Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Revista médica de Chile]]> http://www.scielo.cl/rss.php?pid=0034-988720090007&lang=es vol. 137 num. 7 lang. es <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.cl/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.cl <![CDATA[<b>Tendencia en el estudiante de medicina a ejercer como médico general o especialista</b>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872009000700001&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Background: A 60/40 ratio has been estimated as a country's ideal proportion between general practitioners and specialists. In Chile this proportion was 36/ 64 in 2004, exactly the opposite of the ideal. Trends towards specialization or general practice among medical students have not been thoughtfully studied. Aim: To assess trends among medical students towards becoming general practitioners or specialists, exploring associated factors. Material and methods: Descriptive survey of 822 first to seventh year medical students at the University of Chile, School of Medicine. Desired activity to pursue (general practice or specialization) after graduation and general orientations within clinical practice were explored. Results: Fifty three percent of students desired to enter a specialization program. Only 20% would work as a general practitioner (27% were still indecisive). Furthermore, a trend in early years of medical training towards an integral medicine is gradually reversed within later years. Seventh year students give significantly more importance to specialization than to integral medicine (p <0.01). Ten percent of this opinion change is related to the emphasis given to specialized medicine in the teaching environment. Conclusions: Most students prefer to enter a specialization program immediately after finishing medical school. Moreover, there is a social trend, at least within the teacher-attending environment, promoting not only the desire to specialize, but a pro-specialist culture. <![CDATA[<b>Desde la displasia hasta el cáncer de la vesícula biliar</b>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872009000700002&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Background: There is scarcity of knowledge about the development of gallbladder cancer. Aim: To study the features of development and progression of gallbladder cancer. Material and methods: Review of histopathological studies of gallbladder obtained in 25,971 cholecytectomies performed in patients aged 45± 16 years, 79% females, between 1993 and 2004. Among these, 210 had a dysplasia not associated to cancer and 1,039 had a gallbladder cancer Clinical and morphological parameters of preneoplastic and neoplastic lesions were analyzed. Ninety five percent of patients were followed. Results: All cases of dysplasia were incidental findings. Metaplasia, dysplasia and carcinoma in situ were present in the adjacent mucosa in 66%, 81% y 69% of gallbladder carcinomas, respectively. Twenty five percent of gallbladders studied were carcinomas (mucous carcinoma in 18% and muscular carcinoma in 7%). Ninety two percent of cases had chronic inflammation in the gallbladder wall. Seventy two percent of mucous carcinomas were not detected macroscopically Five years survival of mucous carcinoma was 92%. There was an association between the intensity of the lesion and the age of the patients. The age difference between chronic cholecystitis and gallbladder cancer was 11 years for women and nine for men. Conclusions: From a morphological standpoint, the period in which a dysplasia becomes a carcinoma is approximately 10years. <![CDATA[<b>Proliferación celular en la mucosa de la vesícula biliar no tumoral en colecistitis crónicas litiásicas. </b><b>Expresión de Ki-67 en matrices de tejidos</b>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872009000700003&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Background: There is paucity of knowledge on the proliferative features of normal or chronically inflamed gallbladder and the mechanisms of development of gallbladder cancer. Aim: To study the proliferation features of non tumoral gallbladder mucosa through the expression of Ki-67 antigen in tissue micro array analysis. Material and methods: The immunohystochemical expression of Ki-67 in tissue micro array was studied in 96 samples of non tumoral gallbladder mucosa (coming from 74 females aged 45±16 years and 22 males aged 53±16 years) and 102 samples of gallbladder cancer (coming from 84 females aged 62± 14 years and 18 males aged 70± 13 years). Results: The staining index of Ki-67 expression was 19±25% (range 096-8996) in samples of non tumoral mucosa and 46±29% (range 