Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Revista médica de Chile]]> http://www.scielo.cl/rss.php?pid=0034-988720070012&lang=es vol. 135 num. 12 lang. es <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.cl/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.cl <![CDATA[<b>Relación estudiante de medicina-enfermo</b>: <b>visión de los estudiantes</b>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872007001200001&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Background: The relationship between medical students and patients has special characteristics that require to be well understood to prepare both students and tutors. Aim: To learn about medical students' thoughts and experiences once they start working with patients, how do they solve difficulties or problems and their perceptions about professional roles and patient rights. Material and methods: Qualitative study based on semi-structured interviews applied to 30 volunteer third year medical students who were beginning their clinical practice. The answers to open questions were transcribed and then analized and grouped by topics and categories. Results: Helping others was the main motivation to go to medical school. Other reasons were scientific interest and social status. Students felt prepared to communicate with patients. However they felt anxious, stressful and fearful of not being competent or not being able to answer patients' questions. There were some differences between male and female students' feelings. Nevertheless students declared that they had rewarding experiences with patients. They all recognized that patients have the right to reject being treated by students. The answers also showed that the first clinical experiences led to significant changes in their views of the medical profession. Conclusions: Students are aware of their trainee condition, the benefits that they obtain being in contact with patients and of their limitations. Patients must voluntarily accept to be subject of the students' training program and informed consent procedures need to be developed <![CDATA[<b>Factores determinantes del exceso de peso en escolares</b>: <b>Un estudio multinivel</b>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872007001200002&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Background: Rates of obesity reach high levels in Chile, with geographic, social and school variations. Aim: To identify factors at two levels associated with excessive weight in school children: child-family characteristics and school-neighborhood. Material and methods: Using a cross-sectional and multi-step design, seven counties with the highest prevalence of obesity were identified, and schools were randomly chosen from within the 1st, 3 and 5 quintiles of the school strata (same level of obesity prevalence). Within each school, twelve 2nd grade children were randomly chosen (n =42 schools and 504 students). Nutritional status, food intake, eating habits and physical activity were measured. Socio demographic, economic characteristics and nutritional status of the parents were assessed. Home size and facilities for children physical activities were assessed, as well as school infrastructure and management. Results: Most of the explained variance (97%) in the Body Mass Index (BMI) was due to individual-level factors: sedentary children behaviour (JS coefficient 1.6, standard error (SE) 0.052), maternal obesity (ß 0.94; SE 0.25), paternal obesity (ß 0.83; SE 0.28) and hours watching television (ß 0.789, SE 0.297). The same risk factors were predictive of obesity: child sedentary behaviours odds ratio (OR): 3-98, 95%) confidence interval (CI): 2.44-6.48, maternal obesity (OR 1.91, CI 1.21-3-02) and being woman (OR 1.75, CI 1.01-2.76). Conclusions: BMI and obesity are associated with children behaviour or biological and cultural conditions of their families and not with school characteristics <![CDATA[<b>Detección de lesiones preneoplásicas gástricas mediante niveles séricos de pepsinógeno en población chilena</b>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872007001200003&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Background: Gastric cancer has a direct relation with chronic atrophic gastritis (AG) and intestinal metaplasia (IM), considered as preneoplastic lesions. Determination of serum pepsinogen llevéis (PGI) and pepsinogen I / pepsinogen II ratio (PGI/PGII) can detect this conditions; achieving 70-90% of gastric cancer detection in early stages. Aim: To determine the cut-off values for serum PGI and PGI/PGII in Chilean subjects, for the detection of gastric preneoplastic lesions, establishing their sensitivity, specificity, positive (PPV) and negative (NPV) predictive values. Patients and Methods: Prospective study of patients subjected to upper gastrointestinal endoscopy and determination of serum pepsinogen levels. The presence and severity of preneoplastic lesions were compared with serum levels of PGI and PGI/PGII. Results: A total of 56 men and 44 women were studied, with a mean age of 43 (14-77) years. There was a significant association (p <0.001) of PGI and PGI/PGII with AG and IM. We obtained a cut-off value of 2.3 for PGI/PGII (sensitivity =70%&gt;, specificity =92%&gt;, PPV =60%&gt;, NPV =95%) and 36 ng/ml for PGI (sensitivity =62%o specificity =64%o, PPV =20%o, NPV =91%), for detection of moderate to severe AG. No patient with normal mucosa had a PGI <20 ng/ml. The combined criteria of PGI/II ≤ 2.3 and/or PGI ≤ 20 ng/ml, obtained a sensitivity of 85%o, specificity of 92%&gt;, PPV of 65%o, and NPV of 97%o. Conclusions: We confirmed a strict relation ofPGIand PGI/PGIIwith the presence of preneoplastic gastric lesions in Chilean patients <![CDATA[<b>El tamaño de los tumores suprarrenales ¿está en relación al tiempo de evolución o expresa una diferencia biológica?