Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Revista médica de Chile]]> vol. 144 num. 8 lang. en <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> <![CDATA[<strong><i>It is possible to quit smoking, with help</i></strong>]]> <![CDATA[<strong>Factors associated with success of a smoking cessation program</strong>]]> Background: Smoking cessation therapies include counseling, psychological management and pharmacological therapy. Varenicline is the most effective and safe medication available. Aim: To study risk factors for the failure of pharmacological smoking cessation therapy with varenicline. Patients and Methods: Retrospective analysis of 281 patients aged 45 ± 11 years (65% males) with a mean consumption of 31 ± 22 packs/year. They completed a smoking cessation program comprising psychological support and use of varenicline in a private clinic. Patients were followed with telephonic interviews during one year. A complete abstinence during one year was considered as a success of the program. Results: The success rate of the program was 53.4%. The factors associated with failure were a high tobacco dependence rate determined with the Fageström test (Odds ratio (OR) 2.47, 95% confidence intervals (CI) 1.16-5.26, p = 0.02). An instruction level of more than 12 years was associated with a lower failure rate (OR 0.38 95% CI 0.18-0.82). Conclusions: A high tobacco dependence rate and a lower education were associated with a higher failure rate of this smoking cessation program. <![CDATA[<strong><i>Application of a social capital scale in older women attending public primary care clinics</i></strong>]]> Background: Social capital is an economical idea that refers to connections between individuals and entities that can be economically valuable. Aim: To establish the relationship of social capital as a health care asset, with sociodemographic variables of older women attending public health care services. Material and Methods: Chen’s Personal Social Capital scale was applied to 113 women aged between 64 and 80 years during 2014. Cronbach’s alpha of the instrument was calculated. Results: The Cronbach’s alpha of the instrument was 0.86. The average score for social capital was 23.9 points of a maximum of 50. Bridging capital scores had the higher disparity, specifically in participation in community organizations and the representation of their interest in them. Bonding capital decreased along with a higher age of interviewed women (r = -0,43, p < 0,01). Higher territorial roots were associated with a lower perception of social community resource availability (r = -0,42, p < 0,01). Conclusions: The social capital scores in these women were low. Their better support networks were close relationships and relatives. The sensation of solitude increased with age. <![CDATA[<strong><i>Inverse association of cardiorespiratory fitness with cardiovascular risk factors in Chilean adults</i></strong>]]> Background: A high level of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is an important protector against cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. Aim: To explore the association of CRF with several metabolic markers and estimate the variation of these parameters by an increase of 1 MET change in CRF. Material and Methods: Cross-sectional study of 447 adults (56% women) without medical history of cardiometabolic diseases. Physical activity evaluated using accelerometry, body mass index (BMI), blood pressure, blood glucose and insulin and lipid profile were measured. HOMA-IR was calculated with fasting glucose and insulin levels. The submaximal Chester Step Test was used to measure CRF. Results: CRF was significantly associated with the level and intensity of physical activity, and all metabolic markers (p-trend < 0.05), except with diastolic blood pressure. It was estimated that 1-MET increase in CRF is associated with waist circumference (β -0.32 cm), fat mass (β -0.22%), insulin (β -0.67 pmol.l-1), HOMA-IR (β -0.17) and HDL cholesterol (β +1.46 mg.dl-1). All these associations were independent of main covariates such as age, sex, education, smoking and body mass index. Conclusions: A higher level of CRF is inversely associated with several metabolic markers that are risk factors for cardiovascular disease. <![CDATA[<strong>Requests of laboratory tests for the diagnosis and management of calcium-phosphate disorders in Spain</strong>]]> Background: Knowledge about the variability in the request of calcium-phosphate metabolism laboratory tests in primary care is important to design strategies to improve health system efficiency. Aim: To compare the inter-practice variability in calcium-phosphate metabolism laboratory tests requested by general practitioners from diverse regions across Spain. Material and Methods: One hundred and forty one clinical laboratories were invited to participate in an observational cross-sectional study. They informed the number of serum calcium, phosphate, parathyroid hormone and 25-hydroxyvitamin D requested by general practitioners. Appropriateness indicators were calculated as number of test requests per 1,000 inhabitants and ratio of related tests requests. The differences according to hospital setting, region and type of management were analyzed. Results: We recruited 76 laboratories (17,679,195 inhabitants). General practitioners requested 3,260,894 calcium-phosphate metabolism tests. The rate of request ranged from 2.97 per 1,000 inhabitants for 25-hydroxyvitamin D to 98.89 per 1,000 inhabitants for calcium. The rates of request for calcium, phosphate, parathyroid hormone in some areas were 30, 100 and 340 times higher than in other areas. Parathyroid hormone and 25-hydroxyvitamin D were highly requested in private management areas. There were also differences in phosphate, parathyroid hormone and 25-hydroxyvitamin D requesting between regions across Spain. Conclusions: The high variability observed is difficult to explain by differences in patient case mix between regions. Depending on the area, calcium could be under requested to detect primary hyperparathyroidism.<hr/>Objetivo: Conocer la variabilidad en la solicitud de pruebas de laboratorio en atención primaria es importante para diseñar estrategias que mejoren la eficiencia del sistema de salud. La propuesta de este estudio fue comparar la variabilidad en la solicitud de pruebas para la evaluación del metabolismo fosfocálcico por médicos de atención primaria de diversas regiones de España. Material y Método: Se invitó a participar a 141 laboratorios clínicos de diversas regiones españolas. Completaron una encuesta con el número de determinaciones de calcio, fósforo, hormona paratiroidea y 25-hidroxivitamina D solicitadas por médicos de atención primaria de sus áreas. Se calcularon las tasas en relación a la población y se construyeron indicadores de adecuación. Los resultados se compararon por características del hospital, región y tipo de gestión. Resultados: Obtuvimos los datos de 76 laboratorios (17.679.195 habitantes). Los médicos de atención primaria solicitaron 3.260.894 pruebas de metabolismo fosfocálcico. La tasa de solicitud varió de 2,97 por 1.000 habitantes de 25-hidroxivitamin D a 98,89 por 1.000 habitantes de calcio. Las tasas de calcio, fósforo, hormona paratiroidea en algunas áreas fue 30, 100 y 340 veces más alta respecto a otras. Hormona paratiroidea y 25-hidroxivitamina D fueron más solicitadas significativamente en hospitales con gestión privada. También hubo diferencias en fósforo, hormona paratiroidea y 25-hidroxivitamina D solicitas entre distintas regiones de España. Discusión: La alta variabilidad observada es difícil de explicar por las diferencias de las características de los pacientes. Dependiendo de la región podría haber una infra solicitud para la detección del hiperparatiroidismo primario. <![CDATA[<strong><i>Morbidity profile among adolescents with Down syndrome</i></strong>]]> Background: There is a paucity of information about morbidity and mortality of adolescents with Down syndrome (DS). Aim: To describe morbidity and mortality of a cohort of Chilean adolescents with DS. Material and Methods: Review of electronic clinical records of 67 ambulatory patients with DS aged 10 to 20 years (37 women), seen between the years 2007 and 2014 in outpatient clinics of a University hospital. Results: The mean age at the last consultation was 13 ± 3 years. Ninety-eight percent of patients had a chronic condition: 37.1% where overweight or obese, 58.2% had a congenital heart disease, 11.9% where being evaluated or had the diagnosis of autism and 44.8% had hypothyroidism. Pubertal development was consistent with chronologic age in 93.7% of patients. In three patients puberty had been suppressed. In women, average age of menarche was 12.2 ± 1.1 years. There were no deaths reported. Conclusions: There was a high rate of comorbidities in this group of adolescents with DS, most of them with frequencies comparable to those reported in literature. <![CDATA[<strong><i>Responsiveness of the chilean version of the International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire Short-Form (ICIQ-SF)</i></strong>]]> Background: A symptom questionnaire must be able to detect minimal changes after treatment to be clinically useful. Aim: To evaluate the responsiveness of the Spanish-Chilean version of the ICIQ-SF questionnaire after medical and surgical procedures for the treatment of urinary incontinence (UI) in women consulting at a public Chilean Hospital. Material and Methods: Data of 124 women aged 59 ± 10 years who were treated for UI and in whom ICIQ-SF questionnaire was applied in two opportunities (before and after medical or surgical treatment), was analyzed. The sign test for paired samples was used to compare the response of each item of the questionnaire. Responsiveness of the total severity score for UI was assessed by changes of slopes estimated by Generalized Estimating Equations. Slopes of change for every type of treatment were also compared. Results: Sixty two percent of the women underwent surgical treatment. The slope of the total severity score for medical treatment was -4.4 (p-value < 0.001 for change) and 12.6 (p-value < 0.001 for change) for surgical treatment. Changes in surgical treatment were significantly higher than those of medical treatment (p-value < 0.001). Conclusions: The Spanish-Chilean version of the ICIQ-SF questionnaire was able to detect changes as a result of surgical and medical treatment for urinary incontinence in the study