: aged less than two; with bilateral AOM and with both AOM and otorrhoea. Authors' conclusions: Antibiotics slightly reduce the number of children with acute middle ear infection experiencing pain after a few days. However, most (78%) settle spontaneously in this time, meaning 16 children must be treated to prevent one suffering ear pain. This benefit must be weighed against the possible harms: 1 in 24 children experience symptoms caused by antibiotics. Antibiotics are most useful in children under two years of age, with bilateral AOM, and with both AOM and discharging ears. For most other children with mild disease, an expectant observational approach seems justified. We have no data on populations with higher risks of complications. <![CDATA[CRÓNICA]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872012000500019&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Background: Acute otitis media (AOM) is one of the most common diseases in early infancy and childhood. Antibiotic use for AOM varies from 56% in the Netherlands to 95% in the USA and Australia. Objectives: To assess the effects of antibiotics for children with AOM. Search strategy: We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library, 2008, issue 2) which contains the Acute Respiratory Infections (ARI) Group's Specialized Register; MEDLINE (1966 to June week 4 2008); OLDMEDLINE (1958 to 1965); EMBASE (January 1990 to July 2008); and Current Contents (1966 to July 2008). Selection criteria: Randomised controlled trials comparing 1) antimicrobial drugs with placebo 2) immediate antibiotic treatment with observational treatment approaches in children with AOM. Data collection and analysis: Three review authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. Main results: We found 10 trials (2928 children) from high income countries with low risk of bias. Pain was not reduced by antibiotics at24 hours, but was at two to seven days, (relative risk (RR) 0.72; 95% confidence interval 0.62 to 0.83). However four trials (1271 children) comparing antibiotics prescribed immediately rather than initial observation found no difference at three to seven days. Antibiotics did not reduce tympanometry, perforation or recurrence. The only case of mastoiditis was in an antibiotic treated child. Vomiting, diarrhoea or rash was higher in children taking antibiotics (RR 1.37; 95% CI 1.09 to 1.76). Individual patient data meta-analysis of a subset of the included trials found antibiotics to be most beneficial in children: aged less than two; with bilateral AOM and with both AOM and otorrhoea. Authors' conclusions: Antibiotics slightly reduce the number of children with acute middle ear infection experiencing pain after a few days. However, most (78%) settle spontaneously in this time, meaning 16 children must be treated to prevent one suffering ear pain. This benefit must be weighed against the possible harms: 1 in 24 children experience symptoms caused by antibiotics. Antibiotics are most useful in children under two years of age, with bilateral AOM, and with both AOM and discharging ears. For most other children with mild disease, an expectant observational approach seems justified. We have no data on populations with higher risks of complications. <![CDATA[<b>Psicología positiva en educación médica</b>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872012000500020&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Background: Acute otitis media (AOM) is one of the most common diseases in early infancy and childhood. Antibiotic use for AOM varies from 56% in the Netherlands to 95% in the USA and Australia. Objectives: To assess the effects of antibiotics for children with AOM. Search strategy: We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library, 2008, issue 2) which contains the Acute Respiratory Infections (ARI) Group's Specialized Register; MEDLINE (1966 to June week 4 2008); OLDMEDLINE (1958 to 1965); EMBASE (January 1990 to July 2008); and Current Contents (1966 to July 2008). Selection criteria: Randomised controlled trials comparing 1) antimicrobial drugs with placebo 2) immediate antibiotic treatment with observational treatment approaches in children with AOM. Data collection and analysis: Three review authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. Main results: We found 10 trials (2928 children) from high income countries with low risk of bias. Pain was not reduced by antibiotics at24 hours, but was at two to seven days, (relative risk (RR) 0.72; 95% confidence interval 0.62 to 0.83). However four trials (1271 children) comparing antibiotics prescribed immediately rather than initial observation found no difference at three to seven days. Antibiotics did not reduce tympanometry, perforation or recurrence. The only case of mastoiditis was in an antibiotic treated child. Vomiting, diarrhoea or rash was higher in children taking antibiotics (RR 1.37; 95% CI 1.09 to 1.76). Individual patient data meta-analysis of a subset of the included trials found antibiotics to be most beneficial in children: aged less than two; with bilateral AOM and with both AOM and otorrhoea. Authors' conclusions: Antibiotics slightly reduce the number of children with acute middle ear infection experiencing pain after a few days. However, most (78%) settle spontaneously in this time, meaning 16 children must be treated to prevent one suffering ear pain. This benefit must be weighed against the possible harms: 1 in 24 children experience