396-9896) in gallbladder cancer (p <0.01). Ki-67 was expressed in less than 10% of epithelial cells in 55% of non tumoral mucosa samples and 6% of gallbladder cancer samples. Seventy five percent of gallbladder cancer samples had a staining index of more than 20%. An expression of Ki-67 over 20% or 50% was observed in 25% and 15% of non tumoral mucosa samples, respectively Conclusions: Non tumoral gallbladder mucosa samples have a high proliferation index, measured using Ki-67 immunohystochemical expression. There is a group of samples with cellular hyper-proliferation that maybe related to the pathogenesis of gallbladder cancer. <![CDATA[<b>Síndrome metabólico en un grupo de pacientes diabéticos tipo 1. </b><b>¿Una nueva variedad de diabetes?</b>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872009000700004&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Background: Metabolic Syndrome (MS) is related to insulin resistance and to type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) may also develop this condition. Aim: To determine the prevalence of MS in patients with T1DM. Material and methods: Cross sectional study of 52 patients with T1DM aged 18 to 72 years (27 females) with 5 years or more since their diagnosis of T1DM. MS presence was defined according to the Adult Treatment Panel III criteria. Acanthosis nigricans (AN), waist circumference (WC), daily dose of insulin, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbAlc) and micro albuminuria were evaluated. Results: The prevalence of MS was 25% (13/52). A higher daily dose of insulin was required in patients with MS (p =0.018), with AN (p =0.022) and with obesity (p =0.002). A direct association between WC and the dose of insulin was observed (r =0.51; p <0.0001). No association was observed between MS, time of evolution of T1DM, HbAlc or micro albuminuria. Conclusions: In this group of patients with T1DM there was a high prevalence of MS. <![CDATA[<b>Manifestaciones cutáneas de diabetes mellitus</b>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872009000700005&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Background: Thirty percent of patients with diabetes mellitus have some skin lesion that is directly related to the disease or caused by infections, complications or treatments used. Aim: To determine the frequency and type of skin lesions in diabetic patients. Material and methods: Cross sectional examination of 26 patients with type 1 diabetes, 75 patients with type 2 diabetes and 17 patients with gestational diabetes. A complete skin physical examination and a direct mycological examination and culture when Onychomycosis was suspected, were performed. Results: In 56% of patients, diabetes lasted more than 10 years and 52% had some complication of the disease. A mean of 1.4±0.1 skin lesions per patient was found among subjects with type 1 or 2 diabetes. No skin lesion was found in patients with gestational diabetes. The lesions found were Onychomycosis in 27%, diabetic dermatopathy in 17%, macroangiopathy in 15%, tine a corporis in 14% and neurosis in 14%. Conclusions: Onychomycosis is the most commonly found skin lesion in diabetic patient. <![CDATA[<b>Demencia frontotemporal</b>: <b>Experiencia clínica</b>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872009000700006&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Background: Front temporal dementias (FTD) are neurodegenerative disorders characterized by alterations in behavior, affection and language, with relative sparing of episodic memory. There are three major forms of FTD: the frontal or behavioral form, progressive non-fluent aphasia and semantic dementia (that may begin as a fluent progressive aphasia). Aim: To report a retrospective clinical experience of patients with frontotemporal dementia. Material and methods: Review of 3,700 records of neuropsychological assessments of patients with behavioral disturbances, studied between 1981 and 2008. Of these, 63 patients (59% females) complied with the criteria for frontotemporal dementia. Results: There were 47 cases with the frontal variant, four with non-fluent progressive aphasia and six with fluent progressive aphasias (2 evolved to semantic dementia). The mean age of onset was 60±11 years. There were no familiar cases of FTD. Conclusions: It is clinically difficult to diagnose FTD, since evaluation of attitude or language is required. In addition to structural images, functional images were helpful in some cases, but the definitive diagnosis is anatomical. <![CDATA[<b>Seroprevalencia de virus hepatitis B en niños con cáncer en tratamiento quimioterápico en 6 hospitales de Santiago de