Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Revista médica de Chile]]> http://www.scielo.cl/rss.php?pid=0034-988720130012&lang=en vol. 141 num. 12 lang. en <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.cl/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.cl <![CDATA[<strong>Clinical experience with 53 consecutive heart transplants</strong>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872013001200001&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Introduction: Heart transplantation is the therapy of choice for advance heart failure. Our group developed two transplant programs at Instituto Nacional del Tórax and Clínica Dávila. We report our clinical experience based on distinctive clinical policies. Patients and Methods: Fifty-three consecutive patients were transplanted between November 2008 and April 2013, representing 51% of all Chilean cases. Distinctive clinical policies include intensive donor management, generic immunosuppression and VAD (ventricular assist devices) insertion. Results: Ischemic or dilated cardiomyopathy were the main indications (23 (43%) each), age 48 ± 13 years and 48 (91%) were male. Transplant listing Status: IA 14 (26%) (VAD or 2 inotropes), IB 14 (26%) (1 inotrope) and II25 (47%) (no inotrope). Mean waiting time 70 ± 83 days. Twelve (24%) were transplanted during VAD support (median support: 36 days). Operative technique: orthotopic bicaval transplant with ischemia time: 175 ± 54 min. Operative mortality: 3 (6%), all due to right ventricular failure. Re-exploration for bleeding 2 (4%), stroke 3 (6%), mediastinitis 0 (0%), pneumonia 4 (8%), and transient dialysis 6 (11%). Mean follow-up was 21 ± 14 months. Three-year survival was 86 ± 6%. One patient died of Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia and the other died suddenly (non-compliance). Freedom from rejection requiring specific therapy was 80 ± 7% at 3 years of follow-up. Four hundred eighty four endomyocardial biopsies were done: 11 (2.3%) had 2R rejection. All survivors are in NYHA (New York Heart Association) functional class I and all but one have normal biventricular function. Conclusion: Mid-term results are similar to those reported by the registry of the International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation. This experience has a higher proportion of VAD support than previous national series. Rejection rates are low in spite of generic immunosuppression. <![CDATA[<strong>Preablative serum thyroglobulin as predictor of disease-free survival in differentiated thyroid cancer</strong>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872013001200002&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Background: Serum thyroglobulin (sTg) is an excellent marker of persistence or recurrence of disease in differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC), however its role as prognostic factor has not been fully established. Aim: To assess the value of the preablative thyroglobulin (pTg) as predictor of disease-free survival in DTC. Patients and Methods: Retrospective study of 104 patients with low and intermediate risk DTC subjected to total thyroidectomy and 131iodine ablation. TSH, pTg and thyroglobulin antibodies (AbTg) were determined by chemiluminescence. Patients with distant metastases or presence of AbTg were excluded. Results were analyzed using receiving operating characteristic (ROC) curves. Results: During the 40 ± 29 months of follow-up (range 6-132), 14 of 104 (13%) patients had recurrence of disease. pTg was an independent indicator to predict disease-free survival. Using a pTg cutoff of < 10 ng/ml the negative predictive value was 99%, sensitivity 93%, specificity 82%, positive likelihood ratio (LR) 5.2 and negative LR 0,087. Conclusions: pTg value is useful as a prognostic marker in predicting disease-free survival in DTC patients with low or intermediate risk of recurrence. <![CDATA[<strong>Intensive care admissions due to severe maternal morbidity</strong>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872013001200003&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Background: Maternal morbidity is a quality of care indicator. The frequency of severe maternal morbidity that requires an intensive care management has increased, due to an increase in maternal age. Aim: To describe the severe and acute maternal morbidity spectrum that requires an intensive care management in a University Hospital. Material and Methods: Review of medical records of 89 pregnant women with a mean age of 29 years, admitted to an Intensive Care Unit (UCI) between 2006 and 2010. Results: Mean gestational age on admission was 32 weeks. The main comorbidities identified were chronic hypertension (13.5%), hypothyroidism (4.5%) and coagulopathies (6.7%). Severe preeclampsia, sepsis and obstetric hemorrhage were the main causes of admission. Length of stay ranged from 1 to 28 days. Seventy eight percent of patients were admitted in the immediate postnatal period. Mechanical ventilation was required in 24% of patients for a median of three days. The longer unit lengths of stay were