INSTRUCTIONS TO AUTHORS
Conditions for Publication
The conditions for publication in PSYKHE are the following:
Form and preparation of manuscripts
PAPERS PRESENTATION TO PSYKHE JOURNAL ACCORDING TO AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION (APA) NORMS *
Article’s Sections Order
The summary of an empirical study must contain: (a) the topic researched, in one sentence, if possible; (b) the sampling design and the participants, specifying relevant characteristics, such as gender and age; (c) the important aspects of the method; (d) the main results (no more than four or five) and (e) the main conclusions or implications.
The summary of a bibliographical revision or meta-analysis must contain: (a) the problem under investigation; (b) the criteria for the selection of the bibliography or studies; (c) type of participants included in the studies; (d) main results; (e) main conclusions (including limitations) and (f) implications for theory, policy, or practice.
The summary of a theoretical article must describe: (a) how the theory or model works as well as the principles it is based on and (b) the phenomena that the theory or model approaches or explains and its association with empirical results.
The summary of a methodological article must describe: (a) the general class of the method/s being discussed; (b) the essential aspects of the proposed method; (c) the range of application of the proposed method and (d) in the case of statistical procedures, some of the essential metric aspects, such as robustness, efficiency, validity, and reliability.
The summary of a case study must contain: (a) the relevant features of the individual, group, community or organization presented; (b) the nature of the problem or solution to the problem illustrated by the case presented and (c) the questions which arise for future research or theories.
The abstract must be written in a single paragraph with full indentation of 1.25 cm on both sides. Numerals must be written as numbers (example: 1, 5).
In the following line of the summary and abstract, (with 10 point space between the lines) the Palabras clave and Keywords are written with an indentation of 0.63 cm. and in italics. The actual keywords must be written in lower case and normal font. No full stop is needed. Example:
First paragraph (mandatory). Name of the author or authors with the full affiliation of the institution the authors belonged to when the study was being developed. The format is the following: name of the author or authors of the same institution, comma, name of the university department or school, comma, name of the University, comma, city (city is not added if the name of the University contains the name of the city), comma, country, semicolon, next author or authors from other institution/s, the city must be written, comma, state (if applicable), comma, country. Academic degrees are not written. Example:
Margarita Santander and Cecilia Acuña, Department of Psychology, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Jorge Marambio, Department of Sociology, Universidad de Santiago, Chile; Felipe Acuña, Valparaíso, Chile.
Second paragraph (only if applicable). Change of affiliation after the time when the study was conducted, identified in the following way: [name of the author] belongs now to [affiliation]. In the affiliation it must be pointed out: the department, comma, university, comma, city, comma, country. Example:
Jorge Marambio belongs now to the Department of Psychology, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile.
Third paragraph (only if applicable). Special circumstances which must be pointed out, such as data used in previously published articles, Doctoral or Master's theses, or conflicts of interest. Example:
Fourth paragraph (only if applicable). Acknowledgments
Fifth paragraph (mandatory). Author which must be contacted. The format is: Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to [name of the author], [current affiliation in full], [full address], [city], [country]. E-mail: [electronic address] (with no full stop) Example:
Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to Margarita Santander, Department of Psychology, Universidad de Chile, Avda. Bernardo O’Higgins 340, Santiago, Chile. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.orgEach paragraph must be written with an indentation of 0.63 cm; no space is left between the paragraphs.
In the Text
The format which must be used to write the headings in the text is the following:
Level 1: centered heading, font size must be 10 points, bold, capital letters for the important words.
Level 2:heading aligned to the left, font size must be 10 points, bold, capital letters for the important words.
Level 3:heading of paragraph with an indentation of 0.63 cm, font size must be 10 points, bold, capital letters only for the first letter of the first word, ends with bold period. The paragraph begins after this, starting with capital letter and normal font.
Level 4:heading of the paragraph with an indentation of 0.63 cm, font size must be 10 points, bold and italic, capital letters only for the first letter of the first word, ends with bold and italic period. The paragraph begins after this, starting with capital letter and normal font.
Level 5: heading of the paragraph with an indentation of 0.63 cm, font size must be 10 points, italic, capital letters only for the first letter of the first word, ends with italic period. The paragraph begins after this, starting with capital letter and normal font.
In articles with one level the level 1 heading is used; in articles with two levels, the headings for levels 1 and 2 are used, and so on.
Example for three heading levels:
Example for four heading levels:
Example for five heading levels:
The introduction section has no heading (it is left implicit). Placing only one heading on one section must be avoided; use at least two subsection headings in a section or use none.
a) To indicate the ordering of elements in a series within a paragraph or sentence, use lowercase in parentheses. Example:
The three options of the participants were (a) working with another participant, (b) working in teams, or (c) working alone.
Within a sentence, use commas to separate three or more elements which do not have internal commas, otherwise, use semicolon.
b) To indicate the ordering of separate paragraphs, number each paragraph with an Arabic numeral, followed by a period. The second line and the following ones must be aligned at the beginning of the text of the first line. The first and last paragraphs must have a space of 3 points in relation to the text. Example:
The data was studied using the following analysis:
c) If numbering the elements may produce an unwanted order of importance of them, a bullet may be used, such as ▪. Example:
The statistical analyses were the following:
The following numbers must be written in words:
The following numbers must be written in numbers:
Use of Capital Letters and Punctuation Marks
Capital letters are used as in general English or Spanish. Nevertheless, some specifications are needed.
Use capital letters in:
Do not use capital letters in:
Use double quotation marks:
Do not use double quotation marks:
Use an em dash (or long hyphen):
Usar guión corto:
In general, italics must not be overused.
Do not use italics:
Tables must be formatted as Word tables and must be centered on the page. The font size depends on the size of the table. If it is very small, use font size 10, if it is medium, use font size 9, and if it is large, use font size 8. Use only two horizontal lines at the top (or three, according to the columns heading) and one at the bottom (simple lines of ½ point). Do not use vertical lines and limit the use of other horizontal lines to those which may be necessary in order to give greater clarity to the organization of the information.
The title of the table must be placed at the top, starting where the table begins and finishing where the table ends, leaving a simple space between the title and the table itself. The title must be written in italics (not Table X) and only the main words must start with capital letters (do not use capital letters for articles, conjunctions, or prepositions, unless they are four letters long or more).
