Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Revista médica de Chile]]> http://www.scielo.cl/rss.php?pid=0034-988720150003&lang=en vol. 143 num. 3 lang. en <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.cl/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.cl <![CDATA[<strong>Totally laparoscopic gastrectomy for the treatment of gastric tumors</strong>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872015000300001&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Background: The laparoscopic approach for the treatment of gastric tumors has many advantages. Aim: To evaluate the results of a laparoscopic gastrectomy program developed in a public hospital. Patients and Methods: Retrospective review of epidemiological, perioperative and follow-up data of patients who were treated with a laparoscopic gastrectomy due to gastric tumors between 2006 and 2013. A totally laparoscopic technique was used for all cases. Complications were evaluated according to the Clavien-Dindo classification. Results: Fifty one patients, aged 65 (36-85) years, underwent a laparoscopic gastrectomy. In 22 patients a total gastrectomy was performed. Conversion rate to open surgery was 8%. Operative time was 330 (90-500) min and bleeding was 200 (20-500) ml. Median hospital stay was 7 (3-37) days. Postoperative morbidity was present in 17 (33%) patients, 3 (6%) patients had complications grade 3 or higher and one patient died (1.9%). Tumor pathology was adenocarcinoma in 39 patients. A complete resection was achieved in 97%. Twenty nine patients (74%) with gastric adenocarcinoma had early gastric cancer and 84% of patients were in stage one. Median lymph node count was 24. Median follow-up was 26 (1-91) months. There was no cancer related mortality among patients subjected to a curative resection. Overall survival for patients with adenocarcinoma was 92% at 3 years. Conclusions: This study supports the feasibility and safety of a laparoscopic gastrectomy program in a public hospital; with low morbidity, adequate lymph node dissection and long-term survival. This approach must be considered an option for selected patients with gastric cancer. <![CDATA[<strong>Resistance exercise improves serum lipids in adult women</strong>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872015000300002&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Background: Sedentariness is one of the main cardiovascular risk factors. Aerobic exercise can reduce the risk; however, resistance training seems to be more effective in reducing cardiovascular risk. Aim: To determine the metabolic effects of a 12 weeks resistance training program of high intensity and low volume in two groups of sedentary adult women. Material and methods: Forty women aged between 30 and 60 years were randomly assigned to an experimental group and a control group. Four kinds of strength exercises, using their own body weight were chosen. Plasma lipid profile and body composition were measured at baseline and at the end of the intervention. Results: A reduction in total cholesterol and triacylglycerol and an increase in HDL cholesterol was observed in the experimental group after the training program. Conclusions: The high intensity and low volume training improved plasma lipid profile in this group of women. <![CDATA[<strong>Age of onset of puberty in Chilean boys according to testicular volume and Tanner stage</strong>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872015000300003&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Background: A secular trend towards a younger age of puberty onset has been reported in Chilean girls. Aim: To evaluate the age of onset of puberty and prevalence of early puberty in Chilean boys. Material and Methods: A pediatric endocrinologist examined 319 children attending schools in central Santiago. Pubertal development was assessed by testicular volume (TV) and genital inspection (GI) using Tanner graduation. Precocious and early puberty development was diagnosed if TV ≥ 4 ml or GI &gt; stage 2 occurred in boys younger than 9 years and at 9-10 years of age, respectively. Results: Pubertal onset occurred at 10.2 ± 1.5 years according to TV and at 11.1 ± 1.6 years according to GI (p < 0.01). Before the age of nine, 15.2% of children had a VT ≥ 4 ml, 3% had genital changes in GI and only 3% had both changes simultaneously. Early puberty was observed in 23.8% of children according to TV and 9.5% according to GI. However, no child of less than 11 years old had a TV ≥ 4 ml, genital changes and pubic hair simultaneously. Late pubertal stages occurred at the same age according to both criteria used. Body mass index z score was not associated with the age of pubertal onset. Conclusions: Testicular enlargement occurs one year earlier than changes in genitalia according to inspection. Testicular growth, but not late stages of puberty, are occurring one year earlier than previously reported in Chile 10 years ago. <![CDATA[<strong>Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy</strong>: <strong>Report of seven patients</strong>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872015000300004&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Background: Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy is the third most common muscular dystrophy with an estimated prevalence of 1 per 20.000 and a normal life expectancy in the majority of patients. However, approximately 15% of patients become wheelchair bound in the course of their life. It is a hereditary autosomal dominant disease with high (95%) penetrance by the age of 20, but with variable degree of phenotypic expression even in the same family group. Symptoms frequently start in the second decade of life, with facial and scapular weakness. Aim: To report the clinical features of seven patients with the disease, seen at a public hospital. Material and Methods: Analysis of seven patients with genetic study seen in a public Hospital in Santiago. Results: The age of patients fluctuated from 18 to 61 years and four were females. The mean age at onset of symptoms was 29 years and four had a family history of the disease. The usual presenting complaint was arm or shoulder asymmetric weakness. Four patients had bone pain. Facial involvement was present in four. A genetic study was done in five patients, the other two patients were relatives, confirming the contraction or lower number of repetitions in D4Z4 region. After 12 years of follow up only 2 patients older than 60 years cannot work and one female patients is in a semi dependent state at the age of 30. Conclusions: The clinical workup in the diagnosis and the timely indication of genetic studies are highlighted, to avoid unnecessary and invasive procedures. The variability in the phenotypic expression in a similar genetic defect is discussed and the genetic or epigenetic mechanisms of this muscular dystrophy are described. <![CDATA[<strong>Molecular analysis of sporadic colon cancer</strong>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872015000300005&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Background: In Chile, colorectal cancer (CRC) is often diagnosed in late stages. Thus, surgical treatment must be complemented with chemotherapy. KRAS mutations and microsatellite instability have been detected in these tumors. However, the response to treatment in patients without KRAS mutations varies and requires a better understanding. Aim: To determine the frequency and distribution of somatic point mutations in KRAS, BRAF and PIK3CA genes and microsatellite instability status (MSI) in patients with colon cancer (CC). Material and Methods: A prospective observational study of patients undergoing surgery for colon cancer. Tumor-derived DNA was analyzed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the most frequent mutations of KRAS, BRAF and PIK3CA. PCR was also used to analyze MSI. Results: Fifty-eight patients with sporadic CC were analyzed, 16 showed KRAS mutations (G12R, G12D, G12V, G13D) and out of the 42 patients that did not show any mutation, 10 had mutations in BRAF (V600E) and PIK3CA (E542K, E545D, E545K, Q546E, H1047R). BRAF mutations alone or in combination with PIK3CA mutations were observed in 27% of high MSI tumors and in 2% of tumors without instability (p < 0.049). A higher percentage of high MSI tumors were located in the right colon (p < 0.001), and showed BRAF mutation (p < 0.020). Conclusions: The highest percentage of high MSI and BRAF mutations was observed in the right colon. Therefore, this study suggests the presence of different molecular features between right and left colon tumors that should be considered when defining the therapeutic management. <![CDATA[<strong>Suicide attempts among Chilean adolescents</strong>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872015000300006&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Background: Suicide mortality rates are increasing among teenagers. Aim: To study the prevalence and predictive factors of suicide attempts among Chilean adolescents. Material and Methods: A random sample of 195 teenagers aged 16 ± 1 years (53% males) answered an anonymous survey about their demographic features, substance abuse, the Osaka suicidal ideation questionnaire, Smilksten familial Apgar. Beck hopelessness scale, Beck depression scale and Coppersmith self-esteem inventory. Results: Twenty five percent of respondents had attempted suicide at least in one occasion during their lives. These attempts were significantly associated with female gender, absent parents, family dysfunction, drug abuse, smoking, low self-esteem, hopelessness, depression and recent suicidal ideation. A logistic regression analysis accepted female gender, smoking and recent suicidal ideation as significant independent predictors of suicide attempt. Conclusions: Suicide attempted is common among teenagers and its predictors are female sex, smoking and previous suicidal ideation. <![CDATA[<strong>Assessment for learning</strong>: <strong>experience in an undergraduate