Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Revista médica de Chile]]> http://www.scielo.cl/rss.php?pid=0034-988720170006&lang=es vol. 145 num. 6 lang. es <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.cl/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.cl <![CDATA[Declaración sobre compartir datos: un requerimiento del Comité Internacional de Editores de Revistas Médicas]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872017000600691&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es El Comité Internacional de Editores de Revista Médicas (ICMJE) ha tomado la posición que el compartir los datos generados por los ensayos clínicos es una obligación ética, por cuanto los participantes en esos estudios se colocaron en riesgo al aceptar su inclusión. En esta editorial el ICMJE expresa que requerirá desde Julio 2018 que los manuscritos enviados a sus revistas deben incluir una declaración sobre compartir datos. A su vez, los ensayos clínicos que comiencen a enrolar pacientes a partir de Enero 2019, deben incluir un plan sobre compartir datos en el registro de tales ensayos. Se dan en esta declaración cuatro ejemplos de declaraciones sobre compartir datos, referidos a qué datos se compartirán, cuándo estarán disponibles y qué criterios de acceso se establecerán. El ICMJE visualiza un futuro cercano en el cual el compartir los datos será la norma, con el fin de maximizar el conocimiento ganado por los esfuerzos y sacrificios de los participantes. <![CDATA[Evaluación de los índices predictores de eventos adversos en el adulto inmunocompetente hospitalizado por neumonía adquirida en la comunidad]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872017000600694&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Background: Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) causes significant morbidity and mortality in adults. Aim: To compare the accuracy of four validated rules for predicting adverse outcomes in patients hospitalized with CAP. Patients and Methods: We compared the pneumonia severity index (PSI), British Thoracic Society score (CURB-65), SMART-COP and severe CAP score (SCAP) in 659 immunocompetent adult patients aged 18 to 101 years, 52% male, hospitalized with CAP. Major adverse outcomes were: admission to ICU, need for mechanical ventilation (MV), in-hospital complications and 30-day mortality. Mean hospital length of stay (LOS) was also evaluated. The predictive indexes were compared based on sensitivity, specificity, and area under the curve of the receiver operating characteristic curve. Results: Of the studied patients, 77% had comorbidities, 23% were admitted to the intensive care unit and 12% needed mechanical ventilation. The rate of all adverse outcomes and hospital LOS increased directly with increasing PSI, CURB-65, SMART-COP and SCAP scores. The sensitivity, specificity and area under the curve of the prognostic indexes to predict adverse events were: Admission to ICU (PSI: 0.48, 0.84 and 0.73; SMART-COP: 0.97, 0.23 and 0.75; SCAP: 0.57, 0.81 and 0.76); use of MV (PSI: 0.44, 0.84 and 0.75; SMART-COP: 0.96, 0.35 and 0.84; SCAP: 0.53, 0.87 and 0.78); 30-days mortality (PSI: 0.45, 0.97 and 0.83; SMART-COP: 0.94, 0.29 and 0.77; SCAP: 0.53, 0.95 and 0.81). CURB-65 had a lower discriminatory power compared to the other indices. Conclusions: PSI score and SCAP were more accurate and specific and SMART-COP was more sensitive to predict the risk of death. SMART-COP was more sensitive and SCAP was more specific in predicting the use of mechanical ventilation. <![CDATA[Incidencia y letalidad intrahospitalaria por insuficiencia cardiaca en Chile: ¿Existen diferencias por sexo?]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872017000600703&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Background: Gender may influence the incidence, severity and hospital mortality due to heart failure (HF). Aim: To evaluate the influence of sex on the proportion of patients hospitalized due to heart failure, its incidence and hospital mortality. Methods: Analysis of the hospital discharge database of the Chilean Ministry of Health during 2014. All hospital admissions for HF were considered according to ICD-10 codes, including the discharge diagnosis of congestive HF (I500), left ventricular HF (I501) and non-specified HF (I509). Incidence rates, proportion of discharges due to HF and hospital mortality were calculated according to age and sex. Results: During 2014, there were 1,306,431 discharges from Chilean hospitals. Of these, 125,484 were for cardiovascular disease and 10% of these corresponded to HF (12,825). The incidence rate was slightly higher in men than in women (0.71 and 0.70 per 1,000 admissions respectively). Among patients aged 80 years or more, the prevalence of admissions for HF was higher in women (19.1 and 15.9% respectively, p &lt; 0.01). Hospital mortality was