Chile</b>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872009000700007&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Background: Children under oncological therapy are at risk of infection by hepatitis B virus (HBV). Aim: To determine the prevalence of infection of HBV in children with cancer who have undergone chemotherapy or have had a hematopoietic stem cell transplant. Material and methods: Collaborative, multi-centric study. Serum samples were collected from 281 children with cancer and episodes of febrile neutropenia, from 6 hospitals belonging to the public health network in the Metropolitan Region, between June 2004 and August 2006. These samples were stored at -70-'C. In September 2006, 200 samples were randomly chosen and 170 analyzed to determine hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg) and anticore total antibodies (anti HBc) by fluorescent ELISA (Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay). In five cases in which a low volume of sample was available, only one marker was studied (HBsAg in two and anti HBc in three). Results: Samples carne from children aged 4 months to 18 years, 104 males (61%). They had received an average of 38 transfusions (range 3-107) from 65 donors (range 3-345). Twelve children were found positive for some marker of HBV: HBsAg in three (1.8%) and anti HBc in ten (7%). In 5 patients that had negative HBsAg and positive anti HBc, anti surface antigen antibodies (anti HBs) were determined and resulted positive in four Conclusions: The prevalence of HBV in this sample was 7% if both serologic markers are considered and 1.8% if only HBsAg is considered. <![CDATA[<b>Sensibilidad a los antimicrobianos de micobacterias de crecimiento rápido mediante el método E-test</b>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872009000700008&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Background: Rapidly growing mycobacteria (RGM) are considered opportunistic pathogens. An increasing number of post traumatic or surgical infections are caused by these microorganisms. Aim: To determine the antimicrobial susceptibility of RGM using the E-test method. Material and methods: A total of 54 isolates of RGM was obtained from several clinical samples and selected for this study Strains were identified to the species level by phenotypic and biochemical characteristics, PCR-restriction enzyme analysis of the hsp65 gene (PRA) and sequencing of the 16S rRNA. Susceptibility was investigated by E-test to amikacin, cefoxitin, ciprofioxacin, clarithromycin, imipenem, quinupristin/dalfopristin, linezolid and tigecycline. Results: Twelve different species of RGM were identified: Mycobacterium fortuitum (23 strains), M chelonae (11), M abscessus (10), Msenegalense (2), Malvei (1), Mbrumae (1), Mmageritense (1), mucogenicum (1), M neoaurum (1), Mperegrinum (1), M septicum (1) y M smegmatis (1). All the strains were inhibited by low concentrations of amikacin and tigecycline. Susceptibility to cefoxitin, fluoroquinolones, clarithromycin, imipenem and linezolid was variable. All but two strains were resistant to quinupristin/ dalfopristin. Conclusions: Due to the uneven antimicrobial susceptibility of different species of RGM, an antimicrobial susceptibility test is mandatory for these microorganisms. The E-test method is well suited to determine minimum inhibitory concentrations. <![CDATA[<b>"Síndrome pequeño para su tamaño", <i>(small-for-size), </i>como complicación de un trasplante hepático con donante vivo adulto relacionado</b>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872009000700009&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Although the use of cadaveric split or living donor liver transplantation is a valid option for liver transplants, they have several complications, being the "small-for-size syndrome" one of the most frequent. This entity is mainly due to the incapacity that the graft has to meet the blood drainage demands. We report a 61 year-old patient with sub-acute liver failure, transplanted with a partial liver graft that developed hyperbilirubinemia, ascites and liver function deterioration. A meso-caval shunt was performed, after which the ascites resolved, serum bilirubin normalized and the synthetic function of the liver improved. After one month, a follow-up CT seen showed the absence of blood flow in the shunt, possible due to the reduction of the hyper-perfusion of the liver. The clinical and biochemical condition of the patient continued improving despite the lack of flow through the shunt. <![CDATA[<b>Sarcoidosis pulmonar y gástrica</b>: <b>Caso clínico</b>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872009000700010&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es