medical theoretical course</strong>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872015000300007&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Background: Assessment for learning is a paradigm that is taking shape in the field of medical education. This approach aims to embed the assessment process within the educational and learning process. Aim: To evaluate the impact of curricular changes, from a focus of assessment of learning to one of assessment for learning, in the perception of undergraduate students of medicine and their final grades obtained in a theoretical course (TCG). Material and Methods: In the year 2011 lectures were reduced and intermediate assessments followed by a feedback session were introduced. The activities of each program course, surveys about student perceptions of the course and the final grades of students (assessments with multiple choice questions) were compared between the periods prior and after curricular changes (2005-2010 and 2011-2013). Results: As a consequence of curricular changes, time for lectures was reduced by 19.5%, time for summative assessments was increased by 8.5%, and feedback activity, occupying 7.3% of the course time was added. There were significant improvements in student is perceptions in all areas assessed by surveys, emphasizing feedback and assessments. The overall grade assigned to the course dictated after implementing the changes increased from 6.18 to 6.59 (p < 0.001, 1-7 scale). The grades of students also improved from an average of 5.78 to 6.43 (p < 0.001, 1-7 scale). Conclusions: Assessment for learning achieved the desired educational impact without increasing the assigned curricular time. Programmatic assessment is favorably perceived by students. <![CDATA[<strong>Health and humanization Diploma</strong>: <strong>the value of reflection and face to face learning</strong>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872015000300008&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Background: In a rapidly changing culture like ours, with emphasis on productivity, there is a strong need to find the meaning of health care work using learning instances that privilege reflection and face to face contact with others. The Diploma in Health and Humanization (DSH), was developed as an interdisciplinary space for training on issues related to humanization. Aim: To analyze the experience of DSH aiming to identify the elements that students considered key factors for the success of the program. Material and Methods: We conducted a focus group with DSH graduates, identifying factors associated with satisfaction. Transcripts were coded and analyzed by two independent reviewers. Results: DSH graduates valued a safe space, personal interaction, dialogue and respect as learning tools of the DSH. They also appreciates the opportunity to have emotional interactions among students and between them and the teacher as well as the opportunity to share personal stories and their own search for meaning. Discussion: DSH is a learning experience in which their graduates value the ability to think about their vocation and the affective interaction with peers and teachers. We hope to contribute to the development of face to face courses in the area of humanization. Face to face methodology is an excellent teaching technique for contents related to the meaning of work, and more specifically, to a group of learners that require affective communication and a personal connection of their work with their own values and beliefs. <![CDATA[<strong>Professional liability claims against dentists</strong>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872015000300009&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Background: The frequency and features of malpractice lawsuits against dentists in Chile are not well known. Aim: To determine the magnitude and frequency of professional liability claims against dentists. Material and Methods: A retrospective analysis of the Medical Liability Unit of the Legal Medical Service of Chile database. This public organization deals with most professional liability claims in Chile. Results: Between 2007 and 2012, 3,990 expert opinions about liability of health care professionals were requested. Odontology was the fifth specialty most commonly sued and dentists, the second most frequently sued professionals. Sixty nine percent of cases originated in private clinics, which is coincident with a higher frequency of dentists working in private practice. Most petitioners were adult women and most claims originated from surgical interventions and infections. In 35% of claims against dentists, a violation of Lex Artis was confirmed, compared with 9% of all expert opinions that generated in the unit. Conclusions: Claims against dentists are more common than previously thought and these professionals should adopt preventive measures to avoid them. <![CDATA[<strong>Clinical implications of the “war against