ISSN 0717-6317 online version
ISSN 0716-078X print version

INSTRUCTIONS TO AUTHORS

Editorial policies

GENERAL INFORMATION

PUBLICATION AND SCOPE

Revista Chilena de Historia Natural (RCHN) is a bilingual (Spanish and English) open access journal, published by the Sociedad de Biología de Chile (Biology Society of Chile) in printed and electronic versions. RCHN publishes one volume per year and four quarterly issues per volume  (March,  June,  September  and  December).  Publication  in RCHN is open to any person, regardless of membership status or any other distinction.

RCHN publishes original research dealing with past and present phenomena from organismic to higher levels of biological organization, considering both empirical and theoretical studies on all kinds of taxa and   environments.   The   major   areas   covered   by   RCHN   are: physiological and behavioral ecology; population biology; community ecology and ecosystems; systematics, biogeography and evolution.

RCHN publishes different types of articles (see Types of Contributions) in regular issues, but it does not publish special or supplementary issues.

There is a publication fee of US$ 50 + VAT (19 %) per printed page, which must be paid at the time of publication.

POLICIES AND ETHICS

RCHN welcomes contributions presenting original research as well as essays/reviews stimulating criticism and synthesis. RCHN prioritizes basic science, although applied contributions may be considered if they provide important or novel scientific approaches. Purely descriptive studies may be acceptable only if they are directly related to key biological issues or more comprehensive theoretical frames.

Taxonomic works, particularly when describing new species or taxa, must be submitted in English in order to allow review by international peers.

Original data  on  molecular  sequences  (e.g.,  nucleotides  or  amino acids) reported in RCHN must be submitted to a public data base (e.g., GenBank), indicating its access number on the manuscript at least at the time of publication. We recommend authors that phylogenetic data are also submitted to public data bases (e.g., TreeBase), informing that in the manuscript. RCHN does not accept population genetic studies based on RAPD or ISSR markers.

When appropriate, all authors must declare in the manuscript that their research follows bioethical or biosecurity rules relevant at a national or international  level.  When  submitting  a  manuscript,  authors  must declare that they comply with the basic ethical principles of publication (see Manuscript Submission).

Decision  on  rejection  of  manuscripts  in  RCHN  is  not  appealable, except if authors determine that some violation of ethical standards occurred in the process of their manuscript. In such case, authors may send a confidential letter to the Chief Editor exposing their situation.

RCHN subscribes to the Code of Ethics of the Biology Society of Chile (http://www.biologiachile.cl/?p=223) as well as to international ethic principles of scientific and editorial practices of publication.

TYPES OF CONTRIBUTIONS

Research Articles:  are largely the main output of RCHN, and they are expected to provide explicit tests of hypotheses or novel explanations based on original data and rigorous analyses. Research Articles should not exceed 35 manuscript pages including Tables, Figures and Literature Cited.

Review Articles:  synthesize  conceptual  advances  in  the  fields  of natural history, ecology or evolution, or provide an overview of a subfield.   Reviews   should  consist   of  critical   discussion  on  new directions or new syntheses (and not simply describe the work of others). Review Articles have no page limit.

Short Communications: are short but complete research articles, presenting well bounded studies with relevant and independent information (preliminary or complementary results are not acceptable). Short Communications should not exceed 12 manuscript pages including Tables, Figures and Literature Cited.

Forum:  are essays discussing, reappraising or debating on central issues of broad interest for scientists in natural history, ecology or evolution. Discussions on current or hot topics dealing with recent advances in the above areas are also welcome. Forum articles should not exceed 20 manuscript pages including Tables, Figures and Literature Cited.

Special Features:  is a thematic section aimed at publishing groups of papers dealing with key, novel or relevant topics in natural history, ecology or evolution. Contributions in this section are published by invitation or upon authors’ request, considering three categories: symposia, mini-reviews, and selected papers, giving comprehensive coverage to some specific concept, theme or issue. Special Feature articles should not exceed 20 manuscript pages including Tables, Figures and Literature Cited.