observed in patients with preeclampsia and non-obstetric severe sepsis (pyelonephritis and pneumonia). Seven abortions and seven perinatal deaths were recorded. The latter were mainly secondary to severe preeclampsia/ HELLP syndrome. Neonatal morbidity was related to prematurity (19% hyaline membrane, 18% persistent ductus and 4% cerebral hemorrhage). There were no maternal deaths. Conclusions: Preeclampsia and its complications were the main causes of maternal ICU admission. In this series, there were no maternal deaths and the perinatal survival rate was 92%. <![CDATA[<strong>Patterns of left ventricular remodeling among patients with essential and secondary hypertension</strong>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872013001200004&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Background: High blood pressure causes left ventricular hypertrophy, which is a negative prognostic factor among hypertensive patients. Aim: To assess left ventricular geometric remodeling patterns in patients with essential hypertension or with hypertension secondary to parenchymal renal disease. Material and Methods: We analyzed data from echocardiograms performed in 250patients with essential hypertension (150 females) and 100 patients with secondary hypertension (60 females). The interventricular septum and the left ventricular posterior wall thickness were measured in the parasternal long-axis. Left ventricular mass was calculated using the Devereaux formula. Results: The most common remodeling type in females and males with essential hypertension were eccentric and concentric left ventricular hypertrophy (cLVH), respectively. Among patients with secondary arterial hypertension, cLVH was most commonly observed in both genders. The prevalence of left ventricular hypertrophy was higher among patients with secondary hypertension. The left ventricular mass index and the relative left ventricular wall thickness were higher in males and also in the secondary hypertension group. Age, blood pressure values and the duration of hypertension, influenced remodeling patterns. Conclusions: We documented a higher prevalence of LVH among patients with secondary hypertension. The type of ventricular remodeling depends on gender, age, type of hypertension, blood pressure values and the duration of hypertension.<hr/>Antecedentes: La hipertensión arterial causa hipertrofia ventricular izquierda, un factor de mal pronóstico en pacientes hipertensos. Objetivo: Evaluar patrones de remodelación ventricular en pacientes con hipertensión arterial esencial y secundaria a daño renal. Material y Métodos: Análisis de ecocardiogramas efectuados a 250 pacientes con hipertensión arterial primaria (150 mujeres) y 100 pacientes con hipertensión secundaria (60 mujeres). Se midió el grosor del septum interventricular y de la pared ventricular posterior. La masa ventricular izquierda se calculó usando la fórmula de Devereaux. Resultados: Los tipos más frecuentes de remodelación ventricular en mujeres y hombres con hipertensión esencial fueron la hipertrofia ventricular excéntrica y concéntrica, respectivamente. En pacientes con hipertensión arterial secundaria, la hipertrofia concéntrica fue más frecuente. La prevalencia de hipertrofia ventricular izquierda fue más alta en pacientes con hipertensión secundaria. El índice de masa ventricular izquierda y el grosor relativo de la pared ventricular izquierda fueron mayores en pacientes con hipertensión secundaria. La edad, los valores de presión arterial y la duración de la hipertensión influyeron en los patrones de remodelación. Conclusiones: Documentamos una mayor prevalencia de hipertrofia ventricular izquierda en pacientes con hipertensión secundaria. El tipo de remodelación depende de la edad, género, tipo de hipertensión, valores de presión arterial y duración de la hipertensión <![CDATA[<strong>Quality of DNA from archival pathological samples of gallbladder cancer</strong>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872013001200005&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Background: The quality of the archival samples stored at pathology services could be a limiting factor for molecular biology studies. Aim: To determine the quality of DNA extracted from gallbladder cancer samples at different institutions. Material and Methods: One hundred ninety four samples coming from fve medical centers in Chile, were analyzed. DNA extraction was quantifed determining genomic DNA concentration. The integrity of DNA was determined by polymerase chain reaction amplification of different length fragments of a constitutive gene (β-globin products of 110, 268 and 501 base pairs). Results: The mean DNA concentration obtained in 194 gallbladder cancer samples was 48 ± 43.1 ng/µl. In 22% of samples, no amplification was achieved despite obtaining a mean DNA concentration of 58.3 ng/ul. In 81, 67 and 22% of samples, a DNA amplification of at least 110, 268 or 501 base pairs was obtained, respectively. No differences in DNA concentration according to the source of the samples were demonstrated. However, there were marked differences in