cancer”</strong>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872015000300010&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en This article discusses the origin and implications of the “war on cancer” metaphor. Commonly present in mass media, the “war on cancer” notion circulates also among patients, their loved ones, their support networks, and oncological multidisciplinary teams. In our view when cancer is uprooted of its illness status, and conceptualized as an “enemy”, myths about disease and those who suffer it (especially the idea of psychogenesis) are strengthened. Two topics in which the war metaphor is particularly problematic in the clinical context, are analyzed in depth. The first one is the relationship between the oncologic patient and his or her loved ones and support networks. When patients are insistently prompted to fight the disease and think positive, the expression of emotions associated to the adaptive process of receiving a diagnosis of cancer may be inhibited. Secondly, the war metaphor promotes an authoritarian view among the health teams and on the physician-patient relationship, undermining the patent’s autonomy in the decision-making process, which may affect his global quality of life. Also, it encourages emotional isolation, concealment of psychiatric symptoms and conspiracies of silence. It is concluded that public policies to avoid the “war on” notion are required. Instead, education of the general population about wrong beliefs about cancer should be encouraged. <![CDATA[<strong>Some current threats to confidentiality in medicine</strong>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872015000300011&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Social, technical and legal conditions of the current practice of medicine make it necessary to insist on certain actions and circumstances that may jeopardize the confidentiality of information, offered by patients to their health providers. Therefore, some effects of the current Chilean law are analyzed in this respect, regarding access to data from the clinical record of a patient. Also, the risks of putting certain data on social networking sites are analyzed, as well as some of its effects on clinical practice. The reasons because of mandatory reporting of diseases, meaning danger to public health, is allowed, are mentioned. We also discuss the difficulties involved in managing the results of preventative health screenings and its knowledge by third parties, as well as some possible violations of personal privacy, regarding dissemination of some people health information and its further mention or figuration in mass media. We conclude that it is a must for both physicians and other health team members, to safeguard confidentiality of data to which they have had access, as well as the need to know the relevant law, in order to respect human dignity of patients, each one as a person. We address the attention to the possibility that, practicing in a different way, it could endanger the reliability of clinical records, also impairing the quality of people’s health care. <![CDATA[<strong>Association between non-nutritive sweeteners and obesity risk among university students in Latin America</strong>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872015000300012&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Background: The association between non-nutritive sweeteners and obesity is controversial. Aim: To determine whether the consumption of non-nutritive sweeteners is related to higher risk for overweight or obesity among university students in Chile, Panama, Guatemala and Peru. Material and Methods: A total of 1,224 (472 from Chile, 300 from Panama, 248 from Guatemala and 204 from Peru) male and female university students aged between 18 and 26 years participated in the study. Each student reported their food intake (frequency of weekly consumption) in a survey that contained photos of foods containing non-nutritive sweeteners adapted for each country. Anthropometry was also measured. Results: More than 80% of students consumed at least one product containing non-nutritive sweeteners. Females who ate acesulfame potassium and sucralose had a lower risk of overweight or obesity with an odds ratio (OR) of 0.5 (confidence intervals (CI) = 0.3-0.9; p = 0.003) and OR = 0.4 (IC = 0.2-0.8; p = 0.01), respectively. Conclusions: In this sample of Latinamerican university students, consumption of non-nutritive sweeteners was associated with lower risk of overweight only in females. <![CDATA[<strong>Factors associated with self-directed learning among medical students</strong>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872015000300013&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Background: Self-directed learning is a skill that must be taught and evaluated in future physicians. Aim: To analyze the association between self-directed learning, self-esteem, self-efficacy, time management and academic commitment among medical students. Material and methods: The self-directed learning, Rosemberg self-esteem, general