also higher in women (9.7 and 8.6% respectively, p = 0.03). The factors associated with a higher hospital mortality were an age over 80 years (Odds Ratio (OR) 2.11; 95% confidence intervals (CI): 1.87-2.40; p &lt; 0.01), a length of stay over seven days (OR 1.13; 95%CI: 1.01-1.29; p = 0.04), being admitted to high complexity facilities (OR 1.29; 95%CI: 1.12-1.50; p = 0.01) and being insured by the public national health fund (OR 1.94; 95%CI: 1.54-2.43; p &lt; 0.01). Conclusions: The incidence of hospital admissions due to HF is similar in men and women. There is high hospital mortality, especially in women. <![CDATA[Factibilidad del uso de bivalirudina como anticoagulante en soporte vital extracorpóreo]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872017000600710&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Background: Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is used with increasing frequency in patients with respiratory and cardiac failure. The achievement of an adequate anticoagulation is critical to avoid patient and circuit complications. Aim: To assess the feasibility and safety of anticoagulation with bivalirudin, as an alternative to unfractionated heparin (UFH), in patient with ECMO. Material and Methods: Observational study, which included all patients receiving anticoagulation with bivalirudin during ECMO, according to a standardized protocol, between august 2015 to May 2016. Results: Bivalirudin was used in 13 out 70 patients connected to ECMO. Ten procedures were for cardiac support and three for respiratory support. Mortality was 43%. ECMO lasted 31 ± 31 days. The time of UFH use before changing to bivalirudin was 7 ± 7 days. The reasons to change to bivalirudin were inadequate levels of partial thromboplastin time (PTT) in nine patients, and heparin induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) in four patients. The time of bivalirudin use was 24 ± 33 days. Per patient, a mean of 2.7 ± 4 oxygenators were changed. These had a useful life of 11.4 and 19.1 days during UFH and bivalirudin use, respectively. The mean bivalirudin dose was 0.08 ± 0.04 mg/kg/h. There was no significant bleeding, thrombosis or circuit obstruction during its use. PTT levels (p &lt; 0.01) and platelet count (p &lt; 0.01) increased significantly after the start of bivalirudin use in patients with UHF resistance and HIT, respectively. Conclusions: Bivalirudin was a safe and efficient drug for anticoagulation during ECMO. It is important to have an alternative drug for anticoagulation in ECMO patients. <![CDATA[Factores asociados al desarrollo de obesidad en Chile: resultados de la Encuesta Nacional de Salud 2009-2010]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872017000600716&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Background: Chile has one of the highest obesity rates in Latin America. However, the factors that could explain this high prevalence of obesity are unknown. Aim: To determine the main risk factors for the development of obesity in Chile. Material and Methods: We included 1,398 obese and 1,478 normal weight participants of the National Health Survey 2009-2010. The risk factors considered were socioeconomic variables, diet, physical activity, comorbidities and general wellbeing. Results: The main factors associated with a higher risk of being obese were age, high salt consumption and high alcohol intake. Education, income and living in rural settings were protective for women and risk factors for men. The probability of being obese increases in women that sleep less than seven hours per day or have a poor health. Sedentariness and lack of physical activity were risk factors among men. Conclusions: The identification of these risk factors may help to implement public health interventions to tackle obesity in Chile. <![CDATA[Desigualdad en recursos financieros de la Atención Primaria de Salud Municipal en Chile, 2001-2013]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872017000600723&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Background: The availability of health care resources is one of the main factors influencing health care inequalities. Aim: To evaluate communal inequality in financial resources for municipal primary care in Chile. Material and Methods: The evolution of income, expenditure and investment per subject enrolled was assessed for the period 2001-2013 in the 320 municipalities that administer municipal health. Inequality was evaluated using Lorenz curves and annual indicators (Gini, Theil, Coefficient of Variation and Reason 90/10). For a panel analysis with fixed effects, the association of these resources with socioeconomic variables and municipal health was evaluated. Results: The Gini of per capita spending increased 1.75 times, while the Gini investment grew by 30%. Per capita spending was significantly and inversely associated with