We report a 66 year-old woman with a history of pulmonary sarcoidosis, diagnosed with a lung biopsy in 1993 and treated with prednisone for 2 years. She presented at our institution in 1999 with a stage IV disease and important functional and clinical impairment. A bronchial biopsy disclosed non caseating granulomas. Tuberculosis was intensively studied and persistently negative. Due to frequent nausea and vomiting an endoscopic gastric biopsy was performed which revealed non caseating granulomas involving the gastric mucosa. There was no evidence of Helicobacter pylori and stains for fungi and acid-fast bacilli were negative. Treatment with prednisone relieved digestive symptoms, although a control biopsy of the gastric mucosa revealed persistence of non caseating granulomas. Both lung stage IV and gastric sarcoidosis are uncommon forms of the disease. <![CDATA[<b>Linfoma primario de tiroides</b>: <b>Reporte de cuatro casos</b>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872009000700011&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Primary thyroid lymphoma is uncommon and usually of non-Hodgkin type. We report four female patients with thyroid lymphoma. An 81 year-old patient that was operated and received three cycles of chemotherapy and was lost from follow up. A 16 year-old patient that is operated and received full chemotherapy and was discharged free of disease. A 80 year-old patient that was operated and died due to a multiple organ failure, 50 days after hospital admission and a 54 year-old female that was operated but rejected chemotherapy and was lost from follow up. <![CDATA[<b>Tratamiento del estado epiléptico refractario con topiramato oral</b>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872009000700012&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Refractory status epilepticus is a catastrophic illness of the central nervous system, with a mortality rate that reaches 50%. We report three patients admitted with refractory status epilepticus: a 24 year-old male that discontinued antiepileptic medications, a 46 year-old male with a focal epilepsy secondary to an encephalitis that discontinued medications due to gastrointestinal problems and a 59 year-old male with an ischemic encephalopathy AH were treated with topiramate, delivered through a nasogastric tube with a good response. <![CDATA[<b>Evaluación de los Programas de Formación en Cirugía General. Encuesta a los alumnos de postítulo</b>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872009000700013&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Background: The profile of the general surgeon has changed, aiming to incorporate new skills and to develop new specialties. Aim: To assess the quality of postgraduate General Surgery training programs given by Chilean universities, the satisfaction of students and their preferences after finishing the training period. Material and methods: A survey with multiple choice and Likert type questions was designed and applied to 77 surgery residents, corresponding to 59% of all residents of general surgery specialization programs of Chilean universities. Results: Fifty five per cent of residents financed with their own resources the specialization program. Thirty nine percent disagreed partially or totally with the objectives and rotations of programs. The opportunity to perform surgical interventions and the support by teachers was well evaluated. However, 23% revealed teacher maltreatment. Fifty six percent performed research activities, 73% expected to continue training in a derived specialty and 69% was satisfied with the training program. Conclusions: Residents considered that the quality and dedication of professors and financing of programs are issues that must be improved. The opportunity to perform surgical interventions, obtaining a salary for their work and teacher support is considered of utmost importance. <![CDATA[<b>La electroforesis capilar como una nueva estrategia en la medicina y el diagnóstico clínico</b>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872009000700014&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Capillary electrophoresis (CE) may replace many conventional clinical laboratory methods, such as electrophoresis, Southern blotting, sequencing and HPLC (High-performance liquid chromatography). It is an ideal technique due to analytical speed, the possibility of handling great amount of samples, its capacity to separate small molecules according to their size, charge, hydrophobic and stereo-specificity its good reproducibility the use of small amounts of sample and reagents, its low costs and easy handling. The diagnosis of