self- efficacy, time management and Utrecht work engagement scales were applied to 297 first year medical students. Results: A multiple regression analysis showed a significant association between self-efficacy, time management and academic commitment with self-directed learning. Self-esteem and satisfaction with studies did not enter in the model. Conclusions: self-esteem, academic commitment and a good time management were associated with self-directed learning in these students. <![CDATA[<strong>Ivemark syndrome-a rare entity with specific anatomical features</strong>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872015000300014&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Ivemark syndrome (IS) is a rare embryological disorder which results from failure of development of the left-right asymmetry of organs. It is often associated with cardiac and other organ abnormalities, which are the usual causes of death in early neonatal life. We report a 3 months old girl with IS with dextrocardia, transposition of the great vessels, atrio-ventricular connection, total anomalous pulmonary venous drainage, a right atrial and right pulmonary isomerism, a midline liver, a midline gallbladder, asplenia, intestinal malrotation and vena cava anomalies. To our knowledge, complete right heterotaxia syndrome has been rarely described in literature. Lateralization defects such as situs inversus, asplenia or polysplenia due to defective left-right axis development are considered as defects of the primary developmental field. Therefore, additional malformations in IS can be synchronic defects in the primary developmental field rather than causally independent malformations.<hr/>El síndrome de Ivermark es un desorden embriológico raro resultante de una falla en el desarrollo de la asimetría izquierda y derecha de los órganos. Usualmente se asocia con anomalías cardíacas y de otros órganos, que son la causa usual de muerte en la vida neonatal. Presentamos una niña de 3 meses con dextrocardia, trasposición de los grandes vasos, comunicación aurículo-ventricular, drenaje anómalo total de la vena pulmonar, isomerismo de la aurícula y pulmón derecho, hígado y vesícula en la línea media, asplenia, malrotación intestinal y anomalías de la vena cava. Una heterotaxia derecha completa ha sido raramente descrita en la literatura. Los defectos de lateralización como situs inverso, asplenia o poli esplenia causados por defectos en el desarrollo izquierda derecha son considerados como defectos del campo de desarrollo primario. Por lo tanto, las manifestaciones adicionales del síndrome de Ivemark pueden ser defectos sincrónicos del campo de desarrollo primario más que malformaciones causalmente independientes. <![CDATA[<strong>Emphysematous cystitis</strong>: <strong>Report of one case</strong>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872015000300015&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Emphysematous cystitis is found in diabetic patients and in individuals with urinary stasis and immunosuppression. We report a 58-year-old male with hypertension, type 2 Diabetes on insulin treatment and central nervous system vasculitis on immunosuppressive therapy. He was admitted with weight loss and gait instability. A PET-CT showed a circumscribed image of air in the bladder contour without involving the upper urinary tract, suggesting emphysematous cystitis. Re-interrogated, the patient referred pneumaturia, dysuria and febrile sensation one week before admission. Urine culture showed Enterobacter aerogenes. He was treated with a urinary catheter, metabolic control and parenteral antimicrobials. The patient was discharged without symptoms 21 days after admission, with the bladder catheter. <![CDATA[<strong>Non-fatal hyperkalemia in lactic acidosis due to metformin overdose. Report of one case</strong>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872015000300016&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en We report a 74-year-old man with diabetes mellitus type 2 and hypertension, who recently underwent coronary bypass surgery due to severe triple vessel disease receiving cardiological and combined antidiabetic therapy, including metformin 4 g/day. He was admitted with abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea and loss of consciousness. At admission, he was disoriented and agitated with signs of poor perfusion. His blood pressure was 80/70 mmHg, pulse rate 40 beats/min, respiratory rate 20-breaths/min, and axillary temperature 35°C. Biochemical profile revealed an extreme hyperkalemia of 15.4 mEq/L (double checked), elevated creatinine, uremia and brain natriuretic peptide; hypoglycemia (blood glucose 68 mg/dl) and normal C Reactive Protein. Arterial blood gases revealed severe lactic acidemia. The electrocardiogram showed sinus bradycardia, simple AV block, widened QRS with prominent T wave and prolonged QT. He was admitted to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) with the suspicion of lactic acidosis associated