Letters  to  the  Editor:  discuss  or  critically  comment  on  specific aspects   (topics,   interpretations   or  results)  of   articles   previously published by RCHN. After a letter is accepted, authors of the commented article will be invited to submit a response, and both letters will be published in the same issue of the journal. Letters to the Editor can  include  only  one  Figure  (or  Table),  up  to six references,  and cannot exceed six manuscript pages.

Natural History Notes:  are  essentially  descriptive  in  character, intended to document specific findings or discuss specific topics of high relevance or priority for one or more naturalist disciplines. Their content should be presented in rigorous terms, and ideally supported by data and quantitative analyses. Notes should not exceed seven manuscript pages including Tables, Figures and Literature Cited.

Special Cases: exceptionally, and at the discretion of the Chief Editor, RCHN may accept the publication of a brief single article of obituary, biographical or homage character, on deceased persons or scientists who have influenced or remarkably contributed to naturalist science in Hispanic America. Special Cases can include a single Figure (or Table) and should not exceed seven manuscript pages including Literature Cited.

EDITORIAL PROCEDURES

Every manuscript submitted to RCHN is received by the Chief Editor, who  evaluates  if  its  thematic  and  contents  are  appropriate  for the journal (when in doubt, authors are encouraged to consult with the Chief Editor before submitting their work). If the evaluation is positive, the Chief Editor will inform authors that their manuscript has been received and entered the editorial process of RCHN.

Research Articles, Review Articles, Forum, Short Communications and Special Features, are subject to a preliminary evaluation by an Associate Editor, who is designated by the Chief Editor according to the theme of the article. If a manuscript does not comply with RCHN standards, the Associate Editor may reject it without further revision. In addition, if the manuscript has potential and interest but exhibits important though non-scientific problems (e.g., language, presentation of contents, absence of key information), the Associate Editor may request authors to resubmit a corrected version before peer review.

After preliminary approval, the editorial and peer review processes of the manuscript are handled by an Associate Editor, who takes the advice of at least two independent reviewers and delivers a recommendation on acceptance or rejection to the Chief Editor, who is responsible for the final decision.

Letters to the Editor and Natural History Notes are subject to a preliminary evaluation by the Chief Editor, and then evaluated by an Associate Editor (consulting an independent reviewer if relevant), who delivers a recommendation on acceptance or rejection to the Chief Editor.

The evaluation of Special Cases is conducted by the Chief Editor. Excepting Special Cases, all contributions to RCHN are published in order of acceptance and/or reception of corrected page proofs. The name of the responsible Editor, along with the dates of receipt and acceptance of a manuscript, are provided at the end of each published article.

Structure of the manuscript

PREPARATION OF MANUSCRIPTS

Manuscripts should be written in upper and lower cases (excepting for main headings), using “Times New Roman” 12 point sized font, double spacing (including Tables and Figure legends), and letter page size with 2.5 cm margins all around. All pages must be numbered consecutively (in Arabics), from the Title page to the last Table or Figure. Lines must also be numbered consecutively from the first to the last page (do not restart numbering on each page).

Manuscripts should include the following sections: (1) Title page, (2) Abstract  and  Resumen,  (3)  Main  Text,  (4)  Literature  Cited,  (5) Footnotes (only if necessary), (6) Appendix (optional), (7) Tables, (8) Figure Legends, (9) Figures, (10) Supplementary Material (optional).

This  structure  may  vary  depending  on  the  contribution  type  (see below). To revise general formatting aspects, we suggest you to examine recently published articles in RCHN (see “Contents” section at http://rchn.biologiachile.cl).

1. TITLE PAGE

Must contain the following:

(a) Main title: should be short and informative, in upper and lower cases, given in English and Spanish versions (indicate first that corresponding to the manuscript’s language). Binomial names should be given in full, italicized, omitting authority, and accompanied by their corresponding higher taxa. Example: “Biology of Lessonia nigrescens (Phaeophyta: Laminariales)”.

(b) Shortened title (to be used as running headline): in upper cases, up to 50 characters including blank spaces.