hereditary diseases or the predisposition to polygenic diseases related to specific mutations or polymorphisms can be carried out with this method. In clinical laboratories, this technique is being used for the analysis of several substrates present in urine or serum and for the diagnosis of some infectious agents. It is also a firsthand tool in forensic medicine for human identification and anthropology. <![CDATA[<b>Revisión por pares en la <i>Revista Médica</i><i> de Chile, </i>año 2008</b>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872009000700015&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Capillary electrophoresis (CE) may replace many conventional clinical laboratory methods, such as electrophoresis, Southern blotting, sequencing and HPLC (High-performance liquid chromatography). It is an ideal technique due to analytical speed, the possibility of handling great amount of samples, its capacity to separate small molecules according to their size, charge, hydrophobic and stereo-specificity its good reproducibility the use of small amounts of sample and reagents, its low costs and easy handling. The diagnosis of hereditary diseases or the predisposition to polygenic diseases related to specific mutations or polymorphisms can be carried out with this method. In clinical laboratories, this technique is being used for the analysis of several substrates present in urine or serum and for the diagnosis of some infectious agents. It is also a firsthand tool in forensic medicine for human identification and anthropology. <![CDATA[<b>Diagnóstico, evaluación y tratamiento no farmacológico del paciente con sobrepeso u obesidad</b>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872009000700016&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es The risk of complications of obesity is proportional to body mass index and is higher in severe or morbid obesities and when abdominal or visceral fat is predominant. In Chile the prevalence of obesity is increasing. According to the World Health Organization, obese subjects must reduce at least a 5% of their weight to reduce the risk of complications. Although this amount of reduction is seldom achieved with non pharmacological treatments, better results are obtained with multidisciplinary/ approaches that include a medical, psychosocial and laboratory assessment, to determine obesity level and different factors involved and the associated complications. In a second stage, goals of treatment are set and a personalized treatment is designed including dietary changes and physical activity. The aim is to obtain perdurable lifestyles modifications. <![CDATA[<b>Tratamiento farmacológico o quirúrgico del paciente con sobrepeso u obesidad</b>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872009000700017&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es This is an updated review of the available treatments for obesity, which can be used when lifestyles modifications fail. Using the available information and the experience of the members of this advisory group, a recommendation is given about the most useful treatments, according to the severity of obesity and its complications. With regards to pharmacological treatments, only sibutramine and orlistat are approved on a worldwide basis for the treatment of obesity. These medications achieve a 10% higher weight reduction than lifestyles modification. A third medication, rimonobant, is also more effective than lifestyles modifications, but it was withdrawn due to psychological safety issues. The indications for surgical treatment and a brief description of the available techniques, success rates and complications are outlined. Finally, the need to have followed up protocols for patients and the formation of multidisciplinary treatment teams is underscored. <![CDATA[<b>Análisis crítico de un artículo</b>: <b>¿Sirve reducir los niveles de homocisteinemia en los pacientes con insuficiencia renal avanzada?</b>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872009000700018&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Context: High plasma homocysteine levels are a risk factor for mortality and vascular disease in observational studies of patients with chronic kidney disease. Folic acid and B vitamins decrease homocysteine levels in this population but whether they lower mortality is unknown. Objective: To determine whether high doses of folic acid and B vitamins administered daily reduce mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease. Design, Setting and Participant: Double-blind randomized controlled trial (2001-2006) in 36 US Department of Veterans Affairs medical centers. Median follow-up was 3.2 years