Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Revista médica de Chile]]> http://www.scielo.cl/rss.php?pid=0034-988720160005&lang=pt vol. 144 num. 5 lang. pt <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.cl/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.cl <![CDATA[<strong>Concepción inventory</strong>: <strong>Development of a screening instrument for depression </strong><b> <strong>in primary care in Chile</strong></b>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872016000500001&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Background: Screening instruments are required for the detection of depressive disorders by primary care practitioners. Aim: To develop a screening instrument to detect depression, based on data gathered interviewing patients attending primary health care settings. Material and Methods: The instrument was constructed with data about factors associated or triggering a depressive disorder obtained from 3,000 patients consulting for general morbidity. All patients answered the Composite International Diagnostic Interview, (version 2.1, section depression) and an inventory containing 39 risk factors for depression, obtained from the literature. A multiple imputation method using chained equations was carried out. Using a binary logistic regression with backward selection, an equation for depression screening was obtained. The c-index was calculated to estimate discriminating power of the model. A shrinkage factor was estimated to adjust the predictive model. Results: Estimations were carried out with data from 2,552 patients with a median age of 47 years (73% women). Fifty five percent lived with a partner and 45% had basic studies. The method selected 14 significant predictors, with a shrinkage value of 0.861 and a c-index of 0.838 (95% confidence intervals 0.82-0.86). Conclusions: The instrument has adequate psychometric properties as a screening tool for depression in primary health care. <![CDATA[<strong>Mental health and stress by acculturation in immigrants from South America </strong><b> <strong>in northern Chile</strong></b>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872016000500002&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Background: Coping with changes brought about by immigration and social circumstances that often characterize this process may cause mental health problems. Aim: To analyze the relationship between acculturation stress and mental health symptoms in South American immigrants residing in Antofagasta, Chile. Material and Methods: The OQ questionnaire, which assesses mental health and the acculturation stress questionnaire from Ruiz, were answered by 431 immigrants (53.8% Colombian and 46.2% Peruvian) aged between 18 and 65 years old. Results: The major source of acculturation stress was distance from origin, followed by difficulties in social relationships and perceived discrimination and rejection. About 50% of respondents had elevated levels of discomfort in their life, with mental health problems derived from their adjustment to social roles and relationships. There was a high correlation between acculturation stress levels and severity of mental health symptoms. Conclusions: Immigrants are exposed to high levels of stress resulting in a negative impact on their mental health. <![CDATA[<strong>Hospital discharges due to stroke in the period 2001-2010 in a southern Chilean region</strong>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872016000500003&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Background: Stroke is the most common specific cause of death in Chile since 2008, representing roughly 10% of total deaths in the country. Aim: To analyze hospital discharges with a diagnosis of stroke in the period 2001-2010 in a regional Chilean health service. Material and Methods: Analysis of hospital discharge databases of the department of statistics and health information (DEIS) of the Chilean Ministry of Health for the years 2001-2010. All subjects aged over 15 years and discharged with a diagnosis of stroke during the period 2001-2010 in a southern Chilean region, were included in the study. Results: In the period, 6,548 hospital discharges due to stroke were registered. The most common diagnoses were ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke, followed by intracranial hemorrhage. Hospital stay fluctuated between one and ten days in 77% of patients. The incidence rate of stroke as a discharge diagnosis was 961.3 per 100,000 population per year (95% Confidence intervals 950.7- 972.4). Conclusions: The information collected allows updating the information regarding hospital discharges due to stroke in the region studied. <![CDATA[<strong><i>The legal framework to prevent teenage pregnancies</i></strong>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872016000500004&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Background: There are legal regulations about sexual and reproductive rights of adolescents. However, this legal framework (LF) may have contradictory elements: there are laws assuring confidentiality and access to contraception at any age but there are other laws that consider any sexual contact with an