(c) Name of authors (in upper case letters): use the first name and last name, excluding academic degrees or similar. You may use also the initial of the middle name, or a second last name linked to the first last name by a hyphen. If there are two or more authors, the name of the second or the last author, respectively, should be separated by “&”. Examples:

JOHN P. SMITH
JUAN A. PÉREZ & JANE SMITH-JONES
PETER T.C. JONES, JUAN PÉREZ-ROJAS, KURT W. VON HUMBOLDT & JUANA DEL RÍO

(c)  Affiliation.  In  single-authored  works,  include  the  institution  and postal address where the study was conducted (and new institutional affiliation  if  appropriate),  and  an  e-mail  address.  In  multi-authored works   involving  different   affiliations,  refer  to  each  affiliation  by correlative superscript numbers at the end of each author’s name, and mark the corresponding author with an asterisk (*) placed after her/his respective superscript number. Below the names, provide the corresponding addresses on separate lines, each one preceded by its corresponding superscript  number,  indicating an e-mail address for each author (when relevant, all authors will receive copies of official communications sent to the corresponding author). Below authors' affiliations, include the following line:

" *Corresponding author: jsmith@university.edu"

2. ABSTRACT-RESUMEN

Letters to the Editor, Natural History Notes and Special Cases, do not include Abstract or Resumen.

Other contributions must include both Abstract and Resumen (Spanish summary) with equivalent contents, including first that corresponding to the manuscript’s language. The “Abstract”/”Resumen” headings must be in bold, uppercase letters.
The Abstract and Resumen must be understandable without reference to the main text, starting with a brief introduction for then describing the key aspects of the methods, results and discussion of the work. Do not use indentations, blank lines or paragraph brakes. The Abstract or Resumen should not exceed 350 words for Research Articles, Reviews and Special Feature articles, 250 words for Forum articles, and 200 words for Short Communications.

At the end of the Abstract and Resumen include a separate line providing up to five Key words and Palabras clave, respectively, in alphabetic order, for describing the essential contents of the study. Do not include words used in the main title. Prefer single words or short expressions, and avoid plurals, terms which are too general or abbreviations (unless they  are  established  in  the  field).  The “Keywords”/”Palabras clave” headings must be in bold, mixed-case letters and left justified. Examples (note punctuation marks):

Palabras clave: desierto, gremio, isótopos estables, omnívoro, presa.
Key words: desert, guild, omnivorous, prey, stable isotopes.

3. MAIN TEXT

3.1. Sections (according to the type of contribution)

Research Articles and Short Communications

(a) Introduction: avoid exhaustive reviews of the subject, and state clearly the objectives, questions or hypotheses of the study.

(b) Methods: must be brief but detailed enough for a reader to obtain an adequate understanding of what was done. Whenever the location of study or sampling sites is directly or indirectly important for a proper interpretation of the results, a location map should be included as a Figure.   Otherwise,   it   will   suffice   to   include   the   corresponding coordinates in the text (latitude and/or longitude depending on the case).

(c) Results*: should be described in detail. Whenever possible, quantitative and statistic results should be presented in Tables or Figures appropriately cited in the text.  Avoid the redundancy of contents between Tables and Figures or repeating their contents in the text. There is no restriction to the number of Tables and Figures.

(d) Discussion*: should be concise and refer to the interpretation of the obtained results.

* Results and Discussion should not be combined in to a single section.

(e) Acknowledgements: should be brief, including people and/or institutions that provided help or support for the study (e.g., funds, field assistance) or the manuscript (e.g., writing, reading).

Review articles and Forum

Both article types must start with an Introduction section, and include acknowledgments if appropriate.  Other headings and subheadings may be defined and organized by the authors according to the objectives and contents of the study. Reviews based on particular analyses or methodologies which may condition the scope of their conclusions, may need to include at least a Methods section.

Letters to the Editor, Natural History Notes and Special Cases.

These categories have no default sections and may be organized in accordance with their objectives and contents.

3.2. General guidelines (for all types of contributions).

Headings, paragraphs and style.

Insert a blank line between each heading/subheading and the following text, and immediately after the end of a section/subsection. Indent all paragraphs excepting those following each heading or subheading, and do not insert blank lines between paragraphs of a same section.

Main headings (Introduction, Methods, etc.) must be centered and in capital letters, without bold or italics). Secondary headings must be left justified, in italics, and lower case letters (beginning with a capital letter in the first word only, except for justified cases). Tertiary headings follow the same format but should not be italicized.