</b>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872007001200004&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Background: Adrenal tumor (AT) malignancy has been related to tumor size. Since laparoscopic surgery is being used, smaller adrenal tumors are being excised. Aim: To evaluate eventual clinical and histológica! differences between adrenal tumors smaller than 4 cm. and those larger than 6 cm. Patients and Methods: Retrospective review of pathological reports and clinical records of patients operated for adrenal tumors, dividing them in two groups. Group 1 had 29patients aged 52 ± 13 years with AT < 4 cm operated during the period 2000-2005, and Group 2 was formed by 52 patients aged 46 ±18 years with AT &gt;6 cm operated between 1984-2005- Tumors between 4 and 6 cm were not included in the study to establish clear cut differences between groups. Results: Tumors were functional in 40 and 41% of cases in groups 1 and 2 respectively. Fifty percent of functional tumors of group 1 were pheochromocytomas and the rest secreted aldosterone. In group 2, 66% of tumors were phechromocytomas and no aldosterone secreting tumors were found. Fifty two and eight percent of tumors in Groups 1 and 2 were adenomas, respectively (p <0.001). Nineteen tumors of group 2 were malignant, compared with one of group 1 (p <0.001). Conclusions: The tumor size of adrenal cortical tumors may represent biological differences, suggesting two different tumor populations. At time of diagnosis adrenal carcinomas are almost always larger than 6 cm <![CDATA[<b>Síndrome de ovario poliquístico (SOP) y embarazo</b>: <b>Experiencia clínica</b>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872007001200005&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is an endocrine metabolic dysfunction closely associated with insulin resistance and obesity, which predisposes to pregnancy complications. Aim: To report a prospective clinical experience in PCOS patients who became pregnant after diet, exercise and metformin treatment intervention, and were followed up during the whole pregnancy. Patients and Methods: Seventy pregnant PCOS (PPCOS) women and forty normal pregnant (NP) women of similar age and with singleton pregnancies were included in the study. During gestational ages 10-16 and 22-28 weeks, a 2h, 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was performed with measurement of glucose and insulin in each sample. Results: No differences were found in duration of gestation, weight gain during pregnancy, or systolic and diastolic blood pressure between PPCOS and NP women. There were significant differences in body mass index (BMI) at the initiation and in the third trimester of pregnancy between both groups. The incidence of gestational diabetes was significantly higher (p <0.01) in the PCOS group (35.2%) compared to the control group (5.0%). The prevalence of small for gestational age (SGA) infants tended to be higher (p =0.09) in the PCOS group. During pregnancy, 2h glucose and insulin were significantly higher in PPCOS than in NP women. Conclusions: PCOS mothers showed a higher prevalence of gestational diabetes and SGA newborns, which cannot be attributed to the weight gain during pregnancy, and seems to be more related to the BMI at the initiation of pregnancy, and to the PCOS condition of the mothe <![CDATA[<b>Relación entre diabetes gestacional y síndrome metabólico</b>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872007001200006&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Background: The metabolic syndrome (MS) is associated to a significant increase in the risk of diabetes, coronary heart disease and stroke, resulting in a 5-fold increase of the cardiovascular death rate. Aim: To determine the relationship between gestational diabetes (GD) and the development of MS at the end of puerperal period. Patients and Methods: We conducted a case-control study in the Curanilahue Hospital, in southern Chile, including 58 women with GD during their pregnancy, studied in day 42 of their puerperal period (study group) and 58 puerperal women from the same hospital, who had a physiological pregnancy (control group). Triglycerides, HDL cholesterol, fasting and post prandial blood glucose levels, blood pressure, waist circumference, weight and height were measured. MS was diagnosed using the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP - ATP III) criteria. Results: Mean weight, body mass index, waist circumference, blood glucose and triglycerides were significantly higher in the study group and HDL cholesterol was significantly lower in the control group. Conclusions: These results suggest a significant relationship between GD and the ocurrence of MS <![CDATA[<b>Normalización de la densidad mineral ósea en niños nacidos prematuros en Viña del Mar, Chile</b>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872007001200007&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Background: In a previous study we reported that healthy children born at 34 or fewer gestational weeks, with adequate weight for gestational age, had not completed their bone catch-up at mean age of 6.3 years. Aim: This is a follow up report, performed on the same population one year later to determine at which age premature - born children achieve their bone mineral density (BMD) catch-up, compared to term-born controls. Material