Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Revista médica de Chile]]> http://www.scielo.cl/rss.php?pid=0034-988720150002&lang=es vol. 143 num. 2 lang. es <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.cl/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.cl <![CDATA[<strong>Resultados a 10 años en trasplantes renales con donantes vivos no relacionados</strong>: <strong>Experiencia de 22 años</strong>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872015000200001&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Background: There is a gap between the number of patients requiring a renal allograft and the number of potential deceased donors (DD). One alternative is using allografts from non-related living donors (NRLD). Aim: To compare survival and complications of renal allograft recipients from DD, related living donors (RLD) and NRLD. Material and Methods: Observational study of a cohort of renal allograft recipients. Of 253 transplants performed in a Chilean region between 1981 and 2003, 20 patients received and allograft from a NRLD. Graft and patient survival of these patients were compared with those of 93 patients receiving an allograft from a related living donor and 140 receiving it from a DD. Patients were followed for 10 years or until death or dialysis requirement. Results: No significant differences between groups in graft and patient survival, deaths with a functioning graft or return to dialysis were observed. Receptors of DD had more hospital admissions during the first years after receiving the graft, usually due to infections. Also a delayed graft function was more common among them. Glomerular filtration rate ten years after the graft was similar among the three groups. Conclusions: No differences in graft or patient survival was observed between patients receiving a renal allograft from NRLD, RLD or DD. <![CDATA[<strong>Cobertura de la estrategia preventiva de cáncer de vesícula biliar en Chile</strong>: <strong>Resultados de la Encuesta Nacional de Salud 2009-2010</strong>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872015000200002&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Background: In Chile, gallbladder cancer (GBC) is one of the most important causes of death and gallstone disease (GSD) is its main risk factor. Abdominal ultrasonography (AU) is used for the diagnosis of GSD and cholecystectomy is used to prevent it. Aim: To estimate GSD prevalence in the general population and to assess the diagnostic and therapeutic coverage of GSD as a preventive strategy for GBC in Chile. Material and Methods: A standardized digestive symptoms questionnaire of the 2009-2010 Chilean National Health Survey was answered by 5412 adults over 15 years old. Self-reports of AU, GBD and cholecystectomies were recorded. Results: The prevalence of biliary-type pain was 7.1%. During the last five years, the prevalence of AU was 16%. GSD was reported in 20% of these tests and 84% of them were asymptomatic. The prevalence of AU was significantly lower in Araucanía region and among people with less than 12 years of education. Life cholecystectomy prevalence was 11% and reached 40% in people aged over 60 years. Women accounted for 75% of total cholecystectomies. Twenty-one percent of individuals who referred biliary-type pain, were studied with an AU. Only 60% of people with GSD confirmed by AU underwent a cholecystectomy. Conclusions: GSD affects at least 27% of the Chilean adult population. Important deficits and inequities in GSD diagnostic and therapeutic coverage were identified. <![CDATA[<strong>Caracterización del metabolismo óseo mineral en pacientes con enfermedad renal crónica en hemodiálisis en el Servicio de Salud Metropolitano Sur, Santiago de Chile</strong>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872015000200003&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Background: Chronic Kidney Disease-Mineral and Bone Disorder (CKD-MBD) is a condition of dialysis patients associated with both morbidity and mortality. Management is based on clinical guidelines with goals that are hard to comply with. Aim: To describe and compare biochemical variables associated with this disorder in two different time periods. Material and Methods: Revision of medical records of 814 patients (49% females) dialyzed during 2009 and 1018 patients (48% females), dialyzed during 2012 in Southern Metropolitan Santiago. Information about serum calcium, phosphorus, parathyroid hormone (PTH) and albumin was retrieved. Results: Median PTH values in 2009 and 2012 were 222.5 and 353.5 pg/ml respectively (p < 0.05). The figures for serum calcium corrected by albumin were 9.0 and 8.5 mg/dl respectively (p < 0.05). The figures for phosphorus were 4.7 and 5.0 mg/dl respectively (p < 0.05). The Calcium x Phosphorus product was 41.4 and 42.5 mg²/dl² (p < 0.05). Of note, the proportion patients with serum calcium below recommended levels (< 8.4 mg/dl) increased from 16% to 40% from 2009 to 2012. The proportion of patients with biochemical variables within