adolescent younger than 14 a sexual assault, whose report to the legal authorities in mandatory. Aim: To explore the knowledge and clinical practice of primary health care (PHC) providers regarding prevention of teenage pregnancy. Material and Methods: Qualitative study collecting data using semi-structured interviews made to midwives and directors of PHC centers. Analysis of the data was based on Grounded Theory. Results: There is a differentiated clinical care for pregnancy prevention among adolescents if they are over 14 years old. This is due to the LF, specifically to the sexual crime’s law (19,927) and the law about regulation of the fertility (20,418). The differences affect health care, access and counseling about contraception and confidentiality. Healthcare of teenagers under the age of 14 is perceived as problematic for providers, due to the possible legal implications. Conclusions: The LF causes insecurity on health care providers and derives in a differentiated clinical approach according to the patient´s age. This is a barrier to provide timely and confidential access to counseling and contraception. <![CDATA[<strong>Perception of users about an Integral Model of Family and Community Health </strong><b> <strong>care in Santiago, Chile</strong></b>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872016000500005&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Background: The integral Model of Family and Community Health care is based on three essential principles: patient centered care, comprehensive care and continuity of care. Aim: To know the perception of primary care clinic users about the elements that should be considered in a patient centered integrated health care. Material and Methods: Ten males and 31 females aged 18 to 78 years, users of two public family primary care centers participated in focus groups, which were recorded. A qualitative descriptive research design based on content analysis according to Krippendorf was done. Results: Seven issues emerged from the description of patients’ experiences: professional-patient relationship, fragmentation of care, continued care with the same professional, promotion and prevention, availability of services and patient records. Conclusions: There are difficulties to install an integral model of family and community health care. The concerns raised by participants should be considered in order to modify the design of these models. <![CDATA[<strong>Khorama score as a predictive tool for thromboembolic events in high risk patients</strong>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872016000500006&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Background: There is an established relation between cancer and the development of thromboembolic venous disease. Khorana et al developed a predictive score using clinical characteristics and laboratory values to stratify patients according to their risk. Aim: To characterize using Khorana score, patients with active cancer and a diagnosis of thromboembolic disease during hospitalization in an oncology hospital. Material and Methods: Review of records of the pharmacy of the hospital, selecting patients who received heparin in therapeutic doses during their hospitalization. Using laboratory values available in the medical records, the Khorama score was calculated. Results: Twenty seven patients with thromboembolic events, aged 60 ± 2 years (56% males) were selected for the study. Eighty percent of them were catalogued in the intermediate and high risk group according to Khorana score. Conclusions: Khorana score is a simple scale that might be useful to establish early prophylactic measures in patients with high risk for thromboembolic events, especially those with cancer. <![CDATA[<strong>Association between handgrip strength and functional performance in Chilean older people</strong>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872016000500007&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Background: Handgrip strength is an important predictor of functional performance among older adults. Aim: To measure handgrip strength in older adults and relate its values to their clinical functional assessment. Material and Methods: Handgrip strength was measured in 1047 older adults living in the community and aged 71.9 ± 7 years (740 and 307 females). The values obtained were grouped by age, gender and functional condition. The latter was assessed using a score validated in Chile (Functional Assessment of Older Adults or EFAM), that classifies participants as autonomous without risk, autonomous in risk and in risk of becoming non-autonomous. Results: In women, hand grip strength values were 17.4 ± 5.6 and 18.7 ± 5.7 kg for left and right hand; figures for men were 30.6 ± 7.8 and 31.8 ± 8.3 kg, respectively. According the functional assessment, the figures for autonomous without risk, autonomous with risk and with risk of becoming non-autonomous participants, were 23.5 ± 9.7, 21.8 ± 9.1 and 19.3 ± 8.2 respectively. Conclusions: There is an association between the degrees of functional performance of older people and handgrip strength. <![CDATA[<strong>Validation of the short assessment of health literacy for spanish-speaking