DNA integrity among participating centers. Samples from public hospitals were of lower quality than those from private clinics. Conclusions: Despite some limitations, in 80% of cases, the integrity of DNA in archival samples from pathology services in our country would allow the use of molecular biology techniques. <![CDATA[<strong>Characteristics and results of breast cancer in elderly females treated with curative intent</strong>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872013001200006&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Background: Aging is the main risk factor to acquire breast cancer (BC). Nevertheless BC in elderly patients is sub-represented in clinical trials. Aim: To describe the clinical characteristics and long term treatment results of localized BC in older women. Material and Methods: Review of medical records of 65 women aged 70 to 88 years, with localized BC, treated with surgery, postoperative radiotherapy or systemic therapy at a Clinical Hospital in Chile. Results: The presence of symptoms or abnormal findings on physical examination were the main reasons for consulting in 65% of cases. Compared with tumors detected on physical examination, those detected using screening mammogram were smaller and were in stage 1 with a higher frequency (18 and 59% respectively, p < 0.01). The pathological type was luminal in 80% of cases. Overall survival was better for luminal pathological type. All patients completed radiotherapy without interruptions developing minor acute toxicity. The most common co-morbidity was high blood pressure occurring in 46% of patients. Thirteen percent of patients had three or more co-morbidities. After a median follow up of 7 years, 23 (35%) patients had died and the cause of death was BC in 43% of cases. Two patients died of lung cancer. No patient had a local breast relapse. Conclusions: Screening mammogram in older women detected smaller tumors and it was associated with a better survival. BC is the ultimate cause of death in approximately half of cases. <![CDATA[<strong>Association between obstetric factors, hormone levels and nutritional status with the development of breast cancer</strong>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872013001200007&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Background: Recent studies suggest that the age at first pregnancy, number of children and the lapse between births may protect against breast cancer. Furthermore, serum levels of estrogen, prolactin and progesterone appear to contribute to the development of this tumors in obese women. Aim: To verify whether the variables age at first pregnancy, number of children, birth interval, hormone levels and nutritional status are associated with the age at diagnosis of breast cancer. Material and Methods: Retrospective analysis of medical records of550female patients, diagnosed and treated for breast cancer at a hospital in Spain between 2009 and 2012. Results: We found a significant and positive association between age at diagnosis of cancer and the variables age at first pregnancy, parity and interval between pregnancies. There was also a significant correlation (p < 0.000) between serum levels of estrogen, prolactin and progesterone and nutritional status of patients. Conclusions: In this sample, age at first pregnancy or number of children, hormone levels and nutritional status are related to the age of onset of cancer. <![CDATA[<strong>Factorial structure of WHOQoL-Bref quality of life questionnaire</strong>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872013001200008&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Background: The real value of quality of life instruments must be tested in local populations before recommending their widespread use. Aim: To assess the factorial structure of the quality of life questionnaire proposed by the World Health Organization (WHO), WHOQoL-Bref. Material and Methods: The questionnaire was answered by 2016 individuals aged between 20 and 59 years, from diverse public and social organizations of a city in Northern Chile. The confidence and factorial structure of the instrument were evaluated. Results: The internal consistency of the instrument, according to Cronbach's alpha was 0.89. The adjustment of values to a model with four factors proposed by the WHO was moderate. The root mean square (RMS) and root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA) values of0.043 and 0.061, indicate a good adjustment of the model. Conclusions: Although an absolute adjustment for the theoretical four factor model is not supported by these results, the WHOQoL-Bref is able to discriminate the perception of quality of life and the influence of age, gender and disease on this perception. <![CDATA[<strong>Erectile dysfunction among diabetic patients</strong>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872013001200009&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Background: Diabetic microangiopathy is one of the main causes of erectile dysfunction. Aim: To study the prevalence of erectile dysfunction among diabetic patients. Material and Methods: The "international index of erectile function" survey was applied to 120 diabetic men aged 21 to 50years. Demographic data, evolution time of diabetes, a glycosilated hemoglobin measured in the last three months, weight, height and treatment received were also recorded. Results: Fifty five percent of patients had erectile dysfunction. Patients with an inadequate metabolic control had a significantly higher risk of having this condition (odds ratio 5.5; 95% confidence intervals 2.3-81). Conclusions: Erectile dysfunction is common among diabetic patients and closely associated with an inadequate metabolic control. <![CDATA[<strong>Clinical usefulness of biomarkers in cardiac failure</strong>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872013001200010&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The assessment of patients with a suspected cardiac failure aims to an early and precise diagnosis and risk stratification. Only natriuretic peptides have demonstrated to be clinically useful. Brain natriuretic peptide stands out due to its diagnostic and prognostic value. However its results should be cautiously interpreted in the clinical context, bearing in mind possible confounders. The combination of markers can provide a better risk stratification and compensates the limitations of individual markers. Each new marker gives a new insight on the underlying physiopathology of cardiac failure and proposes new therapeutic approaches. <![CDATA[<strong>Epigenetics in the pathogenesis and early detection of gastric cancer</strong>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872013001200011&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Gastric cancer is the first cause of death for cancer in Chile. The recently identified genetic alterations in these tumors have not yielded new biomarkers for the disease. Epigenetics or the study of reversible genomic changes that do not affect protein codifying DNA sequences but cause phenotypic disturbances, is identifying new cancer biomarkers. Specifically, the loss of expression caused by the covalent link of a methyl group to carbon 5 of cytosine (DNA hypermethylation) is extensively evaluated. Performing an epigenetic evaluation of 24 genes, we have identified eight genes associated to the aggressive signet ring cell type gastric cancer, the association between APC hypermethylation and worse prognosis and BRCA1 hypermethylation association with early onset of gastric cancer. The most interesting findings are the hypermethylation of Reprimo gene in plasma as a population biomarker and the tissue over expression of p73 gene (as a consequence of hypomethylation) as a high risk indicator of progression to gastric cancer. All these findings are indicating an important role of epigenetics in the pathogenesis and early detection of gastric cancer. <![CDATA[<strong>The obligation to inform the patient</strong>: <strong>Issues on the right to be informed</strong>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872013001200012&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en This article aims to analyze, from a legal perspective, the boundaries of the obligation imposed on health care providers to inform the patient. This requirement originated and was developed as an ethical issue. However, with the newly approved law regulating the rights and duties of patients, the obligation to inform can be viewed from prisms and principles that differ from those governing medical ethics. With this purpose, we will focus on the comparative experience, which will allow us to evaluate the responsibility of health care providers when this duty is breached. We will try to answer the following questions: Which medical information must be informed to the patient? When should the doctor inform the patient? In which form should this information be provided?. <![CDATA[<strong>The portrait of medicine and Gustav Klimt (1862-1918)</strong>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872013001200013&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Gustav Klimt was an Austrian Symbolist painter and one of the most important representatives of the modernist movement of the Viennese Secession. The most notable works carried out at his golden age were the "Portrait of Adele Bloch-Bauer I" and "The kiss". In 1901 he paints "Medicine" where he returns to the entanglement of floating bodies -the lifetime- among which appears the skeleton of death; a female figure stands out from the column to represent freedom from pain. The figure of Hygeia or Hygieia, daughter of Aesculapius, who personifies medicine, is shown in the foreground. In 1911, thanks to "The life and death", a picture related to medicine, he was awarded the first prize at the Universal Exhibition of Rome. A number of his artworks were confiscated by the Nazi dictatorship. During the advance of enemy troops, and fearing that these works would become spoils of war, it was decided to burn the castle where they remained confiscated. Therefore, countless artworks were lost. The progressive development of symbolic or abstract motifs already emphasized the freedom of spirit that permeated all the avant-garde of early twentieth century. <![CDATA[<strong>Metastatic pulmonary calcification in a patient with a functioning kidney allograft</strong>: <strong>Report of one case</strong>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872013001200014&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en In renal transplants patients, metastatic pulmonary calcifications have been reported occasionally when the grafts are dysfunctional and rarely when they are functioning normally. We report a male who received a renal allograft in 1994 at the age of 61 years. Nineteen years later a routine chest X ray showed diffuse infiltrates and a CT scan showed diffuse calcifications in both lungs. These were interpreted as metastatic pulmonary calcifications. The last available laboratory determinations were a serum creatinine of 1.4 mg/dl and urinary protein excretion of 255 mg/24 hours. No further studies were done since the patient experienced a sudden death due to an acute myocardial infarction. <![CDATA[<strong>Asymptomatic left ventricular myxoma incidentally diagnosed by echocardiography</strong><strong>. </strong><strong>Report of one case</strong>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872013001200015&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en We report a 50 year-old hypertensive and asymptomatic woman in whom a left ventricular tumor was found on a routine two-dimensional transthoracic echocardiogram. Complementary 3D echocardiography, cardiac magnetic resonance and cardiac computed tomography allowed the diagnosis of a calcified left ventricular myxoma. Surgical treatment was performed through a transaortic transvalvular approach with tumor resection and implantation of a pericardial bovine patch. This case confirms the importance of transthoracic echocardiography in the diagnosis of cardiac tumors and the complementary role of 3D echocardiography, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography for the differential diagnosis before surgery. <![CDATA[<strong>Cerebral vein thrombosis secondary to closed head injury</strong>: <strong>Report of one case</strong>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872013001200016&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Intracranial sinus thrombosis (1ST) after closed head injury is an uncommon but potentially serious complication. It has no correlation with the severity of the injury. The symptoms and clinical course are highly variable. The most frequent but least specific symptom is severe headache. Cerebral lesions and neurologic signs develop in half of patients with IST. We report a 29 year-old male who had an IST after a severe closed head injury. The patient initially developed headache and had later 2 secondarily generalized seizures. The magnetic resonance imaging showed a superior sagittal sinus thrombosis. Anticoagulation with unfractionated heparin and intravenous phenytoin was started. At the moment of this report he is asymptomatic and continues with oral anticoagulants and phenytoin. <![CDATA[<b>Liraglutide reduces biomarkers and vascular risk in patients with diabetes mellitus type 2</b>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872013001200017&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Intracranial sinus thrombosis (1ST) after closed head injury is an uncommon but potentially serious complication. It has no correlation with the severity of the injury. The symptoms and clinical course are highly variable. The most frequent but least specific symptom is severe headache. Cerebral lesions and neurologic signs develop in half of patients with IST. We report a 29 year-old male who had an IST after a severe closed head injury. The patient initially developed headache and had later 2 secondarily generalized seizures. The magnetic resonance imaging showed a superior sagittal sinus thrombosis. Anticoagulation with unfractionated heparin and intravenous phenytoin was started. At the moment of this report he is asymptomatic and continues with oral anticoagulants and phenytoin. <![CDATA[<em><b>To publish our research</b></em>: <em><b>what is stopping us?</b></em>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872013001200018&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Intracranial sinus thrombosis (1ST) after closed head injury is an uncommon but potentially serious complication. It has no correlation with the severity of the injury. The symptoms and clinical course are highly variable. The most frequent but least specific symptom is severe headache. Cerebral lesions and neurologic signs develop in half of patients with IST. We report a 29 year-old male who had an IST after a severe closed head injury. The patient initially developed headache and had later 2 secondarily generalized seizures. The magnetic resonance imaging showed a superior sagittal sinus thrombosis. Anticoagulation with unfractionated heparin and intravenous phenytoin was started. At the moment of this report he is asymptomatic and continues with oral anticoagulants and phenytoin.