The labels of the columns must be centered (including the label of the first column) and capital letters should be used only in the first word. The labels of the rows must be justified to the left and capital letters should be used only for the first word.
Figures with decimals must have the same number of decimals places and, if possible, no more than two (unless the information presented makes it necessary). Figures in the body of the table must be centered, keeping the alignment of the numbers towards the right. When figures contain decimals, they must be aligned at the decimal period (or the comma in Spanish), and when figures are written with comma for thousands (or period in Spanish), they must be aligned at the comma (or the period in Spanish).
The table’s notes must be placed under the corresponding table and the font used must be one point smaller than the one used in the body of the table. Notes must follow this sequence: general note, specific note, probability note.
Tables must be numbered with Arabic numerals in the order in which they are mentioned for the first time within the text. Each table must also have a brief but clear and explanatory title.
Every table must be cited in the text of the article in order to inform the reader what to look for, referring to them by their numbers. Examples: “... (see Table 1)” or “In Table 1 it can be observed that...”.
When publishing the article, tables included on separate sheets will be inserted in the text. Therefore it must be specified in the document where, approximately, each table should be inserted, in the following way:
[Insert Table 1 approximately here]
Examples of Tables
A figure is any kind of illustration other than a table. Thus, a figure can be a graphic, a photograph, a drawing, a map, or a diagram.
Number all the figures sequentially, with Arabic numerals, in the order in which they are mentioned in the text. In the same way, refer to the figures in the text by their numbers. Examples: “As it is shown on Figure 3...” or “... (see Figure 3)”. The figure must be centered on the page.
Under the figure a number must be placed (in italics) and its title (in normal font) after a period in italics and a space. Use capital letters only for the first letter of the first word and the first letter of the proper names of the title. The title should explain the figure using a brief but descriptive phrase. It is included below the figure, but without being a part of it. So, any title within the figure must be eliminated. Example:
Figure 1. Distribution of the attachment styles in the sample.
The legend explains any symbol used in the figure and must be part of it (use capital letters for the main words and 4-letter or longer words).
Immediately after the title, add any additional information which may be needed to clearly understand the figure (not as a Note). Example:
Figure1.Distribution of attachment styles in the sample. The attachment styles are: secure (S), insecure evasive (IE), insecure ambivalent (IA), and insecure disorganized (ID).
The reader should not need to refer to the text in order to understand the figure. Always explain units of measurement, symbols, and abbreviations that are not included in the legend.
Submit the figure to the Journal in the program in which it was created, so that it can be edited, if necessary.
Report of Statistical Information
Statistic symbols and parameters must be written in italics (examples: M, SD, t, p, r, F, N), except for those written in Greek (β, χ2) and non-statistical subscripts of statistical symbols (Fmax , SA + SB). Enough information must be given for the reader to fully understand the analysis performed. The information reported must allow to confirm the basic analyses and to give possible alternative explanations to the results. Therefore, in addition to the basic results associated with the null hypothesis test, further information must be given, such as the effect size, confidence interval, and other additional descriptions in order to that the reader fully comprehend the meaning of the results.
Mean and standard deviation. When a value of the mean is reported (either in the text or in parentheses), it must always be accompanied by the standard deviation. Example: The average age was 35 years (SD= 6.8).
Chi square. When Chi square results are reported, besides the value of c2, the degrees of freedom, sample size, and the exact probability of error α must be given, as pointed out in the following example: The sample included 30 single people, 54 married people, 26 divorced, and 16 widows. These frequencies were significantly different, χ2(3, N = 126) = 10.1, p = 0.017. Some statistic programs only deliver a limited number for decimals for p and often the value given is 0.000 or 0.00. As p is a probability and not a certainty, in those cases it must be reported as p < 0.001 or p < 0.01, respectively. Often, when calculating c2, one or more cells have expected frequencies under five, which inflates such value. If this is the case, the number of cells which expected frequency lower than five must be pointed out.
Pearson’s correlation coefficient (r). When reporting results of the Pearson’s correlation (r), besides the r value, the sample size used to calculate the correlation must be pointed out (in parentheses and with no space between r and the parentheses) along with the exact probability of error α. Example: The correlation between both variables was highly significant, r(365) = 0.32, p = 0.008. The same comment included above regarding p values provided by statistical programs applies in this case.
When a table with the correlations is included, a column must be added to point out the exact probability of error α of each correlation. An alternative is to point out at the foot of the table the error α probability of each correlation, generally with asterisks: * for p < 0.05, ** for p < 0.01 and *** for p < 0.001.
Student’s Test. When the results of a Student’s test are reported, besides the t value, the degrees of freedom must be pointed out (in parentheses and with no space between t and the parentheses), the exact probability of error α (when the test is bilateral it is not necessary to point it out; when it is unilateral it must be reported), some measure of the effect size (strength of association between variables), such as Cohen’s d and the confidence interval of the means (CI) in brackets, the upper limit and the lower limit separated by a comma and a space, preceded by the significance level. The significance level must be uniform throughout the text and corresponding tables. The comment above regarding the value of p provided by statistical programs also applies in this case. Examples:
The participants in the program were significantly older (M= 24.24, SD = 2.63, n = 17) than the control group (M= 20.65, SD = 2.52, n = 20), t(35) = 4.23, p < 0.001, d = 1.39, 95% CI [1.86, 5.31].
After the treatment for anxiety, the experimental group had a lower mean of the anxiety score (M= 20.46, SD = 2.11, n = 13) than the group which did not receive the treatment (M= 24.00, SD = 3.06, n = 13); therefore, it can be concluded that the treatment lowered anxiety levels, t(24) = -3.44, p = 0.004 (unilateral), d = -1.35, 99% CI [-6.42, -0.66].
Variance analysis. It may be related to one factor or more (factorial).