Words in the text, as well as Latin and Greek expressions or similar terms (et al., a posteriori, e.g., i.e., sensu, etc.) should be given in Roman script (do not use bold, italics, or underlined). Binomial names are the only exception (italicized; see below).

Use of numerals, units of measurement, and statistical conventions Give years in full. Units and abbreviations must conform to the International System of Units. Write numbers one to nine in words, unless they precede units of measurement or are used as designators. Write numbers equal to or greater than 10 as numerals, except at the beginning of a sentence or for literary and conventional usages. Non- integer numbers should be expressed up to three decimal places, without naked points (e.g., “0.82” instead of “.82”). Express numbers smaller than 0.001 in exponential notation.

Whenever you indicate and/or combine quantities, stadigraphs, units of measurement or similar (e.g., %, ±, =, ºC, km, P, n), you must include a blank space between them. Mean values must be accompanied by dispersion statistics (and their identification), associated units, and sample sizes (symbolized by “n”). Dispersion measures should be identified   with   their   abbreviations   (e.g.,   standard   deviation   and standard error should be given as SD and SE, or DE and EE, in English or Spanish, respectively).

Examples (note the use of punctuation marks and spaces): “.. from two to six colonies up to 3.5 m ..”

“.. Nearly twenty years ago, between 1992 and 1998 ..”
“.. reached 34 m s-1 during the 2001-2002 El Niño event ..” “.. a mean density (± EE) of 3.5 ± 1.2 trees m-2 (n = 9) ..”
“.. an estimated value ± SD of 0.72 ± 0.14 g (n = 16) ..” “.. mean ± SD (1.5 10-5 ± 0.2 10-5 mg, n = 3 ..”

Describe the results of any statistical test indicating its name (accepted acronyms may be used; e.g., ANOVA or ANDEVA), symmetry (one- or two-tailed), the test statistic and its value, the degrees of freedom (as a test statistic’s subscript) and/or the sample size (depending on the convention of the test), and the P value. Provide exact P values (up to four decimal places) for both significant and non-significant results, except for P values smaller than 0.0001, which should be described as “P < 0.0001”.

Examples (note the use of spaces and punctuation marks):

“.. Spearman correlation (rS = 0.80; n = 13; P = 0.135) “
“.. Student t-test (t12 = 3.05; P = 0.004) ..”
“.. Kruskal-Wallis test (H11 = 287.8; P < 0.0001) ..” “.. one-way ANOVA (F1,17 = 0.97; P = 0.485) ..”

Citation of Figures and Tables in the text.

Any  diagram,  graph,  map  or  photograph  should  be  referred  to  as Figure. Figures and Tables must be numbered independently and consecutively in Arabics, and cited in correlative order throughout the text.  Figures  should  be  cited  in  abbreviated  form,  and  subfigures should be referred to by upper case letters. Examples:

“.. as shown in Fig. 1 and Table 1 ..”
“.. suggested by our results (Fig. 2, Tables 2 and 4) ..”
“.. summarized in Figs. 5 and 6C (see also Figs. 3 and 4, Table 3) ..”

Citation of works in the text

All cited works (articles, books, and book chapters) should already be published or in press (accepted works may also be cited as “in press”). RCHN requests authors to provide accurate information on the publication stage of all works cited in their manuscripts.

Do not cite unpublished material (e.g., “in preparation”, “submitted”, “in review” or similar categories, and avoid referring to unpublished results or personal communications. When strictly necessary (under authors’ responsibility), such materials should be cited in the text only, in parentheses.  Examples (note the use of initials and years when relevant: “(JP Smith, personal communication, 2007)”, “(RH Díaz, unpublished data).