with metformin, receiving fluid management, intravenous hypertonic glucose plus insulin and sodium bicarbonate, mechanical ventilation, vasopressor therapy, a temporary pacemaker lead, in addition to continuous venovenous hemodiafiltration. Two days later, the patient experienced a significant clinical improvement with normalization of the acid-base status, plasma lactate and potassium levels. On day 9, diuresis was recovered, creatinine and uremia returned to normal levels and the patient was discharged from the ICU. <![CDATA[<strong>Cervical macroadenoma causing hyperparathyroidism</strong>: <strong>Report of one case</strong>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872015000300017&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en We report a 59-year-old man with a history of hypertension, recurrent renal stones and a severe hypercalcemia of 14.9 mg/dl with a serum phosphorus of 2.4 mg/dl and a serum albumin of 3.6 g/dl. Physical examination showed a 4 cm left cervical nodule, consistent with the diagnosis of thyroid nodule. Parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels were 844 pg/mL (normal 15-65 pg/ml) and a cervical ultrasound examination disclosed a solid nodule in the lower left lobe of 40 x 30 x 25 mm, adjacent to the thyroid parenchyma. Abdominal ultrasound revealed bilateral renal stones. Parathyroid scintigraphy showed a high uptake of the left lower parathyroid mass and a bone densitometry showed bone density t scores of -1.2 in the spine, -2.0 in the right femoral neck and -3.5 in the distal radius. A review of his medical record revealed the presence of hypercalcemia for at least 4 years. He was admitted for hydration and administration of 4 mg zoledronic acid iv. At 24 hours, serum calcium dropped to 11.0 mg/dl, and a left thyroid lobectomy was performed including the lower left parathyroid gland. The pathology report showed a 22.6 g parathyroid adenoma. Intraoperatory PTH descended > 50%, consistent with successful parathyroidectomy. At 7 days after surgery serum calcium was 8.8 mg/dl, phosphorus 2.1 mg/dl, alkaline phosphatase 166 U/L, albumin 3.9 g/dL, PTH 230 pg/ml and 25-OH vitamin D 12.4 ng/ml. This finding was interpreted as secondary hyperparathyroidism due to vitamin D deficiency and “hungry bone”, being less likely the presence of residual or metastatic parathyroid tissue. A cholecalciferol load was administered, with significant descent of PTH. <![CDATA[<strong>Cultural Competence in health</strong>: <strong>an urgent need for health workers</strong>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872015000300018&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en We report a 59-year-old man with a history of hypertension, recurrent renal stones and a severe hypercalcemia of 14.9 mg/dl with a serum phosphorus of 2.4 mg/dl and a serum albumin of 3.6 g/dl. Physical examination showed a 4 cm left cervical nodule, consistent with the diagnosis of thyroid nodule. Parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels were 844 pg/mL (normal 15-65 pg/ml) and a cervical ultrasound examination disclosed a solid nodule in the lower left lobe of 40 x 30 x 25 mm, adjacent to the thyroid parenchyma. Abdominal ultrasound revealed bilateral renal stones. Parathyroid scintigraphy showed a high uptake of the left lower parathyroid mass and a bone densitometry showed bone density t scores of -1.2 in the spine, -2.0 in the right femoral neck and -3.5 in the distal radius. A review of his medical record revealed the presence of hypercalcemia for at least 4 years. He was admitted for hydration and administration of 4 mg zoledronic acid iv. At 24 hours, serum calcium dropped to 11.0 mg/dl, and a left thyroid lobectomy was performed including the lower left parathyroid gland. The pathology report showed a 22.6 g parathyroid adenoma. Intraoperatory PTH descended > 50%, consistent with successful parathyroidectomy. At 7 days after surgery serum calcium was 8.8 mg/dl, phosphorus 2.1 mg/dl, alkaline phosphatase 166 U/L, albumin 3.9 g/dL, PTH 230 pg/ml and 25-OH vitamin D 12.4 ng/ml. This finding was interpreted as secondary hyperparathyroidism due to vitamin D deficiency and “hungry bone”, being less likely the presence of residual or metastatic parathyroid tissue. A cholecalciferol load was administered, with significant descent of PTH. <![CDATA[<strong>Ninety years after the foundation of the first School of Social Work in Chile and Latin America by Alejandro del Río M.D.