One factor. When reporting the results of a one factor analysis of variance , besides the value of the F ratio, indicate the degrees of freedom of the numerator and denominator (in parentheses separated by a comma and with no space between the F value and the parentheses), the exact probability of error α, some measure of the size of the effect (strength of the relation), which may be Eta squared (η2) or the determination coefficient (r2), and the confidence interval for the mean in each condition (CI) in brackets, the upper limit and the lower limit separated by a comma and a space preceded by the significance level. It is not necessary to repeat the significance level for the confidence interval of the mean in each condition. Also, the means, standard deviations and sample sizes must be pointed out for each cell (condition) and the results of the analysis of homogeneity of variances and of the post-hoc hypothesis analysis. Example:
The 12 participants who received a high dose had a reaction time of 12.6 seconds (SD= 1.4); the nine participants who received a moderate dose had a reaction time of 7.7 seconds (SD= 2.1), and the eight participants of the control group had an average of 6.1 seconds (SD= 1.1). The Levene’s test (1.54, p = 0.23) allows us to conclude that the variances of the three groups may be considered equal. The effect of the dosage, therefore, was highly significant, F(2, 26) = 46.24, p < 0.001, r2 = 0.78, 95% ICs [11.7, 13.5], [6.0, 9.3], and [5.2, 7.1], respectively. The Scheffe’s test revealed that the differences were produced between the group which received a high dose and the other two (p< 0.001), while the group which received a moderate dose did differ significantly from the control group (p= 0.157).
Factorial. When the results of a factorial variance analysis are reported, besides the value of F ratio, indicate the degrees of freedom of the numerator and denominator (in parenthesis separated by a comma and with no space between the F value and the parentheses), the exact probability of error α, some measure of the size of the effect (strength of the relation), which may be Eta squared (η2) or the coefficient of determination (r2), and the confidence interval for the mean in each condition (CI), in brackets, the upper limit and the lower limit separated by a comma and a space preceded by the significance level. Besides the means, standard deviations and the sample size must be pointed out for each cell (condition). When there is too much information, it is necessary to report it in a table, not repeating it in the text, but instead referring to the table in the text.
Linear Regression. When reporting the results of a linear regression, indicate the standardized coefficients (betas) and their associated probabilities (p), as well as the square of the multiple correlation coefficient (R2) and the F ratio, the degrees of freedom of the numerator and denominator (in parentheses separated by a comma and with no space between the F value and the parentheses), the probability of error (p) and the confidence interval for the betas (CI) in brackets, the upper limit and the lower limit separated by a comma and a space preceded by the security level. It is not enough to say that a given percentage of the variance is explained; it must be specified which variable or construct variance is explained. Example:
Achievement scores were regressed considering the size of the class and the amount of tasks assigned. These two predictors explained almost half of the variance of the achievement test scores (R2 = 0.49), which is highly significant, F(2, 289) = 12.5, p = 0.005. Both the number of tasks assigned, β = 0.46, p = 001, 95% CI [0.39, 0.55], and the size of the class, β = 0.28, p = 0.014, 95% CI [0.20, 0.35], had significant effects on the achievement scores.
Missing values. In any analysis carried out, missing values must be reported, either as an absolute or relative frequency. In addition, authors must point out how they were handled in the analysis and how they affected the results.
The following ethical aspects must be considered:
Error reporting. If the author of an article notices, after submitting it to the journal, or even after it has been published, that there is a mistake in the analysis or interpretation of data, he/she must inform the journal about it. Likewise, the author must not conceal information which may seem problematic in his/her research, and should report it.
Data retention. The author of the article must be willing to provide all the information that the editor of the journal may request. If he/she does not, his/her article may not be published. Once published, the author of the article must be willing to submit the data to other qualified researchers who may request him/her to do so in order to confirm the analysis and the results. The data must be available for at least five years after the publication of the article.
Data duplication. Data duplication is forbidden, and refers to the duplication of data or ideas in two or more sources. If there is any slight duplication, this must be pointed out in the Author’s note. Also, if with the information obtained from a study several articles will be written, the author must inform about this situation to the editor of the journal in order for him to determine if several articles can be published or if the information must be given as a whole in one article. If figures or tables are going to be reused from other articles, the author must expressly point this out through a foot note.
Plagiarism and self-plagiarism. The researcher must give credit for all the information and ideas of another author, paraphrasing or quoting the author of those ideas. Besides, if the study resulted from a suggestion given by another author in the conclusions of his/her article, this must be also acknowledged. Furthermore, there must not be self-plagiarism, which is to present information, terms, or ideas as original when they have already been published in another article or book. If it is necessary to refer to them, the original source must be clearly referenced.
Rights and confidentiality of participants. The researcher must follow and report in his/her article the ethical standards followed in relation to the participants of the study. If this is not done, the journal may choose not to publish the article or to retract the article after it has been published. Special care must be taken with the confidentiality of the information given by the participants and the safekeeping of their identities, as well as that of their families.
Conflict of interest. The author of the article must point out in the Author’s Note any situation that the readers may interpret as a conflict of interest, for example, owning the copyright to an instrument used in the study or being biased against other instruments.
Use of unpublished instruments, procedures or data. If another author’s instrument, procedure or data is used, the author of the article must request his/her consent to use it, reporting it on a footnote in the appropriate place.
Use of copyrighted or trademarked instruments, procedures, or data. If the instrument or procedure is under copyright or trademark, the consent granted by the author, the royalties paid, or any other actions required for their use must be pointed out. It is strictly forbidden to use copyrighted instruments or procedures without their owner's consent, or through techniques such as illegal copying.
Citing References in Text
Non-verbatim quotations. Everything which is not originally by the authors of the article must be cited, pointing out the author or authors and the year of the publication of the reviewed work. This information must be exactly the same as the one that appears in the alphabetic reference list at the end of the article. Example: ...non-verbatim idea (Rogers, 1994). Suffixes such as Jr. must not be included in the quotes.
If the quoted work has up to five authors, the first time the reference is presented all of them must be included, followed by the year. The next times all of them are included if the authors are one or two; if they are three to five, the last name of the first author is written, followed by “et al.” and the year of publication. If they are six of more authors, the first and subsequent times the surname of the first author is included followed by “et al.” and the year of publication. Example: ...non-verbatim idea (Payne, Whitehurst, & Angell, 1994). Second time and subsequently: ...non-verbatim idea (Payne et al., 1994). Exception: if two references with more than three authors and with the same year are cited, the quote will be shortened naming the first author and the necessary ones in order to distinguish the two references, followed by et al.
Example: If the references are Castro, Zúñiga, Pereira, Valdivia, and Ossandón (2001) and Castro, Zúñiga, Silva, Valdivia, and Montero (2001), the quote is: (Castro, Zúñiga, Pereira, et al., 2001; Castro, Zúñiga, Silva, et al., 2001). If the years are different, the exception does not apply.