Regular citations must indicate the name of the author(s), followed by the year of publication. For two-authored works, separate the names by an ampersand (&). For three- or multi-authored works, use the first author’s name followed by “et al.”. Multiple citations with different years must be ordered chronologically, and those with a same year must be ordered alphabetically. For several works with the same author(s) and year, cite authors’ names once, and then cite each work using the year followed by a lower case letter, ordered alphabetically (these letters must also be included in Literature Cited). Examples (note the use of punctuation marks and ampersands):

“.. as suggested before (Lee 1989, Martin 2002a, 2002b, Lee & Martin 2008) ..”
“.. stated by Smith (1989), Jones (1991a, 1991b) and Martin (2003) ..“
“.. unlike earlier works (Martin 1992, Peters 1992, González et al.1994), Smith & Martin (2009) disagreed with Atkinson et al. (1982,1983a, 1983b) .. “

Citation of Uniform Resource Locators (URLs):

URLs referring to articles in electronic journals or documents/information from official sources (e.g., public data bases, CONAMA, CONICYT, NSF, NOAA, IUCN) must not be included in the text; instead, they should be cited as a normal article (author and year), including the corresponding full reference in Literature Cited (see below).

URLs referring to unpublished or non-publishable materials (e.g., research reports, authors’ or research groups’ sites, discussion forums) are not acceptable, except if they are essential for understanding the contents of the manuscript; in such case, the full URL may be cited in the text starting with “http://”. Do not include these URLs in Literature Cited.

Citation of abstracts from scientific meetings

It should be avoided when possible, even if abstracts are published in journals. If strictly necessary, abstracts (short or expanded) should be cited within the main text as footnotes, referred to by correlative superscript numbers. Do not use footnotes to make comments or to cite unpublished material. Example: “Recently, crucial findings in Africa (Smith 20091) and Asia (Jones 20092)”. Do not cite abstracts available on temporary URLs, or not published in proceedings or journals.

Binomial names (genus and species).

Binomial names should always be italicized, and given in full (including authority; year optional) at least when first mentioned in the text. Subsequently, authorities may be omitted and the genus name may be abbreviated to its first capital letter followed by a period. A standard or established common name is acceptable, providing its full binomial name when first mentioned. If many binomial names are included, their authorities may be omitted by referring to one or more accepted bibliographic sources, which must be included in Literature Cited. Whenever corresponds, the nomenclature for different kinds of taxa should follow the conventions provided by international codes and standardized data bases. Examples:

“.. such as Sepia polaris (Jones, 1942). Thus, S. polaris is ..”
 “.. the common blue cat (Felis australis Smith) in Chile ..”
“.. nomenclature follows Li (1976) for birds and Lee (1980) for bats ...”
 “.. study species (for full binomial names see Smith & Jones 2004) ..”

4. LITERATURE CITED

The Literature Cited section must list the full reference of published works  cited  in  the  text.  Do  not  include  unpublished  materials  or abstracts (cite these latter using footnotes; see below). Do not use bullets, bold or italics (except for binomial names), and do not insert blank lines between references.

References must be in Roman script, left justified, and listed in alphabetical order according to the first author’s last name. Two or more works of a same first author should be ordered by number of authors, year, and coauthor’s last names. Multi-authored works with nine or more authors should list only the first five authors followed by “et al.”. Authors’ initials and last names must be in capital letters, preserving diacritical (accent) marks, and the last author must be separated by an ampersand (&). Examples of reference ordering (note the order of authors’ initials and the absence of periods):

SMITH R (2009)
SMITH R & M JONES (2002) SMITH R & M JONES (2003)
SMITH R, M JONES & M CONTRERAS (1994) SMITH R, M JONES & H PÉREZ (1994)
SMITH R, P GÓMEZ, J WHITE & F BLACK (1975)
WHITE J (1999)
WHITE J, P WU, M LEE, M DÍAZ, F BLACK et al. (1999)

Please  follow  the  examples  provided  below  for  different  citation formats,  including  URLs.  Note the absence of periods between authors’ names, year and reference title. Journal names should always be given in full, each word starting with a capital letter (excepting conjunctions and articles). Provide the volume and page range for each reference (do not include issue numbers).  For journals not included in Science Citation Index, add the country of publication in parentheses before the volume.  Books, book chapters and theses must include the city of publication (the country should be added at the end of the reference only if necessary for a proper identification).