poverty, dependency on the Municipal Common Fund, resources coming from the City Hall, spending per capita, expenses in personnel, performance and investment, rate of years of potential life lost and infant mortality. A direct and significant association was observed with global, less than two years and greater than 64 years urban population, destination of municipal revenue to health, per capita investment in health, rate of healthcare professionals, number of attentions and health care centers and availability of primary emergency facilities. Per capita investment was inversely associated with the number of health care centers and directly to the Fund dependency, municipal health coverage and personnel expenses. Conclusions: Inequality in municipal health funds increased substantially and were associated with social vulnerability, access to municipal health and community health outcomes. <![CDATA[Galectina-3: experiencia en pacientes chilenos con diagnóstico de insuficiencia cardíaca descompensada]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872017000600734&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Background: Galectin-3 (Gal-3) is a mediator of myocardial fibrosis involved in cardiac remodeling and a potential new prognosis marker in heart failure (HF). Aim: To measure Gal-3 at the moment of discharge in patients hospitalized for HF and its association with different variables. Material and Methods: Patients hospitalized for decompensated HF from four hospitals between August 2014 and March 2015, were included. Demographic, clinical and laboratory variables were recorded at the time of admission. At discharge, a blood sample was withdrawn to measure Gal-3 and brain natriuretic propeptide (Pro-BNP). Patients were separated in two groups, according to the level of Gal-3 (using a cutoff value of 17.8 ng/mL), comparing clinical and laboratory values between groups. Results: We included 52 patients with HF aged 70 ± 17 years (42% females). Functional capacity was III-IV in 46% of patients and the ejection fraction was 34.9 ± 13.4%. Pro-BNP values at discharge were 5,323 ± 8,665 pg/mL. Gal-3 values were 23.8 ± 16.6 ng/mL. Sixty percent of patients had values over 17.8 ng/mL. Those with elevated Gal-3 levels were older (75 ±16 and 62 ± 15 years, respectively, p = 0.025) and were hypertensive in a higher proportion (90.5% and 57.1% respectively, p = 0.021). Conclusions: In patients hospitalized for HF, Gal-3 levels are higher in older and hypertensive subjects. <![CDATA[Determinación de la reserva ovárica mediante el recuento de folículos antrales en mujeres en edad reproductiva]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872017000600741&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Background: Age plays a crucial role in women fertility and is related with a decreased oocyte quality and quantity. The evidence for this asseveration comes from data obtained in infertile women. However there is a paucity of studies in patients with proven fertility evaluating ovarian reserve and its decline with time. Aim: To measure antral follicle count (AFC) in probed fertile patients and to create a distribution chart based on variables that may affect its natural decline. Material and Methods: Observational prospective study. A transvaginal ultrasound was made between menstrual cycle days 3 and 5, evaluating AFC in 100 patients, followed during a year. Results: Median antral follicle count media was 14.5 (interval 3 to 26). There was a lineal decline of AFC with age. Women with hypertension and type 2 diabetes mellitus had significantly less follicles. However, a multiple regression analysis showed that only women's age was a significant predictor of AFC (R2 = 0.84). Conclusions: There was a lineal relationship between AFC and age in women with probed fertility. <![CDATA[Escala numérica para evaluar síntomas espirituales en cuidados paliativos]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872017000600747&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Background: Spiritual issues are an important dimension of health care, but seldom addressed by professionals. Thus, a scale that assesses the presence and intensity of seven spiritual symptoms was developed. Aim: To validate the instrument in palliative care settings. Material and Methods: The spiritual symptoms scale was applied to 103 patients, aged 59 ± 17 years (58% women), admitted to hospice care in two centers located in Santiago. The reproducibility of the scale was evaluated in 33 patients and its internal consistency and liability in 70. Results: The Fleiss Kappa to assess reproducibility was 0.82 and the analysis of variance had a p of 0.94. Cronbach alpha to assess internal consistency was 0.74. Conclusions: The scale renders similar results when applied by different evaluators and has a good liability. Therefore, it can be a reliable