for 2056 participants aged 21 years or older with advanced chronic kidney disease (estimated creatinine clearance <30 ml/min) (n =1305) or end-stage renal disease (n =751) and high homocysteine levels (>15 micromol/L). Intervention: Participants received a daily capsule containing 40 mg off olic acid, 100 mg of pyridoxine hydrochloride (vitamin B6), and 2 mg of cyanocobalamin (vitamin B12) or a placebo. Main outcome measures: The primary outcome was all-cause mortality. Secondary outcomes included myocardial infarction (MI), stroke, amputation of allow part of a lower extremity, a composite of these 3 plus all-cause mortality, time to initiation of dialysis, and time to thrombosis of arteriovenous access in hemodialysis patients. Results: Mean baseline homocysteine level was 24.0 micromol/L in the vitamin group and 24.2 micromol/L in the placebo group. It was lowered 6.3 micromol/L (25.8%; P < 001) in the vitamin group and 0.4 micromol/L (1.7%; P=.14) in the placebo group at 3 months, but there was no significant effect on mortality (448 vitamin group deaths vs. 436placebo group deaths) (hazard ratio [HR], 1.04; 95% CI, 0.91-1.18). No significant effects were demonstrated for secondary outcomes or adverse events: there were 129 Mis in the vitamin group vs. 150 for placebo (HR, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.67-1.08), 37 strokes in the vitamin group vs. 41 for placebo (HR, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.58-1.40), and 60 amputations in the vitamin group vs. 53 for placebo (HR, 1.14; 95% CI, 0.79-1.64). In addition, the composite of MI, stroke, and amputations plus mortality (P = .85), time to dialysis (P = . 38), and time to thrombosis in hemodialysis patients (P = .97) did not differ between the vitamin and placebo groups. Conclusion: Treatment with high doses of folic acid and B vitamins did not improve survival or reduce the incidence of vascular disease in patients with advanced chronic kidney disease or end-stage renal disease. Trial registration: clinical trials.gov Identifier: NCT00032435. <![CDATA[<b>Análisis crítico de un artículo</b>: <b>La rosiglitazona aumenta los eventos cardiovasculares a largo plazo</b>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872009000700019&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Context: Recent reports of serious adverse events with rosiglitazone use have raised questions about whether the evidence of harm justifies its use for treatment of type 2 diabetes. Objective: To systematically review the long-term cardiovascular risks of rosiglitazone, including myocardial infarction, heart failure, and cardiovascular mortality. Data sources: We searched MEDLINE, the GlaxoSmithKline clinical trials register, the US Food and Drug Administration Web site, and product information sheets for randomized controlled trials, systematic reviews, and meta-analyses published in English through May 2007. Study selection: Studies were selected for inclusion if they were randomized controlled trials of rosiglitazone for prevention or treatment of type 2 diabetes, had at least 12 months of follow-up, and monitored cardiovascular adverse events and provided numerical data on all adverse events. Four studies were included after detailed screening of 140 trials for cardiovascular events. Data extraction: Relative risks (RRs) of myocardial infarction, heart failure, and cardiovascular mortality were estimated using a fixed-effects meta-analysis of 4 randomized controlled trials (n =14.291, including 6.421 receiving rosiglitazone and 7.870 receiving control therapy with a duration of follow-up of 1-4 years). Results: Rosiglitazone significantly increased the risk of myocardial infarction (n =94/6421 vs. 83/7870; RR, 1.42; 95% confidence interval fCIJ, 1.06-1.91; P =.02) and heart failure (n =102/6.421 vs. 62/7.870; RR, 2.09; 95% CI, 1.52-2.88; P k.001) without a significant increase in risk of cardiovascular mortality (n =59/6.421 vs. 72/7.870; RR, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.63-1.26; P =.53). There was no evidence of substantial heterogeneity among the trials for these end points (1(2) =0% for myocardial infarction, 18% for heart failure, and 0% for cardiovascular mortality). Conclusion: Among patients with impaired glucose tolerance or type 2 diabetes, rosiglitazone use for at least 12 months is associated with a significantly increased risk of myocardial infarction and heart failure, without a significantly increased risk of cardiovascular mortality. <![CDATA[<b>HIPOVITAMINOSIS D</b>: <b>¿UNA PANDEMIA MUNDIAL?