Examples of citations

(a) Journal articles (note the use of colon after volume number, followed by blank space, and period after the page range):

MINAMI N & MT KIMURA (1980) Geographical variation of photoperiodic adult diapause in Drosophila auraria. Japanimation (Japan) 55: 319-324.
PACKARD  MJ,  GC  PACKARD  &  TJ  BOARDMAN  (1980)  Water balance of the eggs of a desert lizard (Callisaurus draconoides). Canadian Journal of Zoology 58: 2051-2058.
PÉREZ  JC  (1982)  Distribución  de  los  roedores  andinos.  Revista
Chilena de Historia Natural 256: 45-56. ZAMUDIO B (1999a) .....
ZAMUDIO B (1999b) .....

(b) Books (note the use of “(ed)” or “(eds)” for book editors):

DIXON WJ (ed) (1991) BMDP biomedical computer programs. Third edition. University of California Press, Berkeley, California.

SOTO  D  &  RH  PÉREZ  (1986)  El  oceáno.  Academia  Editores, Santiago, Chile.
LONG HI & J LONG (eds) (1990) Novel approaches to ...

 (c) Book chapters*:

PÉREZ J (1982) Lizards as laboratory animals. In: Veronese BG (ed) Laboratory animals: 70-89. Second edition, Moulin Editors, Paris.

ÁLVAREZ JS (1993) Ecología de aves. En: López GH, DR Lee & RH Dixon (eds) Fauna tropical: 89-114. SS Impresores, Santiago, Chile.
* When referring to the book containing the chapter, use “In:” or “En:” for Spanish or English manuscripts, respectively.

(d) Theses:

JONES J (2009) A new theory of genetics. PhD Thesis, Department of Zoology, Southern University, London.

PÉREZ CA (2011) Ecología de aves antárticas. Tesis Doctoral, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad del Sur, Osorno, Chile.

(e) Articles in press*:

ALERTADO JJ & LJ ROCHER (in press) A revolutionary technique for restoration. Journal of Controversy.

*Do not indicate year, volume or page range, unless they are officially confirmed (RCHN will request authors to update these references after acceptance of their manuscripts).

(f) Electronic journals:

At the end of the reference, add “(online)” or “(en línea)” for English or Spanish manuscripts, respectively, the full URL, and the access date in parentheses; when issue pages are lacking or not correlatively numbered, cite the total number of pages (e.g., 20 pp.). Examples:

CARRASCO R (2007) El destino de las ciencias ecológicas. Ciencia Intercontinental 5: 14 pp. (en línea).  (accedido Febrero 2, 2009).

TOSTO D & E HOPP (2008) Characterization of the nuclear ribosomal DNA  unit  in  Oxalis  tuberosa  (Oxalidacea)  and  related  species. Electronic Journal of Biotechnology (online) 11: 11-22. URL: http://www.ejbiotechnology.info/content/vol11/issue3/full/1/  (accessed December 23, 2008).

(g) URLs for electronic documents or information:

Acceptable only for official websites maintained by recognized organizations, and containing relevant data of scientific/academic nature. Provide the full reference and access date. Examples:

JPL (2009) El Niño/La Niña watch. Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, NASA. USA. URL: http://sealevel.jpl.nasa.gov/elnino/index.html  (accessed March 12, 2009).

IUCN (2008) The IUCN red list of threatened speciesTM. 2008. International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources. URL: http://www.iucnredlist.org/ (accessed June 8, 2006).

5. FOOTNOTES

Provide the full reference of abstracts or expanded abstracts referred to by footnotes in the text. List them in correlative order, preceded by their  superscript  numbers,  and  include:  author,  year,  title,  meeting name and number (preserve the original notation), date, and place. If published in journals or proceedings, add the corresponding reference. Examples:

1SMITH P & G JONES (2007) Discovery of fossil cats in the Antarctic. 20th Congress of Polar Research, June 2007, Fildes Bay, Antarctica. Abstracts and sessions: 183.
2PÉREZ  JC  (2009)  Un  nuevo  roedor  marino.  XXV  Congreso  de Ciencias  Novedosas,  Marzo  2009,  Chile.  Biological  Research  209: R44.
3SMITH RJ (2008) Bottom-up controls in the deep sea. Fourth Annual Meeting of Biology, August 2008, New York, USA. Ocean Biology 34 (Suppl.): A173.