instrument to assess spiritual symptoms in palliative care settings. Further studies would be needed to verify its utility in other settings. <![CDATA[Tratamiento antibiótico empírico de elección en pacientes con urosepsis secundaria a litiasis ureteral: reporte de sensibilidad local]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872017000600755&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Background: Early inappropriate antibiotic therapy for the management of urosepsis is associated with higher mortality. Therefore, to establish an adequate empirical therapy is crucial. Aim: To determine an optimal antibiotic treatment, adjusted according local bacterial resistance in patients diagnosed with urosepsis secondary to ureteral lithiasis. Material and Methods: Urine cultures and blood cultures from a prospective cohort of patients with ureteral lithiasis admitted for urosepsis in our center between November 2013 and May 2016, were reviewed. Patients who presented two or more criteria of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and positive blood or urine cultures were admitted. Antimicrobial sensitivity patters derived from cultures were analyzed to describe bacterial susceptibility to commonly used antibiotics. Results: Data from 31 patients were analyzed. Seventeen blood cultures (55%) and 29 urine cultures (94%) were positive. The most commonly isolated pathogens were Escherichia coli in 65% of the cultures, followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis and Enterococcus faecalis. After performing an analysis of sensitivity and resistance for all bacteria in both blood and urine cultures, amikacin showed the highest sensitivity (100%), followed by 2nd and 3rd generation cephalosporins. Conclusions: Amikacin demonstrated higher antibiotic sensitivity in comparison to other antibiotics for empirical management of patients with urosepsis secondary to ureteral lithiasis. <![CDATA[Los riesgos de no usar terapia hormonal de la menopausia: deterioro de la calidad de vida]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872017000600760&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Menopause is associated with several symptoms which, if they reach certain intensity, can severely impair the quality of life. Overall, 90.9% of Latin American women will have at least one climacteric symptom and in 25%, these will be severe. Musculoskeletal pain, physical and mental fatigue and depressed mood are the most common climacteric symptoms. Dyspareunia, mood disorders and irritability can significantly alter female sexuality. Hot flashes are the symptoms most frequently related to menopause by both physicians and patients. However, it is one of the less common menopausal symptoms. This symptom reflects the neurochemical brain disorders caused by estrogen deficiency. The central nervous system (CNS) is also involved in changes of body composition leading to higher adipose tissue accumulation during climacterium, deteriorating quality of life and increasing the risk for chronic non-transmittable diseases. Menopausal discomfort also overloads health systems increasing the demand for medical services and decreasing productivity by labor absenteeism. Hormone therapy of menopause (HTM) decreases menopausal symptoms and improves quality of life. If we do not prescribe HTM to those women who need it, we could deprive them from several potential health benefits. <![CDATA[¿Puede el ejercicio físico <em>per se</em> disminuir el peso corporal en sujetos con sobrepeso/obesidad?]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872017000600765&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es The prevalence of overweight and obesity is increasing, creating a public health problem. The loss of approximately 10% of body weight is recommended to reduce the risk of mortality associated with metabolic diseases and to increase the quality of life in adults with overweight or obesity. Non-pharmacological strategies used for weight management are caloric restriction and physical exercise. Nevertheless, the independent effect of physical exercise to decrease body weight is unclear, and could be responsible for only 20% of the weight loss when healthy lifestyles are prescribed. However, exercise has other benefits for health, independent of its weight reducing effect. In fact, physical inactivity is responsible for twice the deaths caused by obesity. The aim of this review is to discuss the importance of physical exercise in the reduction of body weight in subjects with overweight or obesity. <![CDATA[Vigencia del efecto placebo: su biología desde la genética a la conducta]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872017000600775&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es The placebo effect has been seldom studied in the history of medicine. However, during the last decades, the