population, fulfilling the validity of responsiveness criterion. <![CDATA[<strong><i>Cleft lip/palate and flour fortification with folic acid in Chile</i></strong>]]> Background: The effect of food fortification with folic acid on the incidence of lip-palate fissures (FLP) is under discussion. Aim: To calculate the rate of hospital discharges due to cleft lip and palate (CLP) and explore whether they decreased after the start of folic acid fortification in Chile. Material and Methods: The hospital discharge databases published by the Chilean Ministry of Health were analyzed. The trends of discharge rates due to CLP of children of less than one year of life (ICD-10 Q350-379 code) and live births (lb) were calculated from 1986 to 2012. Variables such as incidence of rubella, poverty rate, obesity in pregnant women, and percentage of women who smoked or drank alcohol in the last month were included. The relative risk (RR) of CLP pre-fortification (1986-1999) and post-fortification (2000-2010) was calculated. Mixed and Prais-Winsten models were used to adjust other variables. Results: The hospital discharge rate due to CLP decreased from 1.88 x 1,000 lb during 1986-1996 to 1.68 x 1,000 lb (RR = 1.09 (95% CI 1.05-1.14, p < 0.001). Prais-Winsten and Mixed models, determined that folic acid fortification is the variable explaining this decrease. During 2004-2011, hospital discharge rates for cleft lip decreased but there was an increase in the figures for cleft lip and palate. Conclusions: The 9% decrease in hospital discharge rates for CLP is concomitant with wheat folic acid fortification. <![CDATA[<strong><i>A new fetal death classification system</i></strong>]]> Background: Stillbirth is the mayor contributor to perinatal mortality. Aim: To report a system for classification of fetal deaths. Material and Methods: Retrospective cohort study of 29,916 births with 258 fetal deaths that occurred in a public hospital. Data were obtained from audit reports of stillbirths. The method for classification “obstetric condition relevant to the death” was applied, based on obstetric and placental pathological findings analyzed exclusively by a single obstetrician and a single pathologist. Results: Ninety two percent of obstetric conditions causing fetal death were identified. The most commonly reported were ascending bacterial infection in 26%, congenital anomalies in 19%, arterial hypertension in 12% and placental pathology in 12%. Fetal growth restriction was identified in 50% of stillbirths. Ninety percent were secondary to a primary obstetric condition and 10% had an unexplained cause. Placental abruption as the final cause of fetal death was identified in 60% of cases with arterial hypertension, 43% of cases with placental pathology and 37% of ascending infections. Fetal deaths occurred during pregnancy in 82% of cases and during labor in 17%. Intrapartum asphyxia occurred in 0.8% of stillbirths and presented in term pregnancies. Conclusions: The “obstetric condition relevant to the death” method for classification of fetal death is effective to identify the originating obstetric cause of stillbirth and reduces the impact of fetal growth restriction and intrapartum asphyxia as the leading causes of death. <![CDATA[<strong><i>Hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance in children</i></strong>]]> Background: Obesity during childhood is a risk factor for developing cardiovascular diseases during adulthood. Aim: To measure insulin and glucose levels and parameters of insulin resistance in obese, overweight and normal weight Mexican children. Material and Methods: Comparative study of 21 obese children with a body mass index (BMI) over percentile 95, aged 10 ± 1 years (10 males), 14 children aged 10 ± 2 (7 males) with a BMI between percentiles 85 and 94 and 16 children aged 9 ± 2 years (3 males) with a body mass index between percentiles 10 and 84. Body weight, blood pressure and waist circumference were measured and a blood sample was obtained to measure fasting glucose and insulin levels. Homeostasis model of insulin resistance (HOMA) and quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI) were calculated. Results: Among obese, overweight and normal weight children, insulin levels were 14.9 (95% CI 10.90-18.99), 7.20 (CI 5.12-9.28) and 4.73 (CI 95% 1.92-7.53) uU/ml, respectively. The figures for HOMA were 3.16 (95% CI 2.20-4.12), 1.49 (95% CI 1.03-1.94) and 0.97 (95% CI 0.35-1.60), respectively. The figures for QUICKI were 0.331 (95% CI 0.319-0.343), 0.371 (95% CI 0.349-0.393) and 0.419 (95% CI 0.391-0.446), respectively. Compared to their normal weight counterparts, the risk of obese children and those with a waist circumference over percentile 90 of having a HOMA over 3.16 was 17 and 10 times higher, respectively. BMI correlated better than waist circumference with insulin levels. Conclusions: Obese children have higher levels of insulin resistance than their normal weight counterparts. <![CDATA[<strong><i>Aseptic techniques for minor surgical procedures</i></strong>]]> Aseptic techniques are those practices designed to reduce the risk of surgical site infection (SSI), defined as such, all those that occur within the first 30 days of the procedure. While the patient’s risk of developing