6. APPENDIX (OPTIONAL)

If necessary, additional information that may be relevant for understanding the study (e.g., raw data, species lists, mathematical tests) may be included in a single “Appendix, which must be cited in the main text (without numbers or letters).

The Appendix should be included at the end of the manuscript, with a heading in upper case letters and centered, and its contents follow the same guidelines as for the main text. If Figures or Tables are included, they should be numbered independently from those included in the main text, using correlative numbers preceded by “A”. Examples: Fig. A1, Fig. A2, Table A1.

The Appendix should not exceed four manuscript pages. Otherwise, additional information should be submitted as Supplementary Material (see below).

7. TABLES

Tables should be presented on separate pages, numbered (in Arabics) correlatively, and preceded by bilingual legends (in English and Spanish, with priority according to the language of the manuscript), providing a synthetic description. The heading should be in upper case letters (e.g., TABLE 1).

In the main text, authors may mark the approximate position where each Table should be placed, noting that the final position will largely depend on design constraints.

All Tables should be prepared using word processing tools for creating tables, and include only three horizontal dividing lines (plain black, without special effects) to separate the beginning, the ending, and the main column headings.

For text and numbers inside the Table, follow the same guidelines as for the main text. The first word of the column and line headings should start with a capital letter (do not use bold or italics). In the first column, the main heading and subsequent line headings should be left justified. The contents (text or numbers) in the remaining columns should be centered. Units must be given in parentheses and abbreviated (without an ending period) according to the International System of Units. Example:

TABLE 2

Mean (± SE) biomass and length of male and female sparrows at the study site.
Biomasa y longitud promedio (± EE) de gorriones machos y hembras en el sitio de estudio.

 Sexo

Biomasa (g)

Longitud (cm)

Macho

25.1 ± 1.2

17.8 ± 3.1

Hembra

22.4 ± 2.3

15.9 ± 1.5

8. FIGURE LEGENDS

All Figures must have bilingual legends (in English and Spanish), with priority according to the language of the manuscript. Legends should provide a synthetic description which should be understandable without reference to the text. Bilingual legends must be listed in correlative order, left justified, headed (in italics) by their abbreviation and number followed by a colon. Legends from different figures must be separated by blank lines. Example:

Fig. 1: Location of the study site in the Atacama Desert. Ubicación del sitio de estudio en el Desierto de Atacama.

Fig. 2: Negative correlation between variable A and variable B, as predicted by the NN model.

Correlación negativa entre la variable A y la variable B, según lo predicho por el modelo NN.

9. FIGURES

General

Each Figure (diagram, graph, map or photograph) must be prepared as a single electronic file, saved in image format (preferably TIFF, JPG) with minimum resolution of 300 dpi. Figures must be included after the Tables, embedded (centered) on separate, correlative pages at the end of the manuscript, indicating their corresponding number (e.g., Fig.1) at the bottom. Subfigures must be referred to by upper case letters in parentheses, placed in the upper left corner of each subfigure area.

All texts (inside legends, axis legends, or others) must be in Arial font and lower case letters (except for names, acronyms and accepted conventions), capitalizing only the first letter of the first word. For location maps, and pictures of organisms or structures, include a scale bar with abbreviated SI units in the left bottom corner. Maps should also include latitude and longitude references.

Black-and-white or grey-scaled Figures do not have additional cost of publication. Authors may request the publication of color figures at a rate US$ 400 + VAT (19 %) per published page. However, submitted manuscripts may include color Figures, which should be replaced with regular Figures in the final printed version, but may be kept in the online version.

In the main text, authors may mark the approximate position where each Figure should be placed, noting that the final position will largely depend on design constraints.

Graphs

Axis lines must be continuous and their tick marks positioned inside the graph. Axis legends and numbers must be in Arial font of at least 16 and 14 points, respectively. Units of measurement must be placed at the end of axis legends, in parentheses, and abbreviated according to the International System of Units; axis legend examples: “Population density (individuals m-2)”, “Body mass (g)”, “Air temperature (°C)”, “Water flow (m3 h-1)”.  Dispersion stadigraphs must be indicated in Figure Legends but not in Figures themselves. Whenever possible, legends for data series should be placed inside the graph area.