great impact of this phenomenon in clinical practice, ranging from surgical to psychiatric field, has been revealed. Research elucidated both the psychological mechanisms and genetic polymorphisms that affect the susceptibility of individuals to express this phenomenon. We herein review the psychological mechanisms, brain structures (anterior cingulate cortex, nucleus accumbens, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, insular cortex, thalamus) and neurotransmission systems involved (opioid, dopaminergic, cannabinoid, serotoninergic, cholecystokinin). These are the clue to recognize the polymorphisms that have been identified so far. The biological basis of both the placebo effect and its alter ego, the nocebo effect, are well recognized, and related to corresponding psychological processes. Finally, the implications of the findings in clinical practice and medical training are discussed. <![CDATA[Cooperación internacional ¿en qué estamos y hacia dónde vamos?]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872017000600783&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Unmet needs in global health are important issues, not yet solved by the international community. A variety of individuals, non-governmental organizations (NGO) and government institutions have tried to address this situation, developing multiple types of international cooperation (IC), such as humanitarian aid (HA), cooperation for development (CD) and medical missions (MM). In the last decades, we have witnessed an exponential growth in the creation and participation of these projects. Moreover, in the last 20 years, Chile has experimented a real paradigm switch, from a receiver to a provider of IC. Due to the recent surge in interest and relevance of the topic, we performed a narrative revision of the literature related with IC. In the present article, we characterize the different types of IC, with emphasis in MM: we address the risks, controversies and ethical problems associated with these activities. We finally propose some guidelines for the future development and promotion of MM. <![CDATA[El “paciente sano”: desafíos éticos de la medicina preventiva]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872017000600790&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es This paper deals with the phenomenon of the “healthy patient”, an ethical issue receiving increased attention at a global level. The genesis of this phenomenon rests in the contradiction between a higher availability of technical and scientific resources for prevention and, paradoxically, the tendency towards an accelerated classification of healthy people as being at risk of developing disease. This manuscript focus on the ethical implications of the “healthy patient”, using a theoretical and philosophical approach. Therefore, this research aims to set forth the phenomenon of the “healthy patient” and its fundamental ethical problem, interpreting it as a contradiction between the perennial goal of medicine to maintain and promote health and the increasing use of technology. Thus, it can be hypothesized that the early classification of individuals as subjects at risk is a problem of time. Finally an interpretation from a philosophical point of view will be presented to offer a better understanding of the ethical problem of the “healthy patient” and to elucidate possible strategies of action for physicians and their patients. <![CDATA[Monoartritis del codo e infarto óseo como presentación inicial de enfermedad linfoproliferativa]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872017000600795&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es We report a 68-year-old woman presenting with pain and swelling in her left elbow. An elbow magnetic resonance with gadolinium evidenced bone marrow infiltration and a bone infarct. Given these findings, a body CT scan was performed which showed multiple mesenteric adenopathies and a large retroperitoneal mass. A lymph node biopsy confirmed a B cell lymphoma. Monoarthritis with no systemic manifestations represents a highly uncommon form of presentation of lymphoma. Moreover it usually affects inferior limbs, particularly in the presence of bone infarction. <![CDATA[Trasplante hepático por insuficiencia cardíaca secundaria a telangiectasia hemorrágica hereditaria o enfermedad de Rendu Osler Weber. Caso clínico]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872017000600799&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Liver involvement by multiple arterio-venous shunts in hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia can lead to severe heart failure. Total hepatectomy with liver transplantation has emerged as a therapeutic option for severe cases where other therapies have failed. We report a 51-year-old male who underwent a liver transplant for this condition, with full cardiac recovery