If the quote corresponds to the work of an institution, the first time it is quoted the full name of the institution must appear, followed by its abbreviation between brackets. The following times it is quoted, only the abbreviation is indicated. Do not use the abbreviation if it will not be used again in the text. Example: ...non-verbatim idea (Fundación Educacional Arauco [FUNDAR], 2004). Second time and subsequently: ...non-verbatim idea (FUNDAR, 2004).
If several works related to an idea are cited, the authors are included in parentheses in alphabetical order and separated by semicolons. Example: ...non-verbatim idea (Jonson, 1997; Parkin, 1996; Spencer & Raz, 1994).
If citing an author that is quoted in the work of someone else, indicate the former first followed by the year of publication, followed by “cited in” and the surname of the author and year in which it was quoted. The work of the main author whose work was effectively reviewed must be entered in the reference list. Nevertheless, whenever possible, the original work should be read and quoted. Examples: ...non-verbatim idea (Kobak, 1989, cited in Crowell & Treboux, 1995). Kobak (1989, cited in Crowell & Treboux, 1995) points out that...
If two or more works by the same author are quoted at the same time, his/her/their surname/s are indicated only once followed by the years of publication in parentheses, from oldest to newest, separated by comas. Example: ...non-verbatim idea (Bandura, 1969, 1973, 1977).
If works by the same author (or by the same two or more authors in the same order) with the same publication date are quoted, they must be identified by the letters a, b, c after the year. These letters are assigned, in accordance to the order in which they are quoted in the text, repeating the same order in the reference list. Examples: Varela (2000a) points out that …; …non-verbatim idea (Varela, 2000a, 2000b).
When quoting works of authors in which the first author and date of publication are the same but the other authors are different, the first time it is quoted all the surnames are written (if they are five or less) and, to differentiate them, the second time and subsequently, the first and second authors’ surnames are written, followed by the year of publication. Examples:
Roberts, Ferguson, McDonald, and Morris (1992) think that… (firstquote)
When two works with the same date and by authors with the same surname (but different authors) are quoted, the initials of the author’s first name are entered to differentiate them. Examples: (Y. Mergusen, 1991); (S. E. Mergusen, 1991).
When two works by different authors with the same surname and the same first name initials are quoted, the full names of each are written to differentiate them. Examples: (Paul Janet, 1876), (Pierre Janet, 1906).
When a translated or republished work is quoted, the year of the original work is placed, slash, year of republishing. Example: (Freud 1900/1953).
When a work has several volumes with different years and they are all quoted, the first-last years are placed. Example: (Koch, 1959-1963).
When dealing with a paper, conference or poster presented in a symposium, seminar, or another event, besides the year, the month is written (starting with capital letters). Example: (Hoffman, L. & Goolishian, H., 1989, June).
When dealing with an article read in a newspaper, newsletter, or written bulletin, the exact date when it was written is pointed out. Example: (Arrigo & Welch, 2008, July 22).
If the work has no author, including legal material, quote the first words of the title (using capital letters of the main words) and the year. If it is the title of an article or a chapter, it must go between double quotation marks; if it is a magazine, book or report, it must be in italics. Examples: ...non-verbatim idea (“Study Finds”, 1982); ...as is pointed out in the book College Bound Seniors (1979).
If the publication date is not applicable, as in the case of ancient books, quote the year of the translation used, preceded by trans., or the year of the version used, followed by version. Example: (Aristotle, trans. 1931). If the date of the original publication is known, include it in the quotation. Example: (Castelleto, 1890/1995).
To quote a specific part of a source, the page, chapter, figure, table, or equation must be indicated. Page is abbreviated (p.), but not chapter. Examples: (World Health Organization, 2004, p. 15); (Portales, 2005, Chapter 4).
To cite an interview or personal communication, the initial of the first name, surname, personal communication and precise date are placed. Since it is not possible to retrieve the information of personal communications, they are not included in the reference list. Example: (J. Smith, personal communication, August 15, 2001).
Verbatim quotations. If the idea is quoted verbatim, it must be placed between double quotation marks, followed by the page number of the work from which it was taken. If part of the text is omitted, it is replaced by (…). When something is added to the quote which was not written by the author, it must be placed in square brackets. Examples:
“Men act in the world and change it; in turn they are changed by the consequences of their actions” (Skinner, 1981a, p. 11).
“The incorporation of women into the labor market (...) is the most important explanatory action in the configuration of the modal Chilean family” (Muñoz, Reyes, Covarrubias, & Osorio, 1991, p. 29).
If the quote was taken from an electronic source with no page numbers, use the paragraph number if available, preceded by the abbreviation “para.”. When there are no visible paragraph numbers, the subtitle or section in which the quote appears and the paragraph number within the subtitle must be written. Examples: ...verbatim quote (Myers, 2000, para. 5); ...verbatim quote (Beutler, 2000, Conclusions, para. 1).
If the verbatim quote is 40 words or longer, a new line must be started, with an indentation of 0.63 cm on the left and right margins for the whole block, leaving a 3-point space before and after the quote. Quotation marks must not be written, and the corresponding source must be indicated, followed by the page or pages of the text from which the quote was extracted, in parentheses after the full stop. No period is needed after the parenthesis. Example:
Schools have had to relegate this vital element to the social subjects of the curriculum, where democratic participation is generally taught through readings and text books rather than through involving young people in activities that contribute to the well-being of others and society. (p. 27)
Each reference cited in the text must appear in the reference list and each entry in the reference list must be cited in the text. Moreover, there must be total coincidence in the spelling of author’s name and year of publication on both parts of the article. Classical works, such as religious books or ancient Roman or Greek texts, or personal communications, are not listed in the reference list.
Order of references in the reference list. Entries in the reference list must be placed in strict alphabetical order considering the first author’s surname. When the reference has no author, the title of the article should be written (from the first main word, omitting articles).
Reference elaboration in relation to the type of work. The surname and the initial of the first name must be provided (the two first initials—or three—when the author has two—or three—names or has a name and an initial or initials, as is often the case with North American writers) for all the authors if they are seven or less.
If the authors are seven or fewer, all of them are listed. Example: Vinet, E., González, M. E., Alarcón, P., Salvo, S., Pérez, V., & Díaz, A. (2004).