adults test in Chile</strong>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872016000500008&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Background: Health literacy is defined as the degree to which individuals obtain, process and understand basic health information and services. It is necessary to make appropriate decisions about their health. Evidence has shown that the level of health literacy is critical to the prognosis of chronic diseases. The Short Assessment of Health Literacy for Spanish-speaking Adults (SAHLSA-50) is a short and simple health literacy adult assessment. Aim: To determine the validity and reliability indicators of SAHLSA-50 in Chilean adults. Material and Methods: The survey was applied to 84 older adults living in high and low income neighborhoods. Results: The survey had an adequate construct validity and reliability, its Comparative Fit Index was 0.93, its Tucker-Lewis index was 0.927 and its Root Mean Square Error of Approximation was 0.044. “Close fit” was not statistically significant (p = 0.828). Reliability was estimated by K-Richardson, which reported a good outcome (0.9255). Despite the good global indicators obtained, it is necessary to pay attention to some items that would fail to explain the “Health literacy” construct or were beyond the parameters of difficulty and discrimination proposed by the authors of the test. Conclusions: We propose this test as a useful tool to assess health literacy in the adult population in Chile. Its use and incorporation into local research can be especially recommended in the areas of education and health promotion. <![CDATA[<strong>Hypovitaminosis D in Children with Hashimoto’s Thyroiditis</strong>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872016000500009&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Background: Vitamin D deficiency or insufficiency may play a role in the pathogenesis of certain autoimmune diseases. Aim: To measure vitamin D levels in children with Hashimoto’s thyroiditis (HT) (either with subclinical or marked hypothyroidism) and in healthy controls. Material and Methods: We included 68 children with HT aged 12 ± 4 years (39 females) from a pediatric outpatient clinic and 68 healthy children aged 10 ± 4 years (37 females). Calcium metabolism parameters, thyroid function tests and anti-thyroid peroxidase (anti-TPO), anti-thyroglobulin (anti-TG) and 25 hydroxy vitamin D (25OHD) levels were measured. Results: Patients were older than controls but well matched by gender distribution. Mean 25OHD levels were significantly lower in HT patients than controls (16.8 ± 9.3 and 24.1 ± 9.4 ng/mL respectively, P < 0.01). Frequency of vitamin D deficiency was 76 and 35% in HT patients and controls, respectively (P < 0.001). Conclusions: Vitamin D deficiency is more common in children with HT than healthy controls.<hr/>Antecedentes: La deficiencia o insuficiencia de vitamina D puede tener un rol en la patogenia de enfermedades autoinmunes. Objetivo: Medir niveles de vitamina D en niños con tiroiditis de Hashimoto (TH) (con hipotiroidismo subclínico o marcado) y en controles sanos. Material y Métodos: Estudiamos 68 niños con TH, de 12 ± 4 años (39 mujeres) y 68 controles sanos de 10 ± 4 años (37 mujeres). Se les midió parámetros de metabolismo de calcio, pruebas de función tiroidea, anticuerpos anti peroxidasa y anti tiroglobulina y 25 hidroxi vitamina D (25 OH vit D). Resultados: Los pacientes eran mayores que los controles pero la distribución por género era homogénea en ambos grupos. Los niveles de 25 OH vit D en pacientes y controles fueron 16,8 ± 9,3 y 24,1 ± 9,4 ng/mL respectivamente, p < 0,01. La frecuencia de deficiencia de vitamina D fue de 76 y 35% en pacientes y controles, respectivamente. Conclusiones: La deficiencia de vitamina D es más común en niños con TH. <![CDATA[<strong>Simulated patients in health care training</strong>: <strong>the human side of simulation</strong>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872016000500010&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Simulated patients (SP) are now used in the majority of the institutions that train health care professionals in patient-centered care. This article summarizes the information about the use of SP in health education using information from the literature and from the 15 years’ experience in the medical school of the Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile. It describes the different definitions in use, the roles and scenarios that can be used when teaching with SP and the organization that any institution working with SP should have in order to promote the optimal use of SP. Working with SP allows faculty to center their teaching on their students while keeping the focus on the patient. Students appreciate learning with SP and particularly value feedback from the patients’ perspective. <![CDATA[<strong>Body dysmorphic disorder</strong>: <strong>clinical aspects, nosological dimensions and controversies with anorexia nervosa</strong>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872016000500011&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt There is strong evidence about the co-existence of