</b>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872009000700020&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Context: Recent reports of serious adverse events with rosiglitazone use have raised questions about whether the evidence of harm justifies its use for treatment of type 2 diabetes. Objective: To systematically review the long-term cardiovascular risks of rosiglitazone, including myocardial infarction, heart failure, and cardiovascular mortality. Data sources: We searched MEDLINE, the GlaxoSmithKline clinical trials register, the US Food and Drug Administration Web site, and product information sheets for randomized controlled trials, systematic reviews, and meta-analyses published in English through May 2007. Study selection: Studies were selected for inclusion if they were randomized controlled trials of rosiglitazone for prevention or treatment of type 2 diabetes, had at least 12 months of follow-up, and monitored cardiovascular adverse events and provided numerical data on all adverse events. Four studies were included after detailed screening of 140 trials for cardiovascular events. Data extraction: Relative risks (RRs) of myocardial infarction, heart failure, and cardiovascular mortality were estimated using a fixed-effects meta-analysis of 4 randomized controlled trials (n =14.291, including 6.421 receiving rosiglitazone and 7.870 receiving control therapy with a duration of follow-up of 1-4 years). Results: Rosiglitazone significantly increased the risk of myocardial infarction (n =94/6421 vs. 83/7870; RR, 1.42; 95% confidence interval fCIJ, 1.06-1.91; P =.02) and heart failure (n =102/6.421 vs. 62/7.870; RR, 2.09; 95% CI, 1.52-2.88; P k.001) without a significant increase in risk of cardiovascular mortality (n =59/6.421 vs. 72/7.870; RR, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.63-1.26; P =.53). There was no evidence of substantial heterogeneity among the trials for these end points (1(2) =0% for myocardial infarction, 18% for heart failure, and 0% for cardiovascular mortality). Conclusion: Among patients with impaired glucose tolerance or type 2 diabetes, rosiglitazone use for at least 12 months is associated with a significantly increased risk of myocardial infarction and heart failure, without a significantly increased risk of cardiovascular mortality. <![CDATA[<b>Potencial prevención del cáncer cérvico uterino en Chile por la vacuna contra virus papiloma humano (VPH)</b>: <b>Más interrogantes que respuestas</b>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872009000700021&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Context: Recent reports of serious adverse events with rosiglitazone use have raised questions about whether the evidence of harm justifies its use for treatment of type 2 diabetes. Objective: To systematically review the long-term cardiovascular risks of rosiglitazone, including myocardial infarction, heart failure, and cardiovascular mortality. Data sources: We searched MEDLINE, the GlaxoSmithKline clinical trials register, the US Food and Drug Administration Web site, and product information sheets for randomized controlled trials, systematic reviews, and meta-analyses published in English through May 2007. Study selection: Studies were selected for inclusion if they were randomized controlled trials of rosiglitazone for prevention or treatment of type 2 diabetes, had at least 12 months of follow-up, and monitored cardiovascular adverse events and provided numerical data on all adverse events. Four studies were included after detailed screening of 140 trials for cardiovascular events. Data extraction: Relative risks (RRs) of myocardial infarction, heart failure, and cardiovascular mortality were estimated using a fixed-effects meta-analysis of 4 randomized controlled trials (n =14.291, including 6.421 receiving rosiglitazone and 7.870 receiving control therapy with a duration of follow-up of 1-4 years). Results: Rosiglitazone significantly increased the risk of myocardial infarction (n =94/6421 vs. 83/7870; RR, 1.42; 95% confidence interval fCIJ, 1.06-1.91; P =.02) and heart failure (n =102/6.421 vs. 62/7.870; RR, 2.09; 95% CI, 1.52-2.88; P k.001) without a significant increase in risk of cardiovascular mortality (n =59/6.421 vs. 72/7.870; RR, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.63-1.26; P =.53). There was no evidence of substantial heterogeneity among the trials for these end points (1(2) =0% for myocardial infarction, 18% for heart failure, and 0% for cardiovascular mortality). Conclusion: Among patients with impaired glucose tolerance or type 2 diabetes, rosiglitazone use for at least 12 months is associated with a significantly increased risk of myocardial infarction and heart failure, without a significantly increased risk of cardiovascular mortality.