If the authors are eight or more, the first six of them are listed, then three ellipses are inserted (…) and the name of the last author is added. Example: If the authors of a work are Sadek, J., Johnson, S., White, D., Salmon, D., Taylor, K., Paulsen, J., Heaton, R., & Grant, I., the entry of this work in the reference list will be as follows:Sadek, J., Johnson, S., White, D., Salmon, D., Taylor, K., Paulsen, J. … Grant, I. (2002).
Place a period after every initial. Use a comma to separate the author’s surnames and initials and to separate the authors between them. Use “&” before the last author. Example:
Clark, M., Rosen, G., Tallal, P., & Fitch, R. (2000).
If two authors have the same surname and share the initial of their first names, write in brackets the name of each one. Example:Janet, P. [Paul]. (1876). La notion de la personnalité [The concept of personality]. Revue Scientiﬁque, 10, 574-575.
Janet, P. [Pierre]. (1906). The pathogenesis of some impulsions. JournalofAbnormalPsychology,1,1-17.
In order to highlight the first author’s surname, the second and following lines of the reference must use a left indentation of 0.63 cm.
- Scientific journal article
The author’s surname is included, then comma, space, the initial or initials of the author’s first name (if there is more than one initial, they are separated by a period and a space) followed by a period, space, publication year in parentheses, period, space, title of the article, period. The title of the article is written without italics and using capital letters only for the first word, except for proper nouns or names of specific instruments. Then place in italics the name of the journal with the main words in capital letters, comma in italics, space, the volume of the journal in italics and Arabic numerals, comma in italics, space, the pages separated by a hyphen in normal font and period. This should be followed by the Digital Object Identifier (DOI), if assigned. This must be written as doi:xx.xxxxxxx (following the colon after doi there is no space, and no period should be placed at the end).
When the title contains a colon (:), if it is written in English, the first word after the colon begins with a capital letter; if it is written in Spanish, use lowercase.
In original titles whose language is other than Spanish or English, the title is written in the original language and, then, the English translation in brackets.
If the journal has more than one issue for each volume and the pagination of each starts with page 1, next to the volume number, in parentheses, place the corresponding issue in normal font and with no space between the volume number and the parenthesis, then comma in normal font and the corresponding pages in normal font. If the page numbers of each issue of the volume are consecutive, the corresponding issue is not written in parentheses. Examples:
Grifﬁths, T. L. & Tenenbaum, J. B. (2009). Theory-based causal induction. Psychological Review,116,661-716. doi:10.1037/a0017201 [doi assigned]
Greenwald, A. G. & Banaji, M. R. (1995). Implicit social cognition: Attitudes, self-esteem, and stereotypes. PsychologicalReview,102,4-27. [no doi assigned]
Seguel, X., Correa, M., & De Amesti, A. (1999). Pauta de observación de prácticas docentes: estudio de sus características psicométricas. Psykhe,8(2), 103-110. [no doi assigned]Bölte, S. (2009). Die ICF und ihre Relevanz für die Kinder- und Jugendpsychiatrie [The ICF and its meaning for child and adolescent psychiatry]. Zeitschrift für Kinder- und Jugend-psychiatrie und Psychotherapie, 37, 495-497. doi:10.1024/1422-49126.96.36.1995
If the article was accessed online and has an assigned doi, it is referenced as if it was read in the print version. Example:
Gempp, R., Denegri, M., Caprile, C., Cortés, L., Quesada, M., & Sepúlveda, J. (2006). Medición de la alfabetización económica en niños: oportunidades diagnósticas con el modelo de crédito parcial. Psykhe, 15(1), 13-27. doi:10.4067/S0718-22282006000100002
If the article was accessed online and DOES NOT have an assigned doi, the URL of the journal must be provided. If it was not read in the journal’s website, the exact address of the place where it was read must be provided. The access date must not be reported. Example:
Van den Bos, G., Knapp, S., & Doe, J. (2001). Role of reference elements in the selection of resources by psychology undergraduates. Journal of Bibliographic Research, 5, 117-123. Retrieved from http://jbr.org/articles.html
Matus, C. (2005). El carrete como escenario. Una aproximación etnográﬁca a los códigos de la sexualidad ocasional en jóvenes urbanos. Última Década, 13(22), 9-37. Retrieved from http://redalyc.uaemex.mx/src/inicio/ArtPdfRed.jsp?iCve=19502202
If the journal has no volume expressed in numbers, but only in months or seasons, or if it is a special publication, instead of the volume number, the month or season is typed in italics, followed by a comma in italics, or the text “special publication”. Example:
Thompson, L. & Walker, A. (1982). The dyad as the unit of analysis: Conceptual and methodological issues. Journal of Marriage and the Family, November, 889-900. [no doi assigned]
Paredes, A., Micheli, C. G., & Vargas, R. (1995). Manual de Rorschach clínico. Revista de Psiquiatría Clínica, Suplemento Especial. [no doi assigned]
-Special issue or section in a scientific journal
The editor’s surname is written, a comma, the initial or initials of the first name (if there is more than one initial, they are separated by a period and a space) followed by a period, (Eds. in parentheses), period, year of publication in parentheses, period, space, title of the subject or section in brackets [Special number or Special section], period. The title of the issue or section is written in italics and with capital letter only for the first word, excepting proper nouns or specific instruments, then, in italics the journal’s name with the main words in capital letters, comma in italics, space, the journal’s volume in italics and Arabic numerals, comma in italics, space, the pages separated by a hyphen in normal font and period (in the case of a section). Example:
Frank, M. J. & Daw, N. D. (Eds.). (2009). Reinforcement learning and higher cognition [Special issue]. Cognition, 113.
-Non-specialized magazine article
Next to the year, in parentheses, the date shown on the publication must be written, the month for monthly publications, and the day and the month for weekly publications. Then, the name of the magazine is included, the number of the volume and the pages. Example:
Posner, M. I. (1993, October 29). Seeing the mind. Science,262,673-674.