body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) and eating disorders (ED), particularly with anorexia nervosa (AN). An exhaustive review of the specialised literature regarding these disorders was carried out. The results show that their co-occurrence implies a more complex diagnosis and treatment, a more severe clinical symptomatology and a worse prognosis and outcome. Both disorders display common similarities, differences and comorbidities, which allow authors to classify them in different nosological spectra (somatomorphic, anxious, obsessive-compulsive, affective and psychotic). Their crossover involves higher levels of body dissatisfaction and body image distortion, depression, suicidal tendency, personality disorders, substance use/abuse, obsessive-compulsive disorder, social phobia, alexithymia and childhood abuse or neglect background. Treatment including cognitive-behavioral psychotherapy and selective reuptake serotonin inhibitors are effective for both, BDD and ED; nevertheless, plastic surgery could exacerbate BDD. Clinical traits of BDD must be systematically detected in patients suffering from ED and vice versa. <![CDATA[<strong>Red cell distribution width as a risk marker in patients with cardiovascular diseases</strong>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872016000500012&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Red cell distribution width (RDW) is a measurement of the variation in size, as well as an index of heterogeneity of erythrocytes, which is used in combination with other hematologic parameters as an aid to the differential diagnosis of hypochromic anemia. RDW could also serve as a biomarker in the diagnosis and prognosis patients with cardiovascular diseases. However, it is unclear whether the increased heterogeneity is the cause or consequence of other pathophysiological conditions such as renal failure, malnutrition, inflammation and oxidative stress, which among other conditions are actively involved in the genesis and progression of cardiovascular diseases. The aim of this review is to show and discuss recent evidence about the role of RDW measurement as an aid in the diagnosis and prognosis of patients with such diseases. Besides being a simple, inexpensive and routinely measured parameter, it could help in the stratification of patients according to their risk in clinical practice. <![CDATA[<strong>Management of psychological trauma in primary care</strong>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872016000500013&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Exposure to traumatic events is frequent in the general population and psychiatric sequelae such as post-traumatic stress disorders are common. The symptoms of psychiatric sequelae after trauma are vague, with multiple psychological and physical symptoms, which can confuse the health care professional. This paper seeks to facilitate the work in primary care, providing practical information about the diagnosis, initial management and referral of patients who have suffered traumatic experiences. Some early interventions and treatments are suggested. <![CDATA[<strong>Quality assurance of medical practice in Chile</strong>: <strong>Mandatory approval of the National Board Examination in Medicine as a quality assurance to start medical practice</strong>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872016000500014&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Exposure to traumatic events is frequent in the general population and psychiatric sequelae such as post-traumatic stress disorders are common. The symptoms of psychiatric sequelae after trauma are vague, with multiple psychological and physical symptoms, which can confuse the health care professional. This paper seeks to facilitate the work in primary care, providing practical information about the diagnosis, initial management and referral of patients who have suffered traumatic experiences. Some early interventions and treatments are suggested. <![CDATA[<strong>Association between the decline in global fertility rate and the incorporation of women to the workforce</strong>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872016000500015&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Background: The global fertility rate (GFR) is defined as the mean number of children that a woman could have in a hypothetical cohort, not exposed to death during the fertile period. GFR has fallen from 3.4 to 1.9 children per women in the period 1970-2010. Aim: To explore the relationship between the fall in GFR and the incorporation of women to work in the period 1960-2011. Material and Methods: Data from the National Statistics Institute was used. GRF was calculated using specific fertility rates for each year considering women aged 15 to 49 years. Work rates were obtained from yearly vital statistics reports. Results: Between 1960 and 2011, GRF decreased from 5.5 to 1.9 in Chile. The first inflection occurred in 1970. In the same period, female workforce increased from 22.4 to 40.2%. Conclusions: To motivate the participation of female work­force without decrease the GRF allowing population replacement, it is suggested the need to create new public policies with benefits and