and methods: Fifteen children mean age 7years 3 months, born at 25 to 34 weeks of gestation, with a birth weight of 740 to 2.200 g were studied Radius, lumbar spine and femoral neck bone mineral density, whole body bone mineral content and body composition were assessed by DEXA. Results: Height, body mass index, peripheral BMD, axial BMD, fat and lean body mass in these children were not different from term born controls. Conclusions: Premature born children with adequate weight for gestational age, achieved peripheral and axial bone mineral density catch-up at the age of 7 to 8 years <![CDATA[<b>Conocimiento sobre el ácido fólico en la prevención de defectos de cierre del tubo neural: una encuesta a mujeres que viven en Santiago de Chile</b>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872007001200008&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Background: Wheat flour in Chile is fortified with folie acid and pregnant women are also supplemented with the vitamin, but the population level of knowledge or awareness about this vitamin and its use by pregnant women is unknown. Aim: To assess the level of knowledge that postpartum women from Santiago de Chile have about folie acid. Material and methods: A questionnaire about folie acid and its efects on the prevention of neural tube defects was developed adapting questionnaires designed abroad. It was applied by medical students to puerperal women, hospitalized in public hospitals. Results: The questionnaire was applied to 342 women aged 26 ± 7 years. Sixty one percent were housewives and 55% completed high school education. Forty seven percent of these women had heard about folie acid, 9.6% knew that it was able to prevent congenital defects and only one received an adequate supplementation during pregnancy. Women aged 25 to 34 years and those with an adequate medical care during pregnancy had a significantly better knowledge about folie acid and its role in the prevention of congenital anormalies. The more commom means to receive information about folie acid were midwifes (34%), mass media (28%) and doctors (20%). Two hundred eleven women (62%) agreed to take folie acid in a future gestation and 58% preferred to do so using fortified foods. Conclusions: Post partum women from Santiago have a poor knowledge about the relevance of folie acid supplementation <![CDATA[<b>Terapia médica de la ginecomastia con tamoxifeno. Influencia del volumen y duración de la ginecomastia en el resultado terapéutico</b>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872007001200009&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Background. Gynecomastia is treated when it is painful, there are psychosocial repercussions or it does not revert in less tan two years. It is treated with the antiestrogenic drug tamoxifen, but there are doubts about its effectiveness in high volume gynecomastias or in those lasting more than two years. Aim. To assess the effectiveness and safety of tamoxifen for gynecomastia and the influence of its volume and duration on the response to treatment. Patients and methods. Forty three patients with gynecomastia, aged 12 to 62 years, were studied. Twenty seven patients had a pubertal physiological gynecomastia, in eight it was caused by medications, in four it was secondary to hypogonadism, in three it was idiopathic and in one it was due to toxic exposure. Twenty patients had mastodynia and in 33, gynecomastia had a diameter over 4 cm. It lasted less than two years in 30 patients, more than two years in nine and four did not recall its duration. All were treated with tamoxifen 20 mg/dayfor 6 months. A follow up evaluation was performed at three and six months of treatment. Results. Mastodynia disappeared in all patients at three months. At six months gynecomastia disappeared in 26 patients (62%), but relapsed in 27%. All gynecomastias caused by drugs with antiandrogen activity disappeared. Fifty two percent of gynecomastias over 4 cm and 90% of those of less than 4 cm in diameter disappeared (p<0.05). Fifty six percent of gynecomastias lasting more than two years and 70% of those of a shorter duration disappeared (p=NS). Two patients had diarrhea or flushes associated to the therapy. Conclusions: Tamoxifen is safe and effective for the treatment of gynecomastia. Larger lesions have a lower response to treatment <![CDATA[<b>Inmunoterapia con veneno de himenópteros</b>: <b>presentación de diez casos clínicos</b>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872007001200010&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Background: Immunotherapy can be used to treat allergic reactions to insect stings, specially bees and wasps. Aim: To report the experience with immunotherapy with aqueous extracts of hymenoptera venoms (bees and wasps). Material and methods: Ten patients aged 6 to 58 years were treated in an allergy center of a University Clinical Hospital. The medical indication for this treatment was, in all patients, anaphylactic reactions after hymenoptera stings. Immunotherapy was carried out using standardized vaccines (Aqueous extracts Venomvac LETI, Spain), applied in a traditional protocol, with subcutaneous injections. This protocol had two phases: a buildup phase (between weeks 1 and 13) and a monthly maintenance phase, from the 13th week. The monthly maintenance dose was 100 fig of hymenoptera specific venom extract. Results: Six patients had adverse reactions of different severity, during the treatment protocols and all had a good response to immediate therapeutic measures. After these events, they followed the protocol without problems. Two