Behnke, S. (2009, November). A terminally ill patient’s last request. Monitor on Psychology, 40(10). Retrieved from http://www.apa.org/monitor
-Article with no author in an Internet newsletter
When the author of the article is not identified, the reference starts with the document’s title instead of the author, then the year and the month in parentheses, period, newsletter’s name in italics, period. Finally, the exact Internet address of the document is provided. Example:
The author’s surname is written, a comma, a space, the initial of the first name followed by a period, space, publication date (year, comma, space, month in capital letter and day of the publication) in parentheses, period, space, article’s title, period. The title of the article is written in italics and with capital letter only for the first word. Then a space after the period and the newspaper’s name in italics are included, with the main words in capital letters, comma in italics, space, “p.”, space, and page number. If there is more than one page, “pp.” is written, space, and the page numbers separated by a hyphen. If the pages are not continuous, they are separated by a comma. Examples:
Schwartz, J. (1993, September 30). Obesity affects economic, social status. The Washington Post, pp. A1, A4
If the newspaper is an Internet publication and the article has no page number, include the section in which the article or news is included. The electronic address of the article must also be provided. The retrieve date should not be written. Example:
Schmitt, E. & Shanker, T. (2005, December 25). U.S., citing abuse in Iraqi prisons, holds detainees. The New York Times, International. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2005/12/25/international/middleeast/25detain.html?pagewanted=1&_r=1
-An abstract or summary
Although it is preferable to cite the full text of an article, if an abstract or summary is being quoted, it must be pointed out in brackets that it is an Abstract or Summary, along with the database used (and access number) or its URL.
The author’s surname is written, a comma, a space, the initial/s of the first name followed by a period, space, year of publication in parentheses, period, space, book’s in italics and capital letter only for the first letter of the first word or the first letter of proper nouns, period, space, city of publication, country of publication, colon, space, publisher and period. The city is written in the original language and the country is written in English. In the case of the United States, rather than the country, indicate the abbreviation of the state to which the city belongs. For the publisher, use the shortest possible name which can be understood, ommiting terms such as Publishers, Co., Inc., and S.A. If the publisher operates in two cities, the first one which appears must be included; if this is not specified, use the location of the headquarters. Examples:
Maturana, H. & Varela, F. (1984). Elárboldelconocimiento. Santiago, Chile: Editorial Universitaria.
Millon, T. & Davis R. (1998). Trastornosdelapersonalidad.MásalládelDSM-IV. Barcelona, España: Masson.
Olzak, S. (1992). Thedynamicsofethniccompetitionandconﬂict. Stanford, CA: Stanford University.
If the author is the same as the publisher, Author must be used. Example:Corporación Chilena de Prevención del SIDA (1997). De amores y sombras. Poblaciones y culturas homo y bisexuales en hombres de Santiago. Santiago, Chile: Author
If it is an edition different than the first one, it is added in parentheses after the title, abbreviating the edition as ed.Example:
Mitchell, T. R. & Larson Jr., J. R. (1987). Peopleinorganizations: Anintroductiontoorganizationalbehavior(3rd ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
If the book has been reprinted, the year when the book was first published/year of reprint is written. The reprint is written in parentheses after the title, leaving only a space and in normal font. It is not abbreviated. Example:
Rorschach, H. (1921/1970). Psicodiagnóstico (7th Reprint). Buenos Aires, Argentina: Paidós.
When dealing with an electronic version of a print book, instead of the publisher and location, the retrieved version is included in brackets along with the electronic address from which it was obtained. If the book has a doi assigned, it is also added at the end. Example:
Schumacker, R. E. & Lomax, R. G. (2004). A beginner’s guide to structural equation modeling (2nd ed.) [Adobe Version]. Retrieved from http://www.ebookstore.tandf.co.uk/html/index.asp
Instead of the publisher and its location, use the electronic address from which the book was retrieved. If it is a translation, the translator (Trans.) and the translation of the title is given in parentheses), reporting the original title, if it is not the same as the translated one. Example:
Ducot, C. (n.d.). Anendtoanxiety. (E. Pichel-Juan, Trad.; original title: L’être, le temps et la mor). Retrieved from http://www.onlineoriginals.com/showitem.asp?itemID=35
If no date is found, enter n.d.
Instead of the publisher and its location, the electronic address from which it was retrieved is written an at the end, the year when the book was originally published. Example:
Freud, S. (1999). El malestar en la cultura. Retrieved from http://www.remq.edu.ec/libros (Book originally published in 1929).
-Edited book chapter
The chapter’s author is written, a comma, a space, the initial of the first name followed by a period, space, year of publication in parentheses, period, space, chapter title in normal font and capital letter only for the first letter of the first word or the first letter of proper nouns, period, space, “In”, space, initial of the first name of the editors or compilers, period, space, surname, space, in parentheses if they are editors or compilers (“Ed.” or “Eds.” for editor or editors, respectively, “Comp.” o “Comps.” for compiler or compilers, respectively), comma, space, book title in italics and capital letter only for the first letter of the first word or the first letter of proper nouns, space, “p.” o “pp.”, space and , in parentheses, the pages of the book (separated by a hyphen) on which the chapter appears, period, space, city of publication, country, colon, space, publisher and period. For full books with several volumes, enter the starting year and the completion year separated by a hyphen and with no page numbers. If the chapter read is an electronic version, instead of the publisher and its location, the electronic address must be written. If the book has a doi assigned, it is also added at the end. Examples:
Massaro, D. (1992). Broadening the domain of the fuzzy logical model of perception. In H. L. Pick Jr., P. Van den Broek, & D. C. Knill (Eds.), Cognition:Conceptualandmethodologicalissues(pp. 51-84). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
MacKinnon, G. E. & Waller, T. G. (Eds.). (1971-1985). Readingresearch:Advancesintheoryandpractice. New York, NY: Academic Press.
Frith, U. (1985). Beneath the surface of developmental dyslexia. In K. E. Patterson, J. C. Marshall & M. Coltheart (Eds.), Surfacedyslexia:Neuropsychologicalandcognitivestudiesofphonologicalreading(pp. 301-330). Retrieved from http://www.icn.ucl.ac.uk/ dev_group/ufrith/documents/Frith,%20Beneath%20the%20surface%20of%20developmental%20dyslexia%20copy.pdf
Tsukame, A. (1990). La droga y la doble exclusión juvenil popular. In CIDE, CIEPLAN, INCH, PSIPIRQUE & SUR (Comp.), Los jóvenes de Chile hoy (pp. 155-169). Santiago, Chile: Compilers.