</strong>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872015000300019&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en We report a 59-year-old man with a history of hypertension, recurrent renal stones and a severe hypercalcemia of 14.9 mg/dl with a serum phosphorus of 2.4 mg/dl and a serum albumin of 3.6 g/dl. Physical examination showed a 4 cm left cervical nodule, consistent with the diagnosis of thyroid nodule. Parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels were 844 pg/mL (normal 15-65 pg/ml) and a cervical ultrasound examination disclosed a solid nodule in the lower left lobe of 40 x 30 x 25 mm, adjacent to the thyroid parenchyma. Abdominal ultrasound revealed bilateral renal stones. Parathyroid scintigraphy showed a high uptake of the left lower parathyroid mass and a bone densitometry showed bone density t scores of -1.2 in the spine, -2.0 in the right femoral neck and -3.5 in the distal radius. A review of his medical record revealed the presence of hypercalcemia for at least 4 years. He was admitted for hydration and administration of 4 mg zoledronic acid iv. At 24 hours, serum calcium dropped to 11.0 mg/dl, and a left thyroid lobectomy was performed including the lower left parathyroid gland. The pathology report showed a 22.6 g parathyroid adenoma. Intraoperatory PTH descended > 50%, consistent with successful parathyroidectomy. At 7 days after surgery serum calcium was 8.8 mg/dl, phosphorus 2.1 mg/dl, alkaline phosphatase 166 U/L, albumin 3.9 g/dL, PTH 230 pg/ml and 25-OH vitamin D 12.4 ng/ml. This finding was interpreted as secondary hyperparathyroidism due to vitamin D deficiency and “hungry bone”, being less likely the presence of residual or metastatic parathyroid tissue. A cholecalciferol load was administered, with significant descent of PTH. <![CDATA[<strong>Cutaneous lupus erythematosus in a dog</strong>: <strong>reflections on human-animal evolutionary connections</strong>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872015000300020&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en We report a 59-year-old man with a history of hypertension, recurrent renal stones and a severe hypercalcemia of 14.9 mg/dl with a serum phosphorus of 2.4 mg/dl and a serum albumin of 3.6 g/dl. Physical examination showed a 4 cm left cervical nodule, consistent with the diagnosis of thyroid nodule. Parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels were 844 pg/mL (normal 15-65 pg/ml) and a cervical ultrasound examination disclosed a solid nodule in the lower left lobe of 40 x 30 x 25 mm, adjacent to the thyroid parenchyma. Abdominal ultrasound revealed bilateral renal stones. Parathyroid scintigraphy showed a high uptake of the left lower parathyroid mass and a bone densitometry showed bone density t scores of -1.2 in the spine, -2.0 in the right femoral neck and -3.5 in the distal radius. A review of his medical record revealed the presence of hypercalcemia for at least 4 years. He was admitted for hydration and administration of 4 mg zoledronic acid iv. At 24 hours, serum calcium dropped to 11.0 mg/dl, and a left thyroid lobectomy was performed including the lower left parathyroid gland. The pathology report showed a 22.6 g parathyroid adenoma. Intraoperatory PTH descended > 50%, consistent with successful parathyroidectomy. At 7 days after surgery serum calcium was 8.8 mg/dl, phosphorus 2.1 mg/dl, alkaline phosphatase 166 U/L, albumin 3.9 g/dL, PTH 230 pg/ml and 25-OH vitamin D 12.4 ng/ml. This finding was interpreted as secondary hyperparathyroidism due to vitamin D deficiency and “hungry bone”, being less likely the presence of residual or metastatic parathyroid tissue. A cholecalciferol load was administered, with significant descent of PTH. <![CDATA[<strong>CORRECCIÓN</strong>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872015000300021&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en We report a 59-year-old man with a history of hypertension, recurrent renal stones and a severe hypercalcemia of 14.9 mg/dl with a serum phosphorus of 2.4 mg/dl and a serum albumin of 3.6 g/dl. Physical examination showed a 4 cm left cervical nodule, consistent with the diagnosis of thyroid nodule. Parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels were 844 pg/mL (normal 15-65 pg/ml) and a cervical ultrasound examination disclosed a solid nodule in the lower left lobe of 40 x 30 x 25 mm, adjacent to the thyroid parenchyma. Abdominal ultrasound revealed bilateral renal stones. Parathyroid scintigraphy showed a high uptake of the left lower parathyroid mass and a bone densitometry showed bone density t scores of -1.2 in the spine, -2.0 in the right femoral neck and -3.5 in the distal radius. A review of his medical record revealed the presence of hypercalcemia for at least 4 years. He was admitted for hydration and administration of 4 mg zoledronic acid iv. At 24 hours, serum calcium dropped to 11.0 mg/dl, and a left thyroid lobectomy was performed including the lower left parathyroid gland. The pathology report showed a 22.6 g parathyroid adenoma. Intraoperatory PTH descended > 50%, consistent with successful parathyroidectomy. At 7 days after surgery serum calcium was 8.8 mg/dl, phosphorus 2.1 mg/dl, alkaline phosphatase 166 U/L, albumin 3.9 g/dL, PTH 230 pg/ml and 25-OH vitamin D 12.4 ng/ml. This finding was interpreted as secondary hyperparathyroidism due to vitamin D deficiency and “hungry bone”, being less likely the presence of residual or metastatic parathyroid tissue. A cholecalciferol load was administered, with significant descent of PTH.