within the first year after receiving the allograft. Nine years after transplantation, he remains with normal functional capacity and normal liver function tests. <![CDATA[Leucemia linfoblástica aguda con grave alteración hepática como manifestación inicial. Presentación de dos casos y revisión de la literatura]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872017000600804&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Hematological diseases may cause acute hepatic failure and are seldom sought. We report two cases illustrating this situation. A 16-year-old male presented with an acute liver failure: a bone marrow biopsy showed complete infiltration with lymphoid type blasts. A flow cytometry confirmed the presence of an acute lymphoblastic leukemia. The patient died days later. A 20-year-old female presented with acute liver failure: due to a pancytopenia, a bone marrow biopsy was performed, which confirmed the presence of an acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Chemotherapy was started immediately. The patient had a favorable evolution. <![CDATA[Estridor y dificultad respiratoria: aproximación neurológica. Caso clínico]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872017000600808&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Paradoxical vocal cord motion or vocal cord dysfunction is a descriptive term for an inappropriate adduction of the vocal cords during respiration, which can cause respiratory obstruction and stridor. It is associated with psychiatric conditions in the great majority of cases. We report a 23 year-old high performance female athlete, referred for a recurrent bilateral paralysis of the vocal cords, with a history of four intensive care unit admissions for severe dyspnea and stridor, which were treated several times with intubation and with tracheostomy on two occasions. Myasthenia gravis was suspected and she was treated with pyridostigmine and prednisone. She was discharged but despite the treatment, she presented new episodes of stridor and was readmitted six months later. This time the pharmacological treatment was suspended. The neurological study disclosed a normal brain magnetic resonance, normal cerebrospinal fluid analysis and a normal electromyography. A conversion disorder was suspected and the patient was successfully treated with psychotherapy. <![CDATA[Plasmocitoma extramedular. Una rara causa de masa mediastínica]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872017000600812&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Solitary extramedullary plasmacytomas represent 3% of plasma cell neoplasms. Their most common locations are the upper gastrointestinal and respiratory tract. We report a 70-year-old male presenting with progressive dyspnea and cough. A chest radiography showed widened mediastinum. Chest computed tomography showed a mediastinal mass. A bronchoscopy showed an extrinsic compression and complete occlusion of the primary bronchus. A self-expandable prosthesis was installed in left bronchus. A population of plasmacytoid cells was evidenced in the mass biopsy. Immunohistochemistry revealed CD20+ and CD138+. These tumor cells stained positively for lambda light chains, but negatively for kappa chains. Therefore an extramedullary plasmacytoma was diagnosed. A multiple myeloma was discarded with a normal blood count, serum calcium and creatinine levels. Serum protein electrophoresis had a monoclonal spike, serum IgG was 1963 mg/dl. Bone marrow aspiration had 1% of plasma cells. Bone x-rays were normal. Computed tomographies of the neck, thorax, abdomen and pelvis ruled out other plasmacytomas. Eight cycles of chemotherapy with thalidomide, melphalan and prednisone were indicated, obtaining complete remission of the tumor. The review of the literature shows that mediastinal extramedullary plasmacytomas are extremely rare. They generally appear in men aged between 50 and 60 years. The treatment of choice is radiotherapy, but given the location in the present case, chemotherapy was considered the best option. Recurrence is approximately 10 to 30% and 10% of patients progress to myeloma, thus requiring close monitoring. <![CDATA[Rol epidemiológico de <em>Oligoryzomys longicaudatus</em> (ratón colilargo) en tres enfermedades zoonoticas en Chile]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872017000600816&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Solitary extramedullary plasmacytomas represent 3% of plasma cell neoplasms. Their most common locations are the upper gastrointestinal and respiratory tract. We report a 70-year-old male presenting with progressive dyspnea and cough. A chest radiography showed widened mediastinum. Chest computed tomography showed a mediastinal mass. A bronchoscopy showed an extrinsic compression and complete occlusion of the primary bronchus. A self-expandable prosthesis was installed