recommended ranges was lower in 2012 than in 2009. Conclusions: There was a low proportion of patients with bone metabolism parameters within ranges recommended by clinical guidelines. These parameters were worst in 2012. <![CDATA[<strong>Incorporación de paciente virtual en portafolio de estudiantes de medicina de pregrado</strong>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872015000200004&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Background: In 2007, a Clinical-Case-Portfolio (CCP) was introduced as a new assessment instrument for fourth grade undergraduate medical students. Since then, several changes have been implemented such as reduction on the number of clinical cases, peer review and the introduction of virtual patient to the portfolio. Aim: To describe the virtual patient model incorporated to the CCP and assess the perception of this change and its effects on the performance of undergraduate students. Material and Methods: Virtual patients were implemented based on prototype clinical cases with specific syndromes. Students’ perceptions about CCP before and after the introduction of virtual patients were evaluated using a validated questionnaire that was answered voluntarily and anonymously. Results: Overall perception of CCP significantly improved after the incorporation of virtual patients (97.1 ± 24.9 and 111.3 ± 25.7 points; 57.8 and 66.2% respectively). The same improvements were observed for the domains “Student Learning”, “Organization and Evaluation”, “Teaching Methodology” and “Integration”. In both years, students obtained high grades in CCP evaluations. However CCP grades were not significantly correlated with integrated final grades. Conclusions: The incorporation of virtual patients improved undergraduate students’ perception of CCP. <![CDATA[<strong>Características epidemiológicas del síndrome de Guillain-Barré en población chilena</strong>: <strong>estudio hospitalario en un período de 7 años</strong>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872015000200005&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Background: Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is the commonest cause of acute flaccid paralysis worldwide, with an incidence of 0.6-4 per 100.000 inhabitants per year. It affects all age groups and carries an incapacity burden of up to 20%. Aim: To describe the features of GBS in adult Chilean patients admitted to a tertiary care hospital. Material and Methods: Review of medical records of 41 patients aged 17 to 81 years (30 males) admitted to a public hospital with the diagnosis of GBS between 2003 and 2009. According to clinical and electrophysiological criteria, the patients were classified into different varieties of GBS. Results: The incidence of GBS was higher in males (2.7:1) and the demyelinated GBS variety was found in 66% of cases. According to the Hughes’ disability score, patients treated with plasmapheresis, showed non-statistically significant better outcomes than those treated with intravenous immunoglobulin. Conclusions: In this group of patients the demyelinated variety of GBS was more common than the axonal type. Although not statistically significant, the better response to plasmapheresis is encouraging and should prompt a controlled study. <![CDATA[<strong>Tratamiento quirúrgico del hiperparatiroidismo asociado a insuficiencia renal crónica</strong>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872015000200006&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Background: Surgery is an effective method for the management of renal hyperparathyroidism. Aim: To report the clinical presentation and results of surgical treatment of renal hyperparathyroidism. Material and Methods: Retrospective analysis of 58 patients aged 46 ± 11 years with secondary hyperparathyroidism (HPT2) and 13 patients aged 53 ± 11 years with tertiary hyperparathyroidism (HPT3), operated at a clinical hospital. Results: In 55 cases (77.4%) the indications for surgery were complications of excess parathyroid hormone (PTH) and in 16 patients (22.6%) a failure of medical treatment. Total parathyroidectomy with intraoperative measurement of PTH (PTHop) plus a forearm parathyroid autograft was performed in 54 (93.1%) patients with HPT2 and in all patients with HPT3. PTHop decreased ≥ 75% in 51 patients (88%) with HPT2 and in 9 patients (69.2%) with HPT3, respectively. Cure of the disease was achieved in 52 (89.7%) and 11 (84.6%) patients with HPT2 and 3, respectively. Median follow-up was 41 months. Five (9.6%) patients with HPT2 and two patients (18.2%) with HPT3 had a recurrence of the disease. Conclusions: In patients with renal hyperparathyroidism, the primary indication for surgery was the presence of complications of PTH excess. A drop in PTHop ≥ 75% from baseline predicts healing in 98% and 100% of cases with secondary or tertiary HPT respectively. Surgery was a safe and effective treatment in both groups. <![CDATA[<strong>Lesiones focales hepáticas benignas</strong>: <strong>un hallazgo frecuente a la tomografía