support from the state. <![CDATA[<strong><i>Motivation and self-directed learning among medical students</i></strong>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872016000500016&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Background: Motivation is an essential aspect in the training process of medical students. The association that motivation can have with learning self-regulation is of utmost importance for the design of curriculum, teaching methods and evaluation. Aim: To describe the motivational aspects of self-directed learning among medical students from a traditional Chilean University. Material and Methods: A qualitative, descriptive study based on grounded theory of Strauss and Corbin. Twenty 4th and 5th year medical students were selected using a maximum variation sampling technique. After obtaining an informed consent, semi-structured interviews and field notes were carried out. Data were analyzed to the level of open coding through Atlas-ti 7.5.2. Results: From the student point of view, personal motivational aspects are linked to the search for information, constant updating, the perception of the physician-patient relationship and interest in subject matters. From the scope of teachers, a main issue is related to their ability to motivate students to develop independent study skills. Conclusions: Personal motivational aspects facilitate the development of independent study skills, specifically in the search of information. The role of teachers is crucial in promoting these skills and the perception of medical students from their learning process. <![CDATA[<strong>Laugier-Hunziker syndrome in a patient with Sjögren’s syndrome</strong>: <strong>Report of one case</strong>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872016000500017&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Laugier-Hunziker syndrome is a rare benign idiopathic condition characterized by acquired macular pigmentation of lips and buccal mucosa, often accompanied with melanonychia. The main concern with this condition is to rule out other differential diagnosis with systemic repercussions and similar hyperpigmentation patterns, such as Peutz-Jeghers syndrome, adrenal insufficiency and melanoma. We report a 58-year-old female with a 20-year history of Sjögren’s syndrome, presenting with melanonychia and hyperpigmentation in the buccal mucosa. She had no relevant medication history and is a non-smoker. The patient denied any other symptoms. The histopathology confirmed the diagnosis of Laugier-Hunziker syndrome. <![CDATA[<strong>Pontine reversible leucopathy in an AIDS patient associated with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART)</strong>: <strong>Report of one case</strong>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872016000500018&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Posterior reversible encephalopathy (PRES) is a condition characterized by T2 and FLAIR hyperintensities in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies, localized preferentially in the occipital-parietal white matter regions. Pathological MRI images located in midbrain, pons, medulla and spinal cord, that could be asymptomatic, were recently included in this entity. These images are interpreted as vasogenic edema, which is caused by arterial hypertension or eclampsia, neurotoxicity related to immunosuppressive agents or chemotherapy, among other causes. We report a 25 years old asymptomatic male with AIDS, with normal blood pressure who after initiating highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) reported vertigo. The MRI showed a central pontine T2 hyperintensity with diffusion restriction, which was interpreted as a central pontine myelinolysis (CPM), but the lack of motor symptoms made improbable a real demyelination of the pons. The follow-up MRI revealed complete regression of the images. To our knowledge, this case could be the second report of a reversible leucopathy of the pons in a patient with AIDS, were the MRI images also simulated a CPM. This report extends the knowledge around the variability of the pathogenic interpretation of CPM images and their association with HAART. <![CDATA[<strong>Correlational analysis for a brief version of RDQ</strong>: <strong>New analysis of Guic et al (2014)</strong>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872016000500019&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Posterior reversible encephalopathy (PRES) is a condition characterized by T2 and FLAIR hyperintensities in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies, localized preferentially in the occipital-parietal white matter regions. Pathological MRI images located in midbrain, pons, medulla and spinal cord, that could be asymptomatic, were recently included in this entity. These images are interpreted as vasogenic edema, which is caused by arterial hypertension or eclampsia, neurotoxicity related to immunosuppressive agents or chemotherapy, among other causes. We report a 25 years old asymptomatic male with AIDS, with normal blood pressure who after initiating highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) reported vertigo. The MRI showed a central pontine T2 