an SSI in dermatologic surgery is low since many of the procedures are considered sterile, there are different factors associated with an increased or decreased risk of developing SSI. The characteristics of the surgical wound (such as involving infected or inflamed tissue or when breaks in the aseptic technique occur), patient characteristics (such as age, comorbidities, medication use and smoking) and procedure factors (such as setting, surgical technique, type of procedure, duration and body region involved). In this article we discuss the management of potential sources of infections such as personnel (hand washing, dressing), preparation of the patient, maintenance of a clean surgical environment, sterilization and the use of antiseptic solutions. Similarly, the current indications for prophylactic antibiotics for these procedures are considered. <![CDATA[<strong><i>Current evidence on health benefits of the mediterranean diet</i></strong>]]> The Mediterranean diet is currently considered a functional diet with an increasing amount of scientific evidence that supports its beneficial effects in human health. Several observational cross-sectional and prospective cohort studies show an association between this diet and a lower prevalence and incidence of chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, cancer, metabolic syndrome, diabetes, and neurodegenerative diseases as well as a reduced overall mortality. Additionally, clinical interventional studies, particularly the PREDIMED (Prevención con Dieta Mediterránea) initiative, have shown, with high quality scientific evidence, that a Mediterranean diet -supplemented either with olive oil or nuts- can lower by 30% the incidence of cardiovascular disease, reverse the metabolic syndrome, and prevent the development of diabetes and aging-related cognitive decline. Chile has one of the five Mediterranean ecosystems in the world, and therefore the implementation of this food pattern and lifestyle in our country may determine large benefits to the health status and quality of life in the Chilean population. <![CDATA[<strong><i>Conflicts of interest in nephrology</i></strong>]]> Since doctors disposed of effective tools to serve their patients, they had to worry about the proper management of available resources and how to deal with the relationship with the industry that provides such resources. In this relation­ship, health professionals may be involved in conflicts of interest that they need to acknowledge and learn how to handle. This article discusses the conflicts of interest in nephrology. Its objectives are to identify those areas where such conflicts could occur; to help to solve them, always considering the best interest of patients; and to help health workers to keep in mind that they have to preserve their autonomy and professional integrity. Conflicts of interest of professionals in the renal area and related scientific societies, with the industry producing equipment, supplies and drugs are reviewed. Dichotomy, payment for referral, self-referral of patients and incentives for cost control are analyzed. Finally, recommendations to help preserve a good practice in nephrology are made. <![CDATA[<strong><i>Perceptions of faculty members and students about undergraduate training in primary health care</i></strong>]]> Background: It is unknown if medical education is preparing physicians to successfully work at primary health care settings. Aim: To explore what are the perceptions of faculty members and students about the type of physician needed and if medical education is coherent with the practice of primary health care. Material and Methods: Fifteen semi-structured interviews to key informants from faculty members and ten focus groups with students were carried out. Results: Important influences of role modelling and hidden curriculum were found, especially in relation to the type of physician needed, generalist or specialist, and in relation to the places where the clinical practices were done. Although primary health care was declared in the profiles, most of clinical practices were done at hospitals and supervised by specialists. Working at primary health care is seen as a temporary work, not valued by professionals nor by the society. Conclusions: Medical Schools are not preparing professionals for primary health care but for hospital care and specialized medicine. <![CDATA[<strong><i>Conflict of interest disclosure as a tool to improve the reliability of research</i></strong>]]> Conflicts of interest are situations in which professional judgment concerning a primary interest, tends to be influenced by a secondary interest. These conflicts could compromise the reliability of biomedical research and result in the dissemination of biased results. Therefore, it is essential to protect the integrity of them, because this information could be used in the development of health policy, medical education and clinical decision making. Conflicts of interest disclosure, is a bioethical tool that contributes to transparent these conflicts, but it is used inappropriately and insufficiently. To be useful, it must be based on clear principles, it should help to perform a critical analysis and should be considered in the design of every