computada</strong>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872015000200007&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Background: Multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) of the abdomen, with use of contrast medium, is able to detect and differentiate most focal liver lesions. Aim: To determine the prevalence and features of benign focal liver lesions (BFLL) detected by abdominal MDCT. Patients and Methods: We reviewed the reports of contrast abdominal MDCT performed to outpatients between August 2011 and July 2012. Clinical data of examined patients and imaging findings in terms of description of the hepatic parenchyma and the presence of BFLL, were recorded. Results: Data from 1,184 studies were analyzed. Of these, 461 studies (38.4%) reported BFLL. The most prevalent lesions were simple cysts in 290 studies (24%) and hemangiomas in 61 studies (5.1%), granuloma-calcification in 39 (3.2%), focal nodular hyperplasia in 19 (1.6%) and one adenoma. If patients with known causes of liver disease were excluded, the prevalence of BFLL did not change substantially (lesions were found in 396 (37.5%) patients). Compared with livers with signs of damage, normal livers had more cystic lesions (27 and 16.2% respectively, p = 0.014) and hemangiomas (5.3 and 1.1% respectively, p = 0.043). Conclusions: BFLL are very common findings in MDCT studies. Most of these lesions are simple cysts and hemangiomas. <![CDATA[<strong>Caracterización clínica de la incontinencia urinaria y factores asociados en usuarias de la Unidad de la Mujer del Centro de Salud Familiar “Ultraestación” en la ciudad de Chillán, Chile</strong>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872015000200008&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Background: It is important to determine the relative importance of urinary incontinence in terms of its prevalence and how it affects the quality of life of women. Aim: To characterize urinary incontinence and factors associated with it in women aged over 30 years. Material and Methods: A survey about urinary incontinence and associated factors was answered by 289 women aged 30 to 81 years, attending a public primary care clinic. Results: The prevalence of urinary incontinence was 62.2%, and it was significantly associated with obesity, diabetes and a history of episiotomy. Conclusions: The high prevalence of urinary incontinence should prompt the implementation of public health measures to prevent and treat it effectively. <![CDATA[<strong>Evaluación de la calidad de vida de pacientes bipolares chilenos</strong>: <strong>propiedades psicométricas y utilidad diagnóstica de la versión chilena del cuestionario Quality of Life Bipolar Disorder (QoL.BD-CL)</strong>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872015000200009&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Background: The Quality of life Bipolar Disorder (QoL.BD) Questionnaire specifically measures quality of life in patients with bipolar disorder. Aim: To adapt a version translated into Spanish of the questionnaire and assess its validity in Chilean patients. Material and Methods: The QoL. BD was adapted to the Chilean population through the back-translation method and then administered to 32 adult patients with a bipolar disorder and 31 subjects without the disease, both groups with similar socioeconomic status. To confirm the diagnosis, the International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI), Young (YMRS) and Hamilton (HAM-D) scales were applied. Quality of life was assessed using the SF-36v.2 survey. We determined internal consistency, reliability, convergent validity, the cut-off point, and the sensibility and specificity of the scale. Results: The Chilean version of the Questionnaire [QoL. BD-CL] had a high reliability (α = 0.95) and a high validity in reference to external criteria (correlation coefficients with SF-36 ranging from 0.453 and 0.819; p < 0.01). A cut-off point of 170, with sensitivity of 87.9% and specificity of 80% was determined. Conclusions: QoL.BD-CL has adequate psychometric properties, as well as an adequate sensitivity and specificity to distinguish between negative and positive perceptions of life quality in Chilean patients with bipolar disorders. <![CDATA[<strong>Avances en el tratamiento de cáncer de próstata resistente a la castración</strong>: <strong>énfasis en nuevas terapias hormonales</strong>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872015000200010&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Prostate cancer represents the second cancer-related cause of death in North American and Chilean men. The main treatment for incurable stages of disease is surgical or pharmacological castration. However, with time and despite the addition of anti-androgens, the disease progresses to a clinical state that has been commonly referred to as “hormone refractory”. In recent years, the concept of hormone refractoriness has been challenged and replaced by “castration resistance”, acknowledging that further