patients, treated with bee vaccines, suffered an accidental bee sting during the maintenance phase and they developed only local reactions. Conclusions: The lack of adverse reactions to bee stings in these two patients indicates the acquisition of clinical tolerance <![CDATA[<b>Púrpura trombocitopénico trombótico con respuesta exitosa a vincristina</b>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872007001200011&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura presents as a multisystemic disease with thrombocytopenia, microangiopathic hemolytic anemia, fever, neurological and renal involvement. We report a 24 years-old male presenting with purpura and a generalized seizure. His blood tests showed an hemolytic anemia, unconjungated hyperbilirubinemia, increased lactated dehydrogenase, thrombocytopenia and impairment of renal function. He was initially treated with daily plasmapheresis and steroids without improvement. Due to persistence of the disease, he was treated with two doses of intravenous vincristine in four days, with clinical and laboratory improvement. He was discharged 40 days after the last dose of vincristine, in good conditions <![CDATA[<b>Angina secundaria a lesión de tronco coronario izquierdo post trasplante cardiaco</b>: <b>Evidencias de reinervación simpática tardía</b>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872007001200012&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es We report a 56 years-old man presenting with chest pain with exercise, seven years after an orthotopic heart transplant. A coronary angiography showed an atherosclerotic lesion in the common left main coronary artery with more than 90% obstruction. The lesion was successfully treated with a transluminal angioplasty with stenting. A 131-1 metaiodobenylguanidine (MIBG) scan demonstrated sympathetic reinnervation. Sixteen months later, due to progression of allograft vasculopathy, coronary artery bypass was required <![CDATA[<b>Síntomas óticos referidos en desórdenes temporomandibulares. Relación con músculos masticatorios</b>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872007001200013&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Middle ear muscles have a common embryological and functional origin with masticatory and facial muscles. Therefore, symptoms referred to the ear may originate from the stomatognathic area. When a primary otológica! cause is discarded in the diagnostic work up for tinnitus, vertigo, hypoacousia, hyperacousia, ear pain or sensation of occluded ear, a temporomandibular joint dysfunction may be the cause of these symptoms. Temporomandibular joint dysfunction is twice more common among women and has environmental, physiological and behavioral causes. Among patients with this dysfunction, the prevalence of ear pain, tinnitus and dizziness varies between 33 and 76% <![CDATA[<b>Carga del enfermar psíquico, barreras y brechas en la atención de Salud Mental en Chile</b>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872007001200014&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Chile has one of the highest disease burdens caused by neuropsychiatric illnesses in the world, according to WHO, reaching to 31%- Major depression and alcohol use disorders are ranked first and second in attributed disability among adults. Nearly one-third of the population has had a psychiatric disorder in their lifetime, and 22.2% in the past year. Anxierty disorders are the most prevalent conditions, followed by major depression and alcohol abuse. Currently, mental health accounts for 2.3%) of the health care budget, which is less than some neighboring countries. The availability of 1.3 psychiatric beds per 10,000 inhabitants, is less than the mean of lower-income countries. Moreover, 81% are for chronic rather than acute care. Chile has 4.0 psychiatrist per 100,000 inhabitants, which is lower than other countries in Latin America. Only 38.5% of those patients with a psychiatric diagnosis receive any kind of mental health care, whether from a specialist or primary care. There is a perception among lay persons, that psychiatric treatments lack efficacy, despite evidence demonstrating the contrary. Not addressing the treament gap in mental health has serious public health implications <![CDATA[<b>CRÓNICA</b>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872007001200015&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Chile has one of the highest disease burdens caused by neuropsychiatric illnesses in the world, according to WHO, reaching to 31%- Major depression and alcohol use disorders are ranked first and second in attributed disability among adults. Nearly one-third of the population has had a psychiatric disorder in their lifetime, and 22.2% in the past year. Anxierty disorders are the most prevalent conditions, followed by major depression and alcohol abuse. Currently, mental health accounts for 2.3%) of the health care budget, which is less than some neighboring countries. The availability of 1.3 psychiatric beds per 10,000 inhabitants, is less than the mean of lower-income countries. Moreover, 81% are for chronic rather than acute care. Chile has 4.0 psychiatrist per 100,000 inhabitants, which is lower than other countries in Latin America. Only 38.5% of those patients with a psychiatric diagnosis receive any kind of mental health care, whether from a specialist or primary care. There is a perception among lay persons, that psychiatric treatments lack efficacy, despite evidence demonstrating the contrary. Not addressing the treament gap in mental health has serious public health implications