-Dictionary or encyclopedia
The name of the author or editor (Ed. in parentheses for editor), then the title of the dictionary or encyclopedia, a space, the number of the edition if the first edition is not used, comma and the volume used. For dictionaries or encyclopedias with a large editorial team, only the main editor is included followed by et al.
Sadie, S. (Ed.). (1980). The new Grove dictionary of music and musicians (6th ed., Vol. 15). London, UK: Macmillan.
c) Technical and research reports
The author’s surname is written, a comma, a space, the initial of the first name followed by a period, space, year of publication in parentheses, period, space, title of report in italics and capital letter only for the first letter of the first word, the number assigned to the report by the organization in parentheses in normal font, period, space, city of publication, colon, space, name of the specific department, institution, office, or specific institute which published or produced the report, period. Examples:
Comisión Económica para América Latina (2006). AméricaLatinayelCaribe:desafíosyoportunidadesdeunasociedadqueenvejece(Temas de Población y Desarrollo Nº 5). Santiago, Chile: Author, CELADE, División de Población de la CEPAL.
Centro Latinoamericano de Demografía (1991). Recursos humanos en salud: Bolivia y Ecuador (LC/DEM/R. 165, Serie A. Nº 259). Santiago, Chile: Author.
If it is a report from a University, the name of the university is included first and, after a comma, that of the department or specific organization within the university which produced the report. Example:
Milicic, N., Alcalay, L. & Torretti, A. (1992). Diseño de un programa para favorecer la identidad femenina en alumnas de 7º y 8º año de educación general básica(FONDECYT Project 1992/0799). Santiago, Chile: Pontiﬁcia Universidad Católica de Chile, Escuela de Psicología.
If the report was retrieved online, identify the editor as part of the electronic address, unless the editor is also the author. Example:Larrañaga, O. (2001). Distribución de ingresos en Chile: 1958-2001 (Documento de Trabajo Nº 178). Retrieved from the website of Universidad de Chile's Economy Department: http://www.econ.uchile.cl/uploads/publicacion/84039632-4684-4c2e-8a54-49475e2e3edb.pdf
d) Papers, conferences and other contributions to meetings, congresses and symposia
The surname of the author of the presentation is written, a comma, a space, the initial of the first name followed by a period, space, year and month of the symposium or meeting (first letter in capital letter) separated by a comma, period, space, title of the contribution in italics and capital letter only for the first letter, period and space, “Paper presented at”, name of the congress or meeting in normal font and with the main words in capital letters, coma, space, name of the organization which organized or conducted the congress or symposium, city, coma, space, country, period. Example:Hoffman, L. & Goolishian, H. (1989, June). Cybernetic and the post modern movement: A dialogue. Paper presented at the First IFTA World Congress, Dublin, Ireland.
If the paper was presented at a Symposium or a Round-Table discussion, its title must be indicated in italics along with the name of the coordinator. Example:
Cumsille, P. & Graham, J. (2001, July). Modelaje de curvas de crecimiento en la evaluación de programas de prevención de consumo de alcohol y drogas. In P. Cumsille (Coord.), Methodological strategies for the study of psychological processes: Applications to the study of alcohol and drug use. Symposium held at the XXVIII Interamerican Psychology Congress of the Interamerican Society of Psychology, Santiago, Chile.
If the paper was retrieved from the Internet, the electronic address must be placed after the full stop, with the text Retrieved from xxxxxxxxx
If the contribution is included in a printed collection (Proceedings), it is quoted in the same way as a print book. If the collection is regularly published on the Internet, it is quoted in the same way as an article, adding in both cases the doi, if assigned.
e) Theses and dissertations-Published
The author’s surname is written, a comma, a space, the initial of the first name followed by a period, space, year in parentheses, period, space, title of the Thesis or Dissertation in italics and capital letter only for the first word (excepting proper nouns or specific instruments), space and in parentheses (—Master's or Doctoral—Thesis or Doctoral Dissertationor Thesis), period, then its electronic address. If the thesis was retrieved from a university database, after(—Master's or Doctoral—Thesis), a comma is placed, university, city, country. If the thesis or dissertation is in a database of a specialized service, the name of the database and the order or access number must be given. Examples:
Basevitz, P. (2003). Worry in late adult hood:Developmental perspective son content,frequency,and worry proneness(Doctoral Thesis, Concordia University, Montreal, Canada). Retrieved from http://graduatestudies.concordia.ca/thesis/index.php?f=list&convocation_y ear=°ree=&supervisor=&title=&name=basevitz&start=0
McNiel, D. S. (2006). Meaning through narrative: A personal narrative discussing growing up with an alcoholic mother (Master's Thesis). Retrieved from ProQuest database Dissertations and Theses (UMI Nº 1434728).
The author’s surname is written, a comma, a space, the initial of the first name followed by a period, space, year in parentheses, period, space, title of the Thesis or Dissertation in italics and capital letter only for the first word (excepting proper nouns or specific instruments), space and in parentheses unpublished—Master's or Doctoral—Thesis or unpublished Doctoral Dissertation or unpublished Thesis,comma, space, University, comma, space, city, comma, space, country, period. Example:
Venegas, P. (1993). Conﬂits socio cognitifs et changement de représentations en formation d’adultes: Une étude de cas [Socio-cognitive conflict and change of representations in adult education: A case study] (unpublished Doctoral Thesis), Faculté de Psychologie et des Sciences de l’Education, Université catholique de Louvain, Belgium.
When the name of the University includes the city, do not repeat the city.
f) Unpublished manuscripts
Unpublished works are those submitted for publication, completed but not submitted for publication, and works in progress. Works which have not been formally published but which are available in a Web site or electronic file are also considered within this category.
If the work is available on an electronic file, this must be pointed out at the end. If it is being reviewed or if it is in preparation to be submitted for publication, a date prior to the expected publication date must be entered.
-Manuscript submitted and accepted for publication
A manuscript is considered to be inpress when it has been submitted and accepted for its publication on a journal. The journal in which it was accepted is named, in italics. Example:
Bourgeois, E. (in press). Evaluer la transformation de structures de connaissances propositionnelles chez les adultes en formation. Questions méthodologiques pour la recherche [Evaluating the transformation of propositional knowledge structures in the adult learners. Methodological issues for research]. Psychologie.