and optimal hormonal manipulation can be attained, beyond achieving testosterone levels at castration range. The purpose of this review is to summarize the recent therapeutic breakthroughs in the management of metastatic castrate resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC), with greater emphasis in the newer hormonal therapy agents such as Abiraterone and Enzalutamide. Future combination and sequential treatment strategies are contextualized in the current era of personalized cancer medicine and genomic characterization of prostate cancer. <![CDATA[<strong>Propuesta de reformas a los prestadores públicos de servicios médicos en Chile</strong>: <strong>“fortaleciendo la opción pública”</strong>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872015000200011&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Currently, there is no discussion on the need to improve and strengthen the institutional health care modality of FONASA (MAI), the health care system used by the public services net and by most of the population, despite the widely known and long lasting problems such as waiting lists, hospital debt with suppliers, lack of specialists and increasing services purchase transference to the private sector, etc. In a dichotomous sectorial context, such as the one of health’s social security in Chile (the state on one side and the market on the other), points of view are polarized and stances tend to seek refuge within themselves. As a consequence, to protect the public solution is commonly associated with protecting the “status quo”, creating an environment that is reluctant to change. The author proposes a solution based on three basic core ideas, which, if proven effective, can strengthen each other if combined properly. These are: network financing management, governance of health care services in MAI and investments and human resources in networked self-managed institutions. The proposal of these core ideas was done introducing a reality testing that minimizes the politic complexity of their implementation. <![CDATA[<strong>¿Salud Pública o Privada? Los factores más importantes al evaluar el sistema de salud en Chile</strong>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872015000200012&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Background: There is a great degree of dissatisfaction with the Chilean health care system. Aim: To investigate which are the most relevant perceived factors when the health care system is evaluated. Material and Methods: Analysis of a survey about the Chilean health care system carried out during 2011, 2012 and 2013, involving 2,801 respondents. Results: The response capacity of emergency systems was the main factor considered for the evaluation of public and private health care systems. Respondents who were affiliated to private insurance systems also took into consideration the quality of medical infrastructure. Conclusions: There are different factors considered when public or private health care systems are evaluated. <![CDATA[<strong>Historia de los terrenos del Hospital Clínico y la Facultad de Medicina de la Universidad de Chile</strong>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872015000200013&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es The history of the location of the University of Chile Faculty of Medicine North Campus is derived from a farm of Pedro de Valdivia founder of the city of Santiago de la Nueva Extremadura and governor of the “Reyno de Chile”. This work narrates succinctly the history of this particular location from the Spanish Conquest period to present days. <![CDATA[<strong>Enfisema orbitario espontáneo tras la maniobra de Valsalva</strong>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872015000200014&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Orbital emphysema is a rare complication of orbital and facial trauma, involving the sinuses and occasionally the nasal cavity. Most cases occur as a result of trauma but spontaneous orbital emphysema has been reported. Clinical manifestations are often delayed until the upper airway pressure increases as when blowing or coughing. Along with the fracture, the rupture of the underlying mucosa is essential for emphysema to manifest. We report a 29-years-old male who consulted in the emergency room due to eyelid swelling after a Valsalva maneuver, a couple of hours after suffering a facial injury secondary to a fall. In the presence of eyelid emphysema, the patient underwent craniofacial imaging studies, confirming an ethmoidal lamina papyracea fracture. <![CDATA[<strong>Leucemia mieloide aguda secundaria a inmunosupresores en una paciente trasplantada de pulmón, una inusual y letal entidad</strong>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872015000200015&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Secondary acute myeloid leukemia is a very rare complication in patients with solid organ transplantation. We report a 62 years old female who received a right single lung allograft