symptoms caused by antibiotics. Antibiotics are most useful in children under two years of age, with bilateral AOM, and with both AOM and discharging ears. For most other children with mild disease, an expectant observational approach seems justified. We have no data on populations with higher risks of complications. <![CDATA[<b>Dermatológico parece..., pero neurológico es</b>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872012000500021&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Background: Acute otitis media (AOM) is one of the most common diseases in early infancy and childhood. Antibiotic use for AOM varies from 56% in the Netherlands to 95% in the USA and Australia. Objectives: To assess the effects of antibiotics for children with AOM. Search strategy: We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library, 2008, issue 2) which contains the Acute Respiratory Infections (ARI) Group's Specialized Register; MEDLINE (1966 to June week 4 2008); OLDMEDLINE (1958 to 1965); EMBASE (January 1990 to July 2008); and Current Contents (1966 to July 2008). Selection criteria: Randomised controlled trials comparing 1) antimicrobial drugs with placebo 2) immediate antibiotic treatment with observational treatment approaches in children with AOM. Data collection and analysis: Three review authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. Main results: We found 10 trials (2928 children) from high income countries with low risk of bias. Pain was not reduced by antibiotics at24 hours, but was at two to seven days, (relative risk (RR) 0.72; 95% confidence interval 0.62 to 0.83). However four trials (1271 children) comparing antibiotics prescribed immediately rather than initial observation found no difference at three to seven days. Antibiotics did not reduce tympanometry, perforation or recurrence. The only case of mastoiditis was in an antibiotic treated child. Vomiting, diarrhoea or rash was higher in children taking antibiotics (RR 1.37; 95% CI 1.09 to 1.76). Individual patient data meta-analysis of a subset of the included trials found antibiotics to be most beneficial in children: aged less than two; with bilateral AOM and with both AOM and otorrhoea. Authors' conclusions: Antibiotics slightly reduce the number of children with acute middle ear infection experiencing pain after a few days. However, most (78%) settle spontaneously in this time, meaning 16 children must be treated to prevent one suffering ear pain. This benefit must be weighed against the possible harms: 1 in 24 children experience symptoms caused by antibiotics. Antibiotics are most useful in children under two years of age, with bilateral AOM, and with both AOM and discharging ears. For most other children with mild disease, an expectant observational approach seems justified. We have no data on populations with higher risks of complications. <![CDATA[Nuevos marcadores urinarios en pacientes con cáncer de próstata: Análisis de la problemática del screening]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872012000500022&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Background: Acute otitis media (AOM) is one of the most common diseases in early infancy and childhood. Antibiotic use for AOM varies from 56% in the Netherlands to 95% in the USA and Australia. Objectives: To assess the effects of antibiotics for children with AOM. Search strategy: We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library, 2008, issue 2) which contains the Acute Respiratory Infections (ARI) Group's Specialized Register; MEDLINE (1966 to June week 4 2008); OLDMEDLINE (1958 to 1965); EMBASE (January 1990 to July 2008); and Current Contents (1966 to July 2008). Selection criteria: Randomised controlled trials comparing 1) antimicrobial drugs with placebo 2) immediate antibiotic treatment with observational treatment approaches in children with AOM. Data collection and analysis: Three review authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. Main results: We found 10 trials (2928 children) from high income countries with low risk of bias. Pain was not reduced by antibiotics at24 hours, but was at two to seven days, (relative risk (RR) 0.72; 95% confidence interval 0.62 to 0.83). However four trials (1271 children) comparing antibiotics prescribed immediately rather than initial observation found no difference at three to seven days. Antibiotics did not reduce tympanometry, perforation or recurrence. The only case of mastoiditis was in an antibiotic treated child. Vomiting, diarrhoea or rash was higher in children taking antibiotics (RR 1.37; 95% CI 1.09 to 1.76). Individual patient data meta-analysis of a subset of the included trials found antibiotics to be most beneficial in children: aged less than two; with bilateral AOM and with both AOM and otorrhoea. Authors' conclusions: Antibiotics slightly reduce the number of children with acute middle ear infection experiencing pain after a few days. However, most (78%) settle spontaneously in this time, meaning 16 children must be treated to prevent one suffering ear pain. This benefit must be weighed against the possible harms: 1 in 24 children experience symptoms caused by antibiotics. Antibiotics are most useful in children under two years of age, with bilateral AOM, and with both AOM and discharging ears. For most other children with mild disease, an expectant observational approach seems justified. We have no data on populations with higher risks of complications.