-Manuscript submitted for publication in process of reviewing
The manuscripts which have been submitted for publication to a journal and are in reviewing process are considered in this section. A date prior to the final publication must be entered, and the magazine must not be included in the reference. At the end it must be pointed out: “Manuscript submitted for publication”. Example:
Zuckerman, M. & Kieffer, S. (2009). Race differences in face-ism: Does facial prominence imply dominance? Manuscript submitted for publication.
-Manuscript in progress
This reference is entered in the same way as the previous one, and at the end it must include the text “Manuscript in progress”.
-Unpublished manuscript associated to a university
After the title and the period, “Unpublished manuscript” must be added, coma, space, name of the department or school (if applicable), comma, space, name of the university, comma, space, city, comma, space, country, period. If the university is in the United States, add the abbreviation of the state. If the name of the city/country is included in the university name, do not repeat it. Example:
Arancibia, V. (1987). Estado del arte: manejo instruccional del profesor en la sala de clases en América Latina (BRIDGES Project). Unpublished manuscript, Harvard University, Boston, MA, United States.
-Unpublished manuscript associated to an organization
Langdon, C. & Gazmuri, C. (1991). Un modelo psicosocial integral y sistémico de prevención del abuso de drogas y alcohol (Informe de Estudios Ancora). Unpublished manuscript, Ancora, Santiago, Chile.
-Manuscript not submitted for publication
The year in which the manuscript was completed must be indicated. Place a period after the title, which must be in italics, then, space, “Unpublished manuscript” and period. If the city is known, include the name of the city, comma, and period. If it has been retrieved from the Internet, its electronic address must be entered at the end. Example:
Stinson, C., Milbrath, C. Reidbord, S., & Bucci, W. (1992). Thematic segmentation of psychotherapy transcripts for convergent analyses. Unpublished manuscript.
g) Non-periodical Internet documents
-Chapter or section of an Internet document
The title of the section or chapter which was reviewed must be indicated, then “In” followed by the title of the full document (in italics) and, finally, include instead of the page numbers, without italics and in parentheses, the identification of the section or chapter (if available). Provide the electronic address which leads directly to the section or chapter. Example:
Benton Foundation (1998). Barriers to closing the gap. In Losing ground bit by bit: Low-income communities in the information age (Chapter 2). Retrieved from http://www.benton. org/Library/Low-Income/two.html
-Multi-page document created by a private organization
Greater New Milford Area Healthy Community 2000, Task Force on Teen and Adolescent Issues. (n.d.). Who has time for a family meal? You do! Retrieved from http://www. familymealtime.org
-Document available on a Web page which belongs to a university or government program
If the document is contained within a vast and complex website, identify the main organization and the relevant program or department before listing the electronic address for the document itself. Place a colon before the address. Example:
Chou, L., McClintock, R., Moretti, F., & Nix, D. (1993). Technology and education: New wine in new bottles. Choosing pasts and imagining educational futures. Retrieved from the website of Columbia University, Institute for Learning Technologies: http://www.ilt. columbia.edu/publications/papers/newwine1.html
-Internet document with no author or date identified
When the author of the document is not identified, the reference starts with the title of the document instead of the author, then, in parentheses (n.d.), period, the institution in italics, the section in normal font, and the electronic address of the document. Example:
El asma (n.d.). Farmavita, Salud Virtual. Retrieved from http://www.farmavitaca.com
h) Audiovisual media
These include films, TV programs, videos, maps, pictures, or any other audiovisual media.
Scorsese, M. (Producer) & Lonergan, K. (Writer/Director). (2000). Youcancountonme [Movie]. United States: Paramount Pictures.If the media is available on the Internet, instead of city and country, the electronic address is entered: Retrieved from xxxxxxxxxxxxx
i) Data sets, software, measurement instruments, and apparatus
Commonly used software such as Word, Excel, Java, Adobe, Photoshop, SAS, and SPSS are excluded from the reference list.
For software or programs of limited distribution, the name of the program and the version number must be provided in the reference list. Write the name of the holder of the rights to the program (if published), comma, the year in parentheses, the name of the program, the version number in parentheses (if applicable), comma, description of program type in brackets, period, location, colon, name of the producer. If the name of the holder of the rights is not published, enter the name of the software or data set instead of the name of the program. Do not type the name of the software, program or data set in italics.
If it has been retrieved from the Internet, replace the location and name of the producer with: Retrieved from xxxxx
Chile, Ministerio de Salud (2007). Indicadores básicos de salud Chile 2007 [Data set]. Retrieved from http://www.redsalud.gov.cl/portal/url/item/6bd71933f43deabee04001011f014c20.pdf
Heatherington, L. & Friedlander, M. L. (1987/1998). Sistema de codiﬁcación del control de la comunicación relacional familiar (M. G. Presedo, C, Revuelta, & N. J. Wardle, Trans.) [Coding manual]. Retrieved from http://www.softa-soatif.com
Comprehensive Meta-Analysis (Version 2) [Software]. Englewood, NJ: Biostat.
j) Archival documents and personal collections
Archival sources include letters, unpublished manuscripts in possession of the author, limited-circulation brochures and pamphlets, in-house institutional and corporate documents, clippings, as well as non-text materials, such as photographs and apparatus that are in the personal possession of an author, form part of an institutional collection or are stored in an archive.
The general format is:
Author, A. A. (year, month, day). Title of material [Description of material]. Name of the collection. Name and location of the place of storage.
In interviews, the interviewee is entered as the author, and the name of the interviewer is added to the description.
Zacarías, J. (1985, July 10). [Letter to Pedro Kolsky]. Copy held by Loreto Sepúlveda.
Castro, F. (2010, August 10). Interviewed by Televisión Cubana teleSUR [Video]. Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RIz2dcIgBZU
k) Internet message boards, electronic mailing lists and other online communities
The general format is:
Author, A. A. (year, month day). E-mail title [Description of form]. Retrieved from xxxxxxxxx
The name of the author can be real or a nickname. Example:
Martín (2007, December 4). Los cinco síntomas de la depresión [Message in Psychology and Social Relationships Blog]. Retrieved from http://depsicologia.com/los-cinco- sintomas-de-la-depresion/
[Abouth the journal] [Editorial board] [Subscription]
Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile
Facultad de Ciencias Sociales
Escuela de Psicología
Av. Vicuña Mackenna #4860
Santiago - Chile
Tel.: (56-2) 354 4844
Fax: (56-2) 354 4844