for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Her immunosuppression scheme consisted in prednisone, azathioprine, and tacrolimus. Two years after the transplantation, she presented with progressive pancytopenia. Bone marrow aspiration was informed as a M4 acute myeloid leukemia, confirmed by flow cytometry. Cytogenetic study was complex, including alterations in chromosome 5. A secondary acute myeloid leukemia was diagnosed. The patient developed nosocomial pneumonia and died a few days after the diagnosis, without specific treatment. The pathogenesis of acute myeloid leukemia is probably related to the intensive exposure to immunosuppressant, especially azathioprine, in these patients. <![CDATA[<strong>Diabetes mellitus e hipertensión</strong>: <strong>importancia del cribado de albuminuria</strong>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872015000200016&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Secondary acute myeloid leukemia is a very rare complication in patients with solid organ transplantation. We report a 62 years old female who received a right single lung allograft for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Her immunosuppression scheme consisted in prednisone, azathioprine, and tacrolimus. Two years after the transplantation, she presented with progressive pancytopenia. Bone marrow aspiration was informed as a M4 acute myeloid leukemia, confirmed by flow cytometry. Cytogenetic study was complex, including alterations in chromosome 5. A secondary acute myeloid leukemia was diagnosed. The patient developed nosocomial pneumonia and died a few days after the diagnosis, without specific treatment. The pathogenesis of acute myeloid leukemia is probably related to the intensive exposure to immunosuppressant, especially azathioprine, in these patients. <![CDATA[<strong>Tensión moral, sistema de salud y formación de profesionales de la salud para Chile</strong>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872015000200017&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Secondary acute myeloid leukemia is a very rare complication in patients with solid organ transplantation. We report a 62 years old female who received a right single lung allograft for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Her immunosuppression scheme consisted in prednisone, azathioprine, and tacrolimus. Two years after the transplantation, she presented with progressive pancytopenia. Bone marrow aspiration was informed as a M4 acute myeloid leukemia, confirmed by flow cytometry. Cytogenetic study was complex, including alterations in chromosome 5. A secondary acute myeloid leukemia was diagnosed. The patient developed nosocomial pneumonia and died a few days after the diagnosis, without specific treatment. The pathogenesis of acute myeloid leukemia is probably related to the intensive exposure to immunosuppressant, especially azathioprine, in these patients. <![CDATA[<strong>CKD in disadvantaged populations</strong>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872015000200018&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Secondary acute myeloid leukemia is a very rare complication in patients with solid organ transplantation. We report a 62 years old female who received a right single lung allograft for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Her immunosuppression scheme consisted in prednisone, azathioprine, and tacrolimus. Two years after the transplantation, she presented with progressive pancytopenia. Bone marrow aspiration was informed as a M4 acute myeloid leukemia, confirmed by flow cytometry. Cytogenetic study was complex, including alterations in chromosome 5. A secondary acute myeloid leukemia was diagnosed. The patient developed nosocomial pneumonia and died a few days after the diagnosis, without specific treatment. The pathogenesis of acute myeloid leukemia is probably related to the intensive exposure to immunosuppressant, especially azathioprine, in these patients. <![CDATA[<strong>Blushing</strong>: <strong>Cuando sonrojarse duele</strong>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872015000200019&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Secondary acute myeloid leukemia is a very rare complication in patients with solid organ transplantation. We report a 62 years old female who received a right single lung allograft for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Her immunosuppression scheme consisted in prednisone, azathioprine, and tacrolimus. Two years after the transplantation, she presented with progressive pancytopenia. Bone marrow aspiration was informed as a M4 acute myeloid leukemia, confirmed by flow cytometry. Cytogenetic study was complex, including alterations in chromosome 5. A secondary acute myeloid leukemia was diagnosed. The patient developed nosocomial pneumonia and died a few days after the diagnosis, without specific treatment. The pathogenesis of acute myeloid leukemia is probably related to the intensive exposure to immunosuppressant, especially azathioprine, in these patients.