hyperintensity with diffusion restriction, which was interpreted as a central pontine myelinolysis (CPM), but the lack of motor symptoms made improbable a real demyelination of the pons. The follow-up MRI revealed complete regression of the images. To our knowledge, this case could be the second report of a reversible leucopathy of the pons in a patient with AIDS, were the MRI images also simulated a CPM. This report extends the knowledge around the variability of the pathogenic interpretation of CPM images and their association with HAART. <![CDATA[<strong>Tobacco medical student at the National University of Caaguazú, May 2015</strong>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872016000500020&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Posterior reversible encephalopathy (PRES) is a condition characterized by T2 and FLAIR hyperintensities in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies, localized preferentially in the occipital-parietal white matter regions. Pathological MRI images located in midbrain, pons, medulla and spinal cord, that could be asymptomatic, were recently included in this entity. These images are interpreted as vasogenic edema, which is caused by arterial hypertension or eclampsia, neurotoxicity related to immunosuppressive agents or chemotherapy, among other causes. We report a 25 years old asymptomatic male with AIDS, with normal blood pressure who after initiating highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) reported vertigo. The MRI showed a central pontine T2 hyperintensity with diffusion restriction, which was interpreted as a central pontine myelinolysis (CPM), but the lack of motor symptoms made improbable a real demyelination of the pons. The follow-up MRI revealed complete regression of the images. To our knowledge, this case could be the second report of a reversible leucopathy of the pons in a patient with AIDS, were the MRI images also simulated a CPM. This report extends the knowledge around the variability of the pathogenic interpretation of CPM images and their association with HAART. <![CDATA[<strong>Using PowerPoint in class</strong>: <strong>Is it necessary to study it?</strong>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872016000500021&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Posterior reversible encephalopathy (PRES) is a condition characterized by T2 and FLAIR hyperintensities in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies, localized preferentially in the occipital-parietal white matter regions. Pathological MRI images located in midbrain, pons, medulla and spinal cord, that could be asymptomatic, were recently included in this entity. These images are interpreted as vasogenic edema, which is caused by arterial hypertension or eclampsia, neurotoxicity related to immunosuppressive agents or chemotherapy, among other causes. We report a 25 years old asymptomatic male with AIDS, with normal blood pressure who after initiating highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) reported vertigo. The MRI showed a central pontine T2 hyperintensity with diffusion restriction, which was interpreted as a central pontine myelinolysis (CPM), but the lack of motor symptoms made improbable a real demyelination of the pons. The follow-up MRI revealed complete regression of the images. To our knowledge, this case could be the second report of a reversible leucopathy of the pons in a patient with AIDS, were the MRI images also simulated a CPM. This report extends the knowledge around the variability of the pathogenic interpretation of CPM images and their association with HAART. <![CDATA[<strong>Scientific initiation scholarships</strong>: <strong>a comprehensive development model for Latin American research</strong>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872016000500022&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Posterior reversible encephalopathy (PRES) is a condition characterized by T2 and FLAIR hyperintensities in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies, localized preferentially in the occipital-parietal white matter regions. Pathological MRI images located in midbrain, pons, medulla and spinal cord, that could be asymptomatic, were recently included in this entity. These images are interpreted as vasogenic edema, which is caused by arterial hypertension or eclampsia, neurotoxicity related to immunosuppressive agents or chemotherapy, among other causes. We report a 25 years old asymptomatic male with AIDS, with normal blood pressure who after initiating highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) reported vertigo. The MRI showed a central pontine T2 hyperintensity with diffusion restriction, which was interpreted as a central pontine myelinolysis (CPM), but the lack of motor symptoms made improbable a real demyelination of the pons. The follow-up MRI revealed complete regression of the images. To our knowledge, this case could be the second report of a reversible leucopathy of the pons in a patient with AIDS, were the MRI images also simulated a CPM. This report extends the knowledge around the variability of the pathogenic interpretation of CPM images and their association with HAART.