in left bronchus. A population of plasmacytoid cells was evidenced in the mass biopsy. Immunohistochemistry revealed CD20+ and CD138+. These tumor cells stained positively for lambda light chains, but negatively for kappa chains. Therefore an extramedullary plasmacytoma was diagnosed. A multiple myeloma was discarded with a normal blood count, serum calcium and creatinine levels. Serum protein electrophoresis had a monoclonal spike, serum IgG was 1963 mg/dl. Bone marrow aspiration had 1% of plasma cells. Bone x-rays were normal. Computed tomographies of the neck, thorax, abdomen and pelvis ruled out other plasmacytomas. Eight cycles of chemotherapy with thalidomide, melphalan and prednisone were indicated, obtaining complete remission of the tumor. The review of the literature shows that mediastinal extramedullary plasmacytomas are extremely rare. They generally appear in men aged between 50 and 60 years. The treatment of choice is radiotherapy, but given the location in the present case, chemotherapy was considered the best option. Recurrence is approximately 10 to 30% and 10% of patients progress to myeloma, thus requiring close monitoring. <![CDATA[Ampliando oportunidades para promover funcionalidad y prevenir la dependencia en población adulta mayor]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872017000600817&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Solitary extramedullary plasmacytomas represent 3% of plasma cell neoplasms. Their most common locations are the upper gastrointestinal and respiratory tract. We report a 70-year-old male presenting with progressive dyspnea and cough. A chest radiography showed widened mediastinum. Chest computed tomography showed a mediastinal mass. A bronchoscopy showed an extrinsic compression and complete occlusion of the primary bronchus. A self-expandable prosthesis was installed in left bronchus. A population of plasmacytoid cells was evidenced in the mass biopsy. Immunohistochemistry revealed CD20+ and CD138+. These tumor cells stained positively for lambda light chains, but negatively for kappa chains. Therefore an extramedullary plasmacytoma was diagnosed. A multiple myeloma was discarded with a normal blood count, serum calcium and creatinine levels. Serum protein electrophoresis had a monoclonal spike, serum IgG was 1963 mg/dl. Bone marrow aspiration had 1% of plasma cells. Bone x-rays were normal. Computed tomographies of the neck, thorax, abdomen and pelvis ruled out other plasmacytomas. Eight cycles of chemotherapy with thalidomide, melphalan and prednisone were indicated, obtaining complete remission of the tumor. The review of the literature shows that mediastinal extramedullary plasmacytomas are extremely rare. They generally appear in men aged between 50 and 60 years. The treatment of choice is radiotherapy, but given the location in the present case, chemotherapy was considered the best option. Recurrence is approximately 10 to 30% and 10% of patients progress to myeloma, thus requiring close monitoring. <![CDATA[Publicación en revistas científicas estudiantiles. ¿La respuesta a la problemática de dónde publicar en el pregrado?]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872017000600819&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Solitary extramedullary plasmacytomas represent 3% of plasma cell neoplasms. Their most common locations are the upper gastrointestinal and respiratory tract. We report a 70-year-old male presenting with progressive dyspnea and cough. A chest radiography showed widened mediastinum. Chest computed tomography showed a mediastinal mass. A bronchoscopy showed an extrinsic compression and complete occlusion of the primary bronchus. A self-expandable prosthesis was installed in left bronchus. A population of plasmacytoid cells was evidenced in the mass biopsy. Immunohistochemistry revealed CD20+ and CD138+. These tumor cells stained positively for lambda light chains, but negatively for kappa chains. Therefore an extramedullary plasmacytoma was diagnosed. A multiple myeloma was discarded with a normal blood count, serum calcium and creatinine levels. Serum protein electrophoresis had a monoclonal spike, serum IgG was 1963 mg/dl. Bone marrow aspiration had 1% of plasma cells. Bone x-rays were normal. Computed tomographies of the neck, thorax, abdomen and pelvis ruled out other plasmacytomas. Eight cycles of chemotherapy with thalidomide, melphalan and prednisone were indicated, obtaining complete remission of the tumor. The review of the literature shows that mediastinal extramedullary plasmacytomas are extremely rare. They generally appear in men aged between 50 and 60 years. The treatment of choice is radiotherapy, but given the location in the present case, chemotherapy was considered the best option. Recurrence is approximately 10 to 30% and 10% of patients progress to myeloma, thus requiring close monitoring.