research project. This review is an analysis of the conflicts of interest disclosure, its scope and limitations and should contribute to develop a greater awareness of its importance. <![CDATA[<strong><i>Gastrointestinal bezoars</i></strong>]]> Gastrointestinal bezoars are a concretion of indigested material that can be found in the gastrointestinal tract of humans and some animals. This material forms an intraluminal mass, more commonly located in the stomach. During a large period of history animal bezoars were considered antidotes to poisons and diseases. We report a historical overview since bezoars stones were thought to have medicinal properties. This magic conception was introduced in South America by Spanish conquerors. In Chile, bezoars are commonly found in a camelid named guanaco (Lama guanicoe). People at Central Chile and the Patagonia believed that bezoar stones had magical properties and they were traded at very high prices. In Santiago, during the eighteenth century the Jesuit apothecary sold preparations of bezoar stones. The human bezoars may be formed by non-digestible material like cellulose (phytobezoar), hair (trichobezoar), conglomerations of medications or his vehicles (pharmacobezoar or medication bezoar), milk and mucus component (lactobezoar) or other varieties of substances. This condition may be asymptomatic or can produce abdominal pain, ulceration, gastrointestinal bleeding, gastric outlet obstruction, perforation and mechanical intestinal obstruction. We report their classification, diagnostic modalities and treatment. <![CDATA[<strong><i>Persistent elevation of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) due to the presence of macro-AST</i></strong>: <strong><i>Report of one case</i></strong>]]> We report an asymptomatic 23-year-old woman with an isolated and persistent increase in serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST). An extensive work up including laboratory and image testing revealed no abnormalities thus suggesting the presence of macro-AST. A polyethylene glycol (PEG) precipitation assay was performed and confirmed the presence of macro-AST. <![CDATA[<strong><i>Toxic encephalopathy caused by liquefied gas exposure</i></strong>: <strong><i>Report of one case</i></strong>]]> Liquefied hydrocarbon gas, such as propane is considered safe. However there are reports that voluntary exposure to liquefied gas at least could originate hallucinatory states. We report a 20 years old woman who was found in a coma with extensor muscle hypertonia, brisk tendon reflexes and extensor plantar (Babinski) responses after being exposed to propane gas. The brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed lesions in both hippocampi and white matter in the oval center. The patient had a normal oxygen saturation of 98%, a carboxyhemoglobin of 1.6% and a metabolic acidosis with a pH of 7.01 with an anion gap of 16 mEq/l. This pattern suggested that it was a consequence of the intermediary metabolism of isopropanol. The recovery of the patient was slow and four months later she still had lesions on MRI and limitations in her cognitive sphere, memory and executive functions. Thus, liquefied gas exposure can cause a toxic encephalopathy with a persistent damage of the central nervous system. <![CDATA[<strong><i>Lymphocytic colitis in a patient with ulcerative colitis</i></strong>: <strong><i>Report of one case</i></strong>]]> The relationship between Microscopic Colitis and Inflammatory Bowel Disease is unclear. However, when both are diagnosed they seem to be part of a broader spectrum of the same disease, more than just a coincidence. We report a 55 years old woman with Ulcerative Colitis limited to the rectum with complete clinical and endoscopic response to standard treatment and adequate surveillance for 13 years, who abandoned treatment and control. After eight years, she consulted for mild-to-moderate non-bloody diarrhea lasting several months. Colonoscopy and basic laboratory did not show any alterations. Nevertheless, random biopsies had a characteristically pattern compatible with Lymphocytic Colitis. After the first week of treatment with budesonide the patient was asymptomatic and still in clinical remission, with negative fecal calprotectin at 6 months’ follow-up. <![CDATA[<strong>Research on migration and health in Chile</strong><strong>: </strong><strong>pushing forward</strong>]]> The relationship between Microscopic Colitis and Inflammatory Bowel Disease is unclear. However, when both are diagnosed they seem to be part of a broader spectrum of the same disease, more than just a coincidence. We report a 55 years old woman with Ulcerative Colitis limited to the rectum with complete clinical and endoscopic response to standard treatment and adequate surveillance for 13 years, who abandoned treatment and control. After eight years, she consulted for mild-to-moderate non-bloody diarrhea lasting several months. Colonoscopy and basic laboratory did not show any alterations. Nevertheless, random biopsies had a characteristically pattern compatible with Lymphocytic Colitis. After the first week of treatment with budesonide the patient was asymptomatic and still in clinical remission, with negative fecal calprotectin at 6 months’ follow-up.