In line graphs, use a solid line for a single data series, and solid, dashed and/or dotted line patterns for multiple data series. All lines should be black and of the same thickness.

For scatterplots and bar graphs, use: filled (black) dots/bars for a single data series; open and filled (black) dots/bars for two data series; open and filled (black and grey) dots/bars for three data series. Scatterplots with multiple data series should combine open and filled (black and grey) patterns with different shapes (e.g., dots, squares, triangles). Bar graphs with more than three data series should use open, plain filled (black and grey), and contrastingly hatched bars. Black and grey patterns should be clearly contrasting.

Graph examples:

10. SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIAL

Authors may submit additional or extensive information generated in their research (tables, figures or text), considered relevant for complementing the contents of their work, though not essential for its understanding by referees or readers. In the cover letter and the main text of the manuscript, such information must be explicitly referred to as “Supplementary Material”. RCHN will request Associate Editors and reviewers to comment on the relevance or appropriateness of this material.

Supplementary Material must be submitted as a single file preferably in PDF (though common formats such as doc, docx, or xls are also acceptable). If the material should necessarily include several files or files of different formats, they must be compressed into a single file using a common format (e.g., rar, zip).

Tables and Figures should carry bilingual legends and follow the general guidelines defined above, but they must be numbered independently from those included in the main text, using correlative numbers preceded by “S” (e.g., Fig. S1, Table S1). Special formats might be acceptable in justified cases.

At the time of publication, the Supplementary Material will be made available online (open access).

Submission of manuscripts

GENERAL

The corresponding author should submit her/his work via e-mailing by sending two separate files (manuscript and cover letter) in PDF, doc or docx format, to: Chief Editor
rchn@ucsc.cl

The manuscript (preferably as a PDF file) must include all parts of the article in the following order: full text, tables, figure legends, and figures (embedded in separate pages indicating their corresponding number).

Manuscripts including Supplementary Material must submit this information in a separate file (see below).

Cover Letter

Must describe briefly the relevance/novelty of the study and indicate the chosen type of peer review, between single-blind (anonymous reviewers) and double-blind (anonymous reviewers and authors) processes. If you choose a double-blind process, remove authors’ information (names, e-mails, affiliations) and acknowledgments from the manuscript, and include them in the Cover Letter. Please note that double anonymity diminishes but does not necessarily prevents identifiability (which may also depend on factors such as patterns of auto- vs. allo-citation, distinctiveness of research lines, or background knowledge of the reviewers).

In the letter, the authors must consider, declare and assume responsibility for each of the five statements below (please indicate explicitly if some statement is not applicable to the manuscript):

(i) for all works: declare whether the manuscript has been published, accepted, or concurrently submitted elsewhere.

(ii) only for multi-authored works: all authors know of and approve the submitted manuscript.

(iii) only for works previously peer reviewed in RCHN or in other journals: the current manuscript has been improved by considering previous observations.

(iv) only for works including previously published texts or figures: the authors have obtained (or are responsible for obtaining) the corresponding copyright authorizations.

(v) for all works: the authors accept to pay the publication fee if the manuscript is accepted.

SUBMISSION OF SPECIAL FEATURES

Authors willing to contribute to the Special Features section should first contact a member of the Associate Editor’s board (http://rchn.biologiachile.cl/es/editors.php) for obtaining her/his sponsorship. The sponsoring Associate Editor will submit an official request  subject  to  approval  by  the  Chief  Editor,  and  then  will coordinate  the  simultaneous  submission  of  the  contributed manuscripts. In particular cases, the sponsoring editor may be assisted by other Associate Editors or Guest Editors in order to facilitate the review process. The accepted papers will be scheduled for publication in a regular issue of RCHN (upon availability), and will be preceded by a summary introduction of the objectives and contents of the Special Feature (authored by designated contributors). Special Feature manuscripts should be submitted in English, although Spanish or English/Spanish contributions might be considered in justified cases.

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Sociedad de Biología de Chile

Canadá #253, Piso 3, Depto. F, Providencia
Casilla 16164
Santiago - Chile
Tel.: (56-